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Illuminated suction brain retractor

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Publication number
US3626471A
US3626471A US3626471DA US3626471A US 3626471 A US3626471 A US 3626471A US 3626471D A US3626471D A US 3626471DA US 3626471 A US3626471 A US 3626471A
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tubes
blade
retractor
tool
fiber
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Robert E Florin
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Robert E Florin
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/008Drainage tubes; Aspiration tips
    • A61M1/0084With gas or fluid supply means, e.g. for supplying rinsing fluids, anticoagulants

Abstract

A surgical tool comprising a brain retractor is shaped so that it may pass through an opening in the skull. The tool has an arched blade with a concave lower surface, flat in cross section, and a pair of tubes mounted on the marginal edges of the arched blade are flush with the lower surface thereof. Both tubes may be connected to a source of suction pressure for removal of fluids from the operating area, or only one may be so connected, with the other supplying a flushing fluid. A curved fiber optic element is mounted upon the arched blade between the tubes to illuminate the operating area.

Description

6 DH 3 513 36 26 Y I SEARCH ROOM [72] Inventor RobertE.Florln 2,354,471 7/1944 Maclntosh l28/16X 14909 Lodsa Drive, Whittler, Calif. 90605 2,767,705 10/1956 Moore 128/4 [211 App]. No. 865,675 2,911,968 11/1959 Schueler et a1. 128/6 gg Primary Examiner-Lucie H. Laudenslager Au0meyLyon & Lyon [54] Z 'f g E BRAIN RETRACTOR ABSTRACT: A surgical tool comprising a brain retractor is as shaped so that it may pass through an opening in the skull. The

[52] US. Cl n 128/20, tool has an arched blade with a concave lower surface, flat in 128/4, 128/6, 128/16, 128/276 cross section, and a pair of tubes mounted on the marginal [51] Int. Cl ..A6lb 17/02 edges of the arched blade are flush with the lower surface [50] Field of Search 128/4, 6,9, thereof. Both tubes may be connected to a source of suction J 20, 276, 16, 351 pressure for removal of fluids from the operating area, or only i one may be so connected, with the other supplying a flushing Rehrcncescmd fluid. A curved fiber optic element is mounted upon the UNITED STATES PATENTS arched blade between the tubes to illuminate the operating 339,754 4/1886 Foote 128/16 area 1 ILLUMINATED SUCTION BRAIN RETRACT OR skull. The .brain retractor is equipped with at least one suction tube for removing fluids from the operating area and is provided with a curved fiber optic for illuminating the operating area. A secomlsd be used to apply suction, or it may be used to supply flushing fluid to the operating area. The fiber optic is nested between the tubes to minimize overall thickness of the tool, in order to facilitate its use through the skull opening.

In the drawings:

FIG. I is a top plan view showing a preferred embodiment of this invention.

FIG. 2 i', a sectional elevation taken substantially on the lines 22asshown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a transverse section taken substantially on the lines 3-3 as shown in FIG. 2.

Referring to the drawings, the surgical tool generally' designated I0 includes an arched retractor blade 11 having an undersurface 12 longitudinally curved and substantially flat in cross section. A pair of tubes 13 and 14 are provided, one tube being positioned at each marginal edge of the retractor blade,

respectively, each tube being substantially flush with said undersurface I2. The tubes I3 and 14 are joined to the arched retractor blade 12 throughout their lengths to stiffen the retractor blade 11. The tubes have slanted open ends 15 and I6 adjacent the forward end 17 of the retractor blade 11. Each tube has a socket 18, 19 for connection to the source of suction pressure, or alternatively, one of the tubes may be connected to suction pressure and the other to a source of flushing fluid. As shown in FIG. 3, the outer surfaces of the tubes l4 and 13 merge smoothly with the undersurface 12 of the arched retractor blade I1 so that the side edges of the tool are rounded.

A fiber optic element 21 of conventional form is curved to match the curvature of the retractor blade 11 and is nested between the tubes 13 and 14. Axially spaced clips 22 and 23 hold the fiber opticelement 21 in position, and the forward end 24 teri'ii'ih'at e s short of the open ends 15 of the tubes 13 the forward end 24 of the fiber optic element 21 serves to illu-" minate the operating area, while forming a minimum obstruction in the surgeon's viewing area. The use of the fiber optic element has an important advantage in that it acts as a filter to screen out heat which would have harmful effects upon brain tissue.

In use, the tool is extended by the surgeon through an opening in the skull, and the undersurface 12 presses against the tissue to retract it, to expose an operating area. The nesting of the fiber optic element 21 between the suction tubes I3 and I4 minimizes the transverse thickness dimension in such a manner that the tool is substantially wider than its overall thickness. This is important in minimizing the size of the necessary hole to be fonned in the skull, and in providing maxmum unblocked viewing area for the surgeon. Uniform illu- "mination of the depth of a surgical wound is provided while removal of blood or fluid is accomplished by one or both of the tubes. Onev of the tubes may also be used to deliver an irrigating solution into the wound. The convex curvature of the retractor blade permits the surgeon to hold the instrument without interfering with visualization of the wound.

Having fully described my invention, it is to be understood that I am not to be limited to the details herein set forth but that my invention is of the full scope of the appended claims.

Iclaim:

I. In a surgical tool of the class described, the combination of an arched retractor blade having a concave undersurface longitudinally curved and substantially flat in cross section, a

pair of tubes one positioned at each mar inal edgeof the retractor blade, respectively, and substantia y flush with said undersurface, and a curved fiber optic element mounted on the retractor blade and nested between said tubes.

2. In a surgical tool of the class described, the combination of an arched retractor blade having a concave undersurface longitudinally curved and substantially flat in cross section, a pair of tubes, one positioned at each marginal edge of the retractor blade, respectively, and substantially flush with said undersurface, and a curved fiber optic element mounted on the retractor blade and nested between said tubes, said tubes having slanted open ends terminating near the forward end of the retractor blade.

3. The combination set forth in claim I in which the open end of the fiber optic element terminates short of the open ends of the tubes.

4. The surgical tool construction set forth in claim I wherein the surgical tool is substantially wider than its overall thickness, in transverse dimension.

I e a l a n-

Claims (4)

1. In a surgical tool of the class described, the combination of an arched retractor blade having a concave undersurface longitudinally curved and substantially flat in cross section, a pair of tubes, one positioned at each marginal edge of the retractor blade, respectively, and substantially flush with said undersurface, and a curved fiber optic element mounted on the retractor blade and nested between said tubes.
2. In a surgical tool of the class described, the combination of an arched retractor blade having a concave undersurface longitudinally curved and substantially flat in cross section, a pair of tubes, one positioned at each marginal edge of the retractor blade, respectively, and substantially flush with said undersurface, and a curved fiber optic element mounted on the retractor blade and nested between said tubes, said tubes having slanted open ends terminating near the forward end of the retractor blade.
3. The combination set forth in claim 1 in which the open end of the fiber optic element terminates short of the open ends of the tubes.
4. The surgical tool construction set forth in claim 1 wherein the surgical tool is substantially wider than its overall thickness, in transverse dimension.
US3626471A 1969-10-13 1969-10-13 Illuminated suction brain retractor Expired - Lifetime US3626471A (en)

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Cited By (71)

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US3796214A (en) * 1972-12-04 1974-03-12 R Davis Perineal retractor
US4049000A (en) * 1975-08-01 1977-09-20 Williams Robert W Suction retraction instrument
US4126127A (en) * 1976-09-27 1978-11-21 May Laurence M Suctioning/oxygenating laryