US3629185A - Metallization of insulating substrates - Google Patents

Metallization of insulating substrates Download PDF

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US3629185A
US3629185A US3629185DA US3629185A US 3629185 A US3629185 A US 3629185A US 3629185D A US3629185D A US 3629185DA US 3629185 A US3629185 A US 3629185A
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catalytic
metal
base
insulating
invention
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Frederick W Schneble Jr
Edward John Leech
John Francis Mccormack
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Kollmorgen Corp
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Kollmorgen Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J31/00Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds
    • B01J31/26Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing in addition, inorganic metal compounds not provided for in groups B01J31/02 - B01J31/24
    • B01J31/28Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing in addition, inorganic metal compounds not provided for in groups B01J31/02 - B01J31/24 of the platinum group metals, iron group metals or copper
    • B01J31/30Halides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J31/00Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds
    • B01J31/02Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing organic compounds or metal hydrides
    • B01J31/06Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing organic compounds or metal hydrides containing polymers
    • B01J31/08Ion-exchange resins
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J47/00Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J47/016Modification or after-treatment of ion-exchangers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08KUSE OF INORGANIC OR NON-MACROMOLECULAR ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AS COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS
    • C08K3/00Use of inorganic substances as compounding ingredients
    • C08K3/01Use of inorganic substances as compounding ingredients characterized by their specific function
    • C08K3/013Fillers, pigments or reinforcing additives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C18/00Chemical coating by decomposition of either liquid compounds or solutions of the coating forming compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating; Contact plating
    • C23C18/16Chemical coating by decomposition of either liquid compounds or solutions of the coating forming compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating; Contact plating by reduction or substitution, e.g. electroless plating
    • C23C18/1601Process or apparatus
    • C23C18/1603Process or apparatus coating on selected surface areas
    • C23C18/1607Process or apparatus coating on selected surface areas by direct patterning
    • C23C18/1608Process or apparatus coating on selected surface areas by direct patterning from pretreatment step, i.e. selective pre-treatment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K1/00Printed circuits
    • H05K1/02Details
    • H05K1/03Use of materials for the substrate
    • H05K1/0313Organic insulating material
    • H05K1/0353Organic insulating material consisting of two or more materials, e.g. two or more polymers, polymer + filler, + reinforcement
    • H05K1/0373Organic insulating material consisting of two or more materials, e.g. two or more polymers, polymer + filler, + reinforcement containing additives, e.g. fillers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/22Secondary treatment of printed circuits
    • H05K3/28Applying non-metallic protective coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/40Forming printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits
    • H05K3/42Plated through-holes or plated via connections
    • H05K3/422Plated through-holes or plated via connections characterised by electroless plating method; pretreatment therefor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/02Fillers; Particles; Fibers; Reinforcement materials
    • H05K2201/0203Fillers and particles
    • H05K2201/0206Materials
    • H05K2201/0209Inorganic, non-metallic particles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/02Fillers; Particles; Fibers; Reinforcement materials
    • H05K2201/0203Fillers and particles
    • H05K2201/0206Materials
    • H05K2201/0236Plating catalyst as filler in insulating material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09209Shape and layout details of conductors
    • H05K2201/09372Pads and lands
    • H05K2201/09436Pads or lands on permanent coating which covers the other conductors

Abstract

THERE ARE PROVIDED MOLDING COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING PARTICLES OF RESIN HAVING INCORPORATED THEREWITH FILLERS CATALYTIC TO THE DEPOSITION OF ELECTROLESS METALS. THE CATALYTIC FILLERS ARE MADE BY REPLACING THE CATIONS IN PARTICULATE BASE EXCHANGEABLE MATERIALS WITH A CATION OF A METAL SELECTED FROM GROUPS 1 B AND 8 OF THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS. ARTICLES MOLDED FROM THE COMPOSITIONS AND THE WALLS OF HOLES DRILLED IN THEM ARE METALLIZED ON BEING IMMERSED IN ELECTROLESS METAL DEPOSITION BATHS.

Description

Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR.. ETAL 3,629,135

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS FREDERICK w. SCHNE8LE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS MzCORMACK WP uagl dn ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR.. EFAL 3,629,135

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES 15 Sheets-Sheet 3 Original Filed Jan.

V/// II Vl/fil III FIG.5

. INVENTORS FREDERICK w. SCHNEBLE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS mcoRMAcK med-m ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 F. W. SCHNEBLE, JR., ETAL METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5. 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet S IOO llO

IOS

FIG.9B

INVEN7'0RS FREDERICK w. SCHNEBLE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK Dec. 21, 197] F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR., Err/u. 3,629,185

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet 4.

E IOI 50| Fl G. IO

IIO

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IOI IOO l8 ISI "2 ISI Fl G, IOB uwmrofis FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEE CH JOHN FRANCIS PMCQRMACK y ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 w, scH JR" EIAL 3,629,185

METALLIZATION 0F INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 3, 1967 15 Shoots-Shut 5 FIG.

l IO

FIG.I3

lNVE/VTORS FREDERICK w. SCHNEBLEJR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS MCORMACK 2 j? fionusvf Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR.. 3,529,185

METALLIZATION 0F INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 196'? I 15 Sheets-Sheet 5 IIIII H G. W B lNVfNTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNE8LE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR.. ETAL 3,629,135

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATE S Original Filed Jan. 5. 1967 15 Shaets-Shaet 8 INVENTORS FREDERICK w. SCHNEBLE,JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRAN-CI$ McCORMACK y W MMQ ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR, ETAL 3,629,135

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES 15 Sheets-Sheet 9 Original Filed Jan. 5, 196'? [I4 II 11111 1 FIG.2O

m w 0.... w T R H m w NE HEm wan S wmm ON KJA C R I F D n O N EWH RDO FEJ Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR., ETAL METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 196'? 15 Sheets-Sheet 1O FIG.22

INVENTQRS FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLEJR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS MCCORMACK w wafziz Dec. 21, 1971 w, sc -mga z, JR" ETAL 3,629,185

METALLI ZA'IION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 3. 196'? 15 Sheets-Sheet l1 INVENTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLE JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK TTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 w, SCHNEBLE, JR" ETAL 3,629,185

METALLIZATIDN OF INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 196'? 15 Sheets-Sheet 13 I4 IO l4 C IO l4 l4 IO ZOI I4 IO U I4 IO 4 IO l4 1 IO l4 E IO l4 l4 IO I F IO 1 l4 O I4 20l "2 "CH2 IIO FIG. 24

INVENTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNEILLJR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS MCCORMACK ATTORNEYS Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. scHNEBLE, JR.. ET 3,629,135

METALLIZATION OF INSULATING SUBSTRATE- S Original Filed Jan. 5, 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet 15 60l so:

l4 C IO l4 4 4 2 2 (0)24 24(0) INVENTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLE JR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK ATTORNEYS D 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR, ETAL 3,629,135

METALLIZA'I'ION OFINSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 3, 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet 14 INVENTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLEJR.

EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK y Z Z I F g ATTORNE YS Dec. 21, 1971 F. w. SCHNEBLE, JR. ETAL 3,629,135

METALLIZATION 0F INSULATING SUBSTRATES Original Filed Jan. 5, 1967 15 Sheets-Sheet l5 906 908 9|49 9l4 9 90 E 19 E INVENTORS FREDERICK W. SCHNEBLEJR. EDWARD JOHN LEECH JOHN FRANCIS McCORMACK ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,629,185 METALLHZATION 0F INSULATING SUBSTRATES Frederick W. Schnehle, In, and Edward John Leech,

Oyster Bay, and John Francis McCormack, Roslyn Heights, N.Y., assignors to Photocircuits Division of Kollmorgen Corporation, Hartford, Conn.

Original application Jan. 3, 1967, Ser. No. 606,918. Divided and this application Oct. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 871,009

Int. Cl. (308g 51/04 U.S. Cl. 260-40 R 13 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE There are provided molding compositions comprising particles of resin having incorporated therewith fillers catalytic to the deposition of electroless metals. The catalytic fillers are made by replacing the cations in particulate base exchangeable materials with a cation of a metal selected from Groups 1 B and 8 of the Periodic Table of Elements. Articles molded from the compositions and the walls of holes drilled in them are metallized on being immersed in electroless metal deposition baths.

This is a division of application Ser. No. 606,918, filed Jan. 3, 1967.

This application-in-part discloses subject matter contained in One or more of the following applications:

Ser. No. 561,123, filed June 28, 1966, which in turn discloses subject matter contained in: Ser. No. 218,656, filed Aug. 22, 1962, now U.S. Patent No. 3,259,559, which in turn discloses subject matter contained in copending application Ser. No. 785,703, filed Jan. 8, 1959 and now abandoned;

Ser. No. 33,361,, filed May 31, 1960, now U.S. Patent No. 3,146,125, which in turn discloses subject matter contained in Ser. No. 831,407, filed Aug. 3, 1959, and now abandoned; and

Ser. No. 26,401, filed May 3, 1960 and now U.S. Patent No. 3,095,309.

This invention relates to materials and techniques for metallizing insulating substrates generally and for the manufacture of printed circuits particularly.

It is an object of the present invention to provide molding powders for new and improved insulating blanks which are catalytic to the reception of electroless metal and which can be metallized directly, thereby obviating the necessity for seeding and/ or sensitizing.

Another object of this invention is to make rugged and durable metallized objects from such catalytic insulating blanks.

A further object of this invention is to make printed circuit boards from such blanks, including one-layer, two-layer and multi-layer boards.

A further object of this invention is to make from such blanks printed circuit boards, including one-layer, twolayer and multi-layer boards, which are provided with conductive passageways.

An additional object of this invention is to provide materials and techniques for producing high density printed circuit boards, including high density one-layer, two-layer and multi-layer boards which are provided with conductive passageways, or, as more commonly referred to, plated through holes.

Still a further object of this invention is to provide 'ice materials and techniques for producing new and improved printed circuit armatures.

Heretofore, in the manufacture of printed circuit boards comprising conductive passageways or holes through insulating panels, it has been customary to seed and sensitize the lateral wall surrounding the passageways or holes by contacting a perforated substratum sequentially with aqueous acidic solutions of stannous tin ions and precious metal ions, e.g., paralladium, or With a single acidic aqueous solution comprising a mixture of stannous tin ions and precious metal ions, such as palladium ions. For example, one such treatment involves immersing the perforated insulating base material first in an aqueous solution of stannous chloride having a pH of about 6.6 to 7.4, followed by washing, after which the substratum is immersed in an acidic aqueous solution of palladium chloride having a pH of about 4.8 to 5.4. In an alternate system, the perforated substratum is simply immersed in a one-step seeder sensitizer acidic aqueous solution comprising a mixture of stannous chloride and palladium chloride.

Such aqueous seeding and sensitizing solutions have important limitations. Hydrophobic plastics cannot be readily wetted with such solutions and therefore the sensitization achieved with such materials is ordinarily less than satisfactory. When such aqueous seeding and sensitizing solutions are utilized to sensitize lateral walls of the holes or passageways in panels provided with metal foil on one or more surfaces of the panel, the bond between the hole plating and the surface foil tends to be weak. This is so because use of such seeding and sensitizing systems results in depositing a seeder layer on the surface foil, including the edges thereof which surround the holes. This seeder layer interferes with the bond between the surface foil edges surrounding the holes and electroless metal deposited simultaneously on the edges and on the Walls surrounding the holes. It is also frequently necessary to superimpose additional metal on the foil adhered directly to the substratum for a variety of reasons. Thus, the initial foil may not be thick enough for the desired printed circuit component and additional metal may therefore have to be added to thicken the pattern. Alternatively, it is frequently necessary to superimpose on the metal cladding a layer of a different metal in order to impart special characteristics to the circuit. Typically, metals such as nickel, gold, silver and rhodium, including mixtures of such metals, are electroplated or electrolessly deposited on an initial layer of copper foil or cladding during the the manufacture of printed circuits from copper clad laminates. When the aqueous seeding and sensitizing solutions of the type described are utilized in the manufacture of such circuits, the bond between the copper and the metal subsequently superimposed on the copper also tends to be Weak. Here again, the weakness is attributable to the intermediate seeder layer formed on the metal cladding by the seeder-sensitizer solutions of the type described.

As will be clear from the following description, use of the catalytic blanks and compositions of the present invention eliminates the need for such conventional seeding and/0r sensitizing solutions and therefore eliminates the problems concomitant with the use thereof. Very importantly, use of the catalytic blanks and compositions of this invention insures a strong bond between the laminate foil bonded to the catalytic blank and electroless metal deposited on the blank, e.g., on Walls surrounding holes, since no intermediate seeder layer is present to interfere with the bond. Also important is the fact that use of these catalytic blanks and compositions leads to the achievement of uniformly high bond strengths between the insulating substratum itself and the electroless metal deposit.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part herein and in part will be obvious herefrom or may be learned by practice with the invention, the same being realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations pointed out in the appended claims.

The invention consists in the novel parts, constructions, arrangements, combinations and improvements herein shown and described. The accompanying drawings referred to herein and constituting a part hereof, illustrate certain embodiments of the invention and together with the specification serve to explain the principles of the invention.

The compositions of the present invention represent an improvement over the seeding and/or sensitizing systems heretofore employed. They are extremely easy to prepare, are readily responsive to deposition when exposed to electroless metal baths; are adaptable to a wide variety of substrata and processing conditions; and are also quite economical.

Very importantly, the compositions of this invention utilize relatively small amounts of catalytic metals of Groups 1 B and 8 of the Periodic Table of Elements and thus permit efficient utilization of such metals generally, and the precious metals in those groups particularly.

The seeding systems of the present invention are also non-conducting in nature thereby rendering them highly useful for making printed circuits by both positive and negative print techniques.

The catalytic compositions of the present invention comprise a metal selected from Group 1 B or 8 of the Periodic Table of Elements which is catalytic to the reception of electroless metal. Preferred metals from the aforesaid groups are gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium, tin, copper and iridium.

According to the present invention, insulating compositions catalytic to the reception of electroless metal are prepared by base exchanging certain natural and synthetic materials which contain replaceable cations (e.g., alkali and alkaline earth metal cations, ammonium and the like), with a metal catalytic to the reception of electroless metal, and then utilizing the resulting base exchanged material as a component of the insulating base desired to be metallized.

Among the base exchangeable materials which may be used are organic and inorganic base exchangeable materials. When such materials are base exchanged with cations of the metals of Group 1 B or 8, in accordance with the teachings hereof, the original replaceable cations thereof are replaced by a cation of a Group 1 B or 8 metal, thereby rendering the resulting material catalytic to the reception of electroless metal. It will be understood that following base exchange, the cation of a Group 1 B or 8 metal will be chemisorbed on the exchangeable material, i.e., it will be bonded to the exchangeable mate rial in a chemical as distinguished from a physical sense.

Typical of the inorganic base exchangeable materials are suitable clay minerals such as montmorillonite, viz. sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium and other bentonite clays; hectorite; saponite; attapulgite, illite; vermiculite and zeolites. These minerals, characterized by an unbalanced crystal lattice have negative charges which are normally neutralized by inorganic cations, usually of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, or ammonium.

The base exchange capacities of the various clay minerals enumerated run from about 15 to about 150, based upon milliequivalents of exchangeable base per 100 grams of clay. The montmorillonite and vermiculite minerals have high base exchange capacities, e.g., 80-10O and 100- 150, respectively. Attapulgite has a comparatively high base exchange capacity, e.g., 2030. Generally, clay minerals which have a base exchange capacity, of at least 15, are useful in practicing the present invention.

Also suitable for use in the practice of this invention are synthetic and naturally occurring crystalline metal aluminosilicates, sometimes referred to as molecular sieves or crystalline zeolites.

Crystalline metal aluminosilicates are found widely scattered in nature in relatively small quantities. Synthetic forms of the naturally occurring minerals, as well as many species having no known natural counterpart, have been prepared. An important characteristic of the crystalline metal aluminosilicates is their ability to undergo dehydration with little or no change in crystal structure. The dehydrated crystals are honeycombed with regularly spaced cavities interlaced by channels of molecular dimensions which offer a very high surface area for the adsorption of foreign molecules.

The basic formula for all crystalline zeolites can be represented as follows:

where M represents at least one replaceable cation which balances the electrovalence of the tetrahedra, n represents the valence of the cation, x the moles of SiO and y the moles of water. In general, a particular crystalline Zeolite will have values for x and y that fall in a definite range. For example, three of the commercially available synthetic varieties of crystalline metal aluminosilicate are designated as type A, type X and type Y. For type A, the value of x is about 2.0; for type X, the value of x is between 2 and 3, usually about 2.5; and for type Y, the value of x is greater than 3. When fully dehydrated, the value of y is zero.

The crystal structure of molecular sieves or crystalline metal aluminosilicates consists basically of a three-dimensional framework of $0.; and A10 tetrahedrons. The tetrahedrons are cross-linked by the sharing of oxygen atoms, so that the ratio of oxygen atoms to the total of silicon and aluminum atoms is equal to two. The electrovalence of the tetrahedrons containing aluminum is balanced by the inclusion of cations in the crystal. One cation may be exchanged for another by the usual ionexchange techniques. The size of the cation and its position in the lattice determine the effective diameter of the pore in a given crystal species. Particularly suitable for use herein are finely divided crystalline metal aluminosilicates having a structure of rigid three-dimensional networks characterized by a system of cavities with interconnecting pore openings having a minimum diameter of 3 to 15 angstroms, the cavities being connected with each other in three dimensions by said pore openings.

The influence of various cations on the effective pore size of the molecular sieve type A is shown in the etfective pore diameters of the potassium ion, K+, sodium ion, Na+, and calcium ion, Ca++, which are approximately 3, 4 and 5 angstroms (A.), respectively.

The crystal habit of molecular sieve type X is similar to that of diamond in which the carbon atoms are replaced by silica-alumina polyhedrons. With alkali metal ions present in the structure, the effective pore diameter is 9ll angstrom units (A.). With the alkalineearth cations present, the effective diameter is 8-9 angstrom units (A.).

As found in nature or as produced synthetically, the crystalline metal aluminosilicates contain an exchangeable alkali or alkaline earth metal. Upon base exchange with an ion of a metal of Group 1 B or 8, the original alkali or alkaline earth metal of the crystalline aluminosilicate is replaced in whole or in part with the Group 1 B or 8 metal cation. The Group 1 B or 8 metal, as has been brought out above, is chemisorbed on the crystalline aluminosilicate and is responsible for rendering the crystalline aluminosilicate catalytic to the reception of elcctroless metal.

A wide variety of organic cation-exchange resins may be also used to practice this invention. These are made up of three-dimensional organic networks, including charged or potentially charged groups which are neutralized by mobile ions of opposite charge. Freedom of these mobile, or counter, ions to move in and out of the resin is provided by water imbibed by the resin on immersion in an aqueous solution. The water opens the resin structure, permitting diffusion of ions into and out of the resin water (gel) phase during ion exchange.

Synthetic cation-exchange resins may be prepared by the reaction of polyhydric phenols with formaldehyde, the weakly acidic phenolic groups providing cationexchange properties to the product. Cation-exchange resins containing strongly acidic sulfonic acid groups may be prepared by the condensation of phenols and formaldehydes in the presence of sodium sulfite.

Preferred cation-exchange resins are prepared by first forming a polymer unit of an organic resin, followed by incoporation therein of a functional ionic group. For example, the polymerization of styrene produces linear polystyrene chains. These are held together (crosslinked) by divinyl benzene to produce a network structure. Sulfuric acid groups are then attached to this network by sulfonating with concentrated sulfuric acid. Quaternary amines may be attached to the same matrix by an analogous treatment (chloromethylation of the copolymer followed by reaction with a tertiary amine).

Such base exchange resins, now by far the most popular, are offered commercially in various bead sizes (mesh) and with different porosity or cross-linking (percentage of divinylbenzene). The degree of cross-linking controls their swelling properties. The low cross-linked resins swell to many times their dry volume in aqueous solutions, while the highly cross-linked resins show little volume change.

Preferred cation-exchange resins for use in this invention are synthetic cation-exchange resins containing a functional unit which is selected from the group consisting of sulfonic, phosphonic, carboxylic, phenolic and substituted amino groups.

In preparing the catalytic particles of this invention, the initial base-exchangeable material can be contacted with a fluid medium, preferably aqueous, containing a compound of a metal of Group 1 B or 8. The concentration of replacing cation in the fluid exchange medium may vary within wide limits. Preferably, the compound of the Group 1 B or 8 metal will be present in excess, based upon the cation-exchange capacity of the base-exchangeable material.

In carrying out the treatment with the fluid exchange medium, the procedure employed comprises contacting the base-exchangeable material with the desired fluid medium until such time as the replaceable cations associated with the base-exchangeable materials are substantially removed. Elevated temperatures tend to hasten the speed of treatment whereas the duration thereof varies inversely with the concentration of ions in the fluid medium. In general, the temperatures employed range from below ambient room temperature of about 24 C. up to temperatures below the decomposition temperatures of the base-exchangeable material. Following the fluid treatment, the treated base-exchangeable material may be washed with water, preferably distilled or deionized water.

The actual procedure employed for carrying out the fluid treatment may be accomplished in a batchwise (single or multi-step) or continuous method under atmospheric, sub-atmospheric or superatmospheric pressure. A solution of the ions to be intoduced in the form of an aqueous or non-aqueous solution may be passed slowly through a fixed bed of a the base-exchangeable material.

A wide variety of compounds of the metals of. Group 1 B or 8 may be employed as a source or replacing ions. Operable metal compounds generally include those which are sufliciently soluble in the fluid medium employed to afford the necessary ion transfer. Usually metal salts such as the chlorides, nitrates and sulfates will be employed.

In making the catalytic compositions, a variety of techniques may be utilized. Thus, the catalytic particles could be dispersed in an organic resin and the resulting resin used to impregnate laminates, such as paper, wood, Fiberglas, polyester fibers and other porous laminates. These base materials, for example, could be immersed in a resin containing the catalytic solids or a resin containing the catalytic solids could be sprayed onto the base material, after which the base materials could be dried in an oven until all the solvent has evaporated leaving a laminate of the type described impregnated with the catalytic particles. If desired, the laminates could be bonded together to form a base of any desired thickness.

Alternatively, the catalytic solids could be dispersed in a resinous material, which in turn could be forged into a base of the desired size, as by molding.

A further alternative would be to preform or premold thin films or strips of unpolymerized resin having dispersed therein the catalytic solids, and then laminate a plurality of the strips together to form a catalytic insulating base of the desired thickness.

Using the catalytic solids described, it will be appreciated that the interior of the insulating base may be made catalytic throughout, such that, when holes or apertures are formed therein, the walls of the holes or apertures will be sensitive to the reception of electroless metal. The surface of such insulating catalytic base may or may not be catalytic, depending upon how it is made, concentration of catalytic filler, and the like. The surface could be made catalytic by mechanical means, as by mild abrasion, e.g., by sand blasting, by chemical means, as by treatment with chemical solvents, etchants, milling solutions, and the like. A preferred chemical treatment for rendering the surface catalytic is to treat the surface with acids, preferably oxidizing acids, e.g., sulfuric, nitric, chromic and the like. Alternatively, the exposed surface or surfaces of the catalytic bases could be made catalytic by coating them with a thin film of an adhesive or ink having dispersed therein the catalytic fillers described herein.

Catalytic solids of the type described could also be incorporated into a resin during its manufacture in the form, for example, of a molding powder. The molding powder could then be extruded or otherwise worked to form a plastic article which would be catalytic.

The catalytic insulating base need not be organic. Thus, it could be made of inorganic insulating materials, e.g., inorganic clays and minerals such as ceramic, ferrite, carborundum, glass, glass bonded mica, steatite and the like. Here, the catalytic agent would be of the inorganic type described hereinabove, and would be added to inorganic clays or minerals prior to firing.

The term catalytic as used herein refers to an agent or material which is catalytic to the reduction of the metal cations dissolved in electroless metal deposition solutions of the type to be described. The amount of catalytic agent used in the bases and adhesive resins described will vary depending upon the agent and the form in which it is used from about 0.001 to usually between about 0.1 to 50%, based upon the combined weight of base material or adhesive resin and catalyst.

Among the organic materials which may be used to form the catalytic insulating bases and adhesives described herein may be mentioned thermosetting resins, thermoplastic resins and mixtures of the foregoing.

Among the thermoplastic resins may be mentioned the acetal resins; acrylics, such as methyl acrylate; cellulosic resins, such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose nitrate and the like; chlorinated polyethers; nylon; polyethylene; polypropylene; polystyrene; styrene blends, such as acrylonitrile styrene copolymer and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene co-polymers; polycarbonates; polyphenyloxide; polysulfones; polychlorotrifiuoroethylene; and vinyl polymers and co-polymers, such as vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, vinyl butyral, vinyl chloride, vinyl chlorideacetate co-polymer, vinylidene chloride and vinyl formal.

Among the thermosetting resins may be mentioned allyl phthalate; furane; melamine-formaldehyde; phenol formaldehyde and phenol-furfural co-polymer, alone or compounded with butadiene acrylonitrile co-polymer or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers polyacrylic esters; silicones; urea formaldehydes; epoxy resins; allyl resins; glyceryl phthalates; polyesters; and the like.

For the manufacture of printed circuits, the catalytic adhesive will ordinarily comprise a fiexible adhesive resin, alone or in combination with thermosetting resins of the type described. Typical of the flexible adhesive resins which may be used in such a system are the flexible adhesive epoxy resins, polyvinyl acetal resins, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, and the like. Preferred for use as the adhesive resin are natural and synthetic rubber, such as chlorinated rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene butadiene acrylonitrile co-polymers, and acrylic polymers and co-polymers.

The adhesive resins of the type described have appended thereto polar groups, such as nitrile, epoxide, acetal and hydroxyl groups. Such adhesive resins co-polymerize with and plasticize any thermosetting resins which may be present in the system, and alone or in combination with thermosetting resins impart good adhesive characteristics through the action of the polar groups.

The catalytic adhesives will comprise an adhesive resin of the type described having dissolved therein, or dispersed therein one or more of the catalytic agents of the type described hereinabove.

Typical of the electroless copper solutions which may be used are those described in U.S. Pat. 3,095,309, the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. conventionally, such solutions comprise a source of cupric ions, e.g., copper sulfate, a reducing agent for cupric ions, e.g., formaldehyde, a complexing agent for cupric ions, e.g., tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and a pH adjustor, e.g., sodium hydroxide.

Typical electroless nickel baths which may be used are described in Brenner, Metal Finishing, November 1954, pages 63 to 76, incorporated herein by reference. They comprise aqueous solutions of a nickel salt, such as nickel chloride; an active chemical reducing agent for the nickel salt, such as the hypophosphite ion; and a complexing agent, such as carboxylic acids and salts thereof.

Electroless gold plating baths which may be used are disclosed in U.S. 2,976,181, hereby incorporated herein by reference. They contain a slightly water soluble gold salt, such as gold cyanide, a reducing agent for the gold salt, such as the hypophosphite ion, and a chelating or complexing agent, such as sodium or potassium cyanide. The hypophosphite ion may be introduced in the form of the acid or salts thereof, such as the sodium, calcium and the ammonium salts. The purpose of the complexing agent is to maintain a relatively small portion of the gold in solution as a water soluble gold complex, permitting a relatively large portion of the gold to remain out of solution as a gold reserve. The pH of the bath will be about 13.5, or between about 13 and 15, and the ion ratio of hypophosphite radical to insoluble gold salt may be between about 0.33 and 1.

Specific examples of electrodes copper depositing baths suitable for use will now be described:

EXAMPLE 1 Moles/liter Copper sulfate 0.03 Sodium sydroxide 0.125 Sodium cyanide 0.0004 Formaldehyde 0.08 Tetrasodiumethylenediaminetetraacetute 0.036 Water H Remainder 8 This bath is preferably operated at a temperature of about 55 C. and will deposit a coating of ductile electroless copper about 1 mil thick in about 51 hours.

Other examples of suitable baths are as follows:

EXAMPLE 2 Moles/liter Copper sulfate 0.02 Sodium hydroxide 0.05

Sodium cyanide 0.0002 Trisodiurn N-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetate 0.032

Formaldehyde 0.08 Water Remainder This bath is preferably operated at a temperature of about 56 C., and will deposit a coating of ductile elcctroless copper about 1 mil. thick in 21 hours.

EXAMPLE 3 Moles/liter Copper sulfate 0.05 Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate 0.05 Sodium borohydride 0.009 Sodium cyanide 0.008

Temperature 25 C.

EXAMPLE 4 Moles/liter Copper sulfate 0.05 N-hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetate 0.115 Sodium cyanide 0.0016 Sodium borohydride 0.008 ph 13.

Temperature 25 C.

A molecular sieve, type 4A, was repeatedly base-exchanged with an aqueous solution of silver chloride until base-exchange was substantially complete, as evidenced by a refusal of the sieve to take up any additional amount of silver. Following base-exchange, the sieve was thoroughly washed with water and dried at a temperature of about 200 C. The silver-exchanged 4A sieve was incorporated into a polyester resin having the following formulation:

Polyester resin (Laminac 4l28)20 grams Benzoyl peroxide-06 grams Kaolin (ASP 405)10 grams Dimethyl anilinel drop Molecular sieve type 4A base-exchanged with silver0.05

gram

A casting was made, and holes drilled in the casting, following which the casting was immersed in the following electroless copper solution:

Copper sulfate-0.06 mole/liter EDTA0.12 mole/liter Formaldehyde0.08 mole/ liter Sodium cyanide0.5 millimole/liter pH (adjust with NaOH)12 Temperature57 Wetting agent-1 gram/liter After 60 minutes, copper deposited on the walls surrounding the holes drilled in the casting.

When the amount of catalytic filler was increased, the time for initiating copper plating decreased as follows:

Amount of silver chloride base-exchanged 4A resin;

Time to cover walls surrounding holes with electroless copper, minutes 0.5 gram 30 1.0 gram 15 2.5 gram 5-10 EXAMPLE 6 Grams Polyester resin (Laminac 4128) u 20 Benzoyl peroxide 0.5 Kaolin (ASP 405) 9 Silver-exchanged Amberlite IR-120 1 The walls of holes drilled in the resulting casting received a deposit of electroless copper when the casting was immersed in an electroless copper deposition solution described in Example 5, thereby indicating that the casting was catalytically active.

EXAMPLE 7 Example 6 was repeated with the exception that the ion-exchange resin used was Amberlite IRA-400, which was exchanged with a solution of palladium chloride instead of silver nitrate. Amberlite IRA400 is a polystyrene base, quarternary amine type cation-exchangeresin which is strongly basic.

The palladium exchanged Amberlite resin was incorporated in a polystyrene resin composition having the formulation described in Example 6 and castings made therefrom.

The amount of palladium exchanged Amberlite in the casting formulation was 1 gram. Holes were drilled in the resulting casting and the casting immersed in an electroless copper deposition solution of the type described in Example 5. The walls of the holes received a deposit of copper in less than /2 hour, thereby indicating that the casting was catalytically active.

The catalytic agents described herein may be used in a variety of ways as already brought out. For example, they could be dispersed through an insulating material to render catalytic the interior as Well as the surface of the insulating material. Thus, if holes were drilled in the resulting substrate, electroless metal would deposit on the walls surrounding the holes, since the entire interior of the substratum, as well as the surface, would be catalytic.

The catalytic agents could also be incorporated into a suitable composition to be used as an ink to paint the surface areas on which electroless metal is to be deposited.

The insulating base members on which electroless metal is to be deposited are most frequently formed of resinous material. When this is the case, the catalytic agents disclosed herein could be dispersed into a resin after which the resin could be set to form the base. Alternatively, a thin film or strip of unpolymerized resin having dispersed therein the catalytic solids of this invention could be preformed or premolded, and then laminated to a resinous insulating base, and cured thereon. In this embodiment, the insulating base could for example be made up of laminates, e.g., resin impregnated paper sheets, resin impregnated Fiberglas sheets, and the like.

In still a further embodiment, a resinous ink having the catalytic agent dispersed therein could be printed on the surface, as by silk screen printing, of an insulating support and cured thereon.

A particularly important embodiment of the invention is that wherein the catalytically active solids are dispersed in a resin which may in turn be formed into a threedimensional object, as by molding. In this embodiment, the entire composition including the interior is catalytic. When such an article, containing apertures extending below the surface thereof, is subjected to an electroless metal deposition solution, electroless metal deposits not only on the exposed portions of the surface of the article, but also on the walls surrounding the apertures. This embodiment is especially suitable for making printed circuit patterns having plated through holes, i.e., holes having surrounding walls which are plated with metal to form through connections between a surface supporting a printed circuit pattern, and the interior of the substratum supporting the circuit pattern. Alternatively, in making printed circuits from the molded embodiment of the invention, interconnecting holes could be bored into the catalytically active article, and then the article subjected to an electroless metal deposition, to thereby deposit metal on the walls surrounding the holes. Following electroless metal deposition, the interconnecting holes, which are now metallized, form a conducting pattern which may be limited to the interior portion of the article.

Using the catalytic agents of the present invention, printed circuits may be made by employing either the direct or reverse printing technique, since the agents are non-conducting.

To summarize, the catalytic agents of this invention could be used as additives to render photoresists sensitive to electroless metal deposition; as an impregnant for resinous compositions to be metallized; as impregnants for porous plastics to be metallized; as impregnants for ceramics or clays to be metallized, etc.

Following the teachings contained herein there may be provided a blank for the manufacture of printed circuits which comprises an insulating base material which has dispersed therein the catalytic agents described herein. In a preferred embodiment, a thin metal film is superimposed on one or more surfaces of the base and adhered thereto. Blanks of the type described could be used to prepare one-layer, two-layer and multi-layer printed circuit boards with and without plated through holes in the manner more particularly described in copending application Ser. No. 561,123, filed June 28, 1966.

FIGS. 1 and 2 are three-dimensional views of certain embodiments of the blanks of this invention;

FIGS. 3 and 4 are cross-sectional views of further embodiments of the catalytic blanks of this invention;

FIG. 5, A-F, is a schematic illustration of the steps utilized in making a one-sided printed circuit board from the blank of FIG. 1;

FIGS. 6 and 7 are cross-sectional views of typical embodiments of two-sided plated through hole printed circuit boards produced in accordance with this invention utilizing the blanks of FIGS. 2 and 4, respectively.

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a one-sided plated through hole circuit board manufactured from the blank of FIG. 3;

FIGS. 9 and 10 are cross-sectional views representing the manner in which the blanks of this invention may be combined to form multi-layer printed circuit boards;

FIGS. 9A, 9B, 10A and 10B are cross-sectional views of multi-layer plated through hole printed circuit boards produced by combining blanks as illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10;

FIGS. 11-17 and 28 are cross-sectional views of additional catalytic blanks produced in accordance with this invention;

FIGS. 11A, 12B, 12C, 14B, 15B, 16B and 17B are cross-sectional views of various articles produced from the blanks of the present invention; and

US3629185A 1969-10-17 1969-10-17 Metallization of insulating substrates Expired - Lifetime US3629185A (en)

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0322997A2 (en) * 1987-12-31 1989-07-05 Jungpoong Products Co., Ltd. Process for making printed circuit boards
US4871319A (en) * 1988-12-21 1989-10-03 Amp Incorporated Molded circuit board for ribbon cable connector
US4872844A (en) * 1988-07-08 1989-10-10 Amp Incorporated Component-carrying adapter for chip carrier socket
US5002493A (en) * 1989-09-19 1991-03-26 Amp Incorporated Panel mounted electronic assembly
US5013248A (en) * 1989-09-19 1991-05-07 Amp Incorporated Multicircuit connector assembly
US5118300A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-02 Amp Incorporated Active electrical connector
US5122064A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-16 Amp Incorporated Solderless surface-mount electrical connector
US5158470A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-10-27 Amp Incorporated Solderless system for retention and connection of a contact with a plastic circuit element
US5264065A (en) * 1990-06-08 1993-11-23 Amp-Akzo Corporation Printed circuits and base materials having low Z-axis thermal expansion
US5338567A (en) * 1990-06-08 1994-08-16 Amp-Akzo Corporation Printed circuits and base materials precatalyzed for metal deposition
US5407622A (en) * 1985-02-22 1995-04-18 Smith Corona Corporation Process for making metallized plastic articles
US20080302562A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2008-12-11 Smk Corporation Printed circuit board
US20120183793A1 (en) * 2011-01-14 2012-07-19 Lpkf Laser & Electronics Ag Method for selectively metallizing a substrate and interconnect device produced by this method

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5407622A (en) * 1985-02-22 1995-04-18 Smith Corona Corporation Process for making metallized plastic articles
EP0322997A2 (en) * 1987-12-31 1989-07-05 Jungpoong Products Co., Ltd. Process for making printed circuit boards
EP0322997A3 (en) * 1987-12-31 1990-04-25 Jungpoong Products Co., Ltd. Process for making printed circuit boards
US4872844A (en) * 1988-07-08 1989-10-10 Amp Incorporated Component-carrying adapter for chip carrier socket
US4871319A (en) * 1988-12-21 1989-10-03 Amp Incorporated Molded circuit board for ribbon cable connector
US5002493A (en) * 1989-09-19 1991-03-26 Amp Incorporated Panel mounted electronic assembly
US5013248A (en) * 1989-09-19 1991-05-07 Amp Incorporated Multicircuit connector assembly
US5264065A (en) * 1990-06-08 1993-11-23 Amp-Akzo Corporation Printed circuits and base materials having low Z-axis thermal expansion
US5338567A (en) * 1990-06-08 1994-08-16 Amp-Akzo Corporation Printed circuits and base materials precatalyzed for metal deposition
US5122064A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-16 Amp Incorporated Solderless surface-mount electrical connector
US5158470A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-10-27 Amp Incorporated Solderless system for retention and connection of a contact with a plastic circuit element
US5118300A (en) * 1991-05-23 1992-06-02 Amp Incorporated Active electrical connector
US20080302562A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2008-12-11 Smk Corporation Printed circuit board
US20120183793A1 (en) * 2011-01-14 2012-07-19 Lpkf Laser & Electronics Ag Method for selectively metallizing a substrate and interconnect device produced by this method

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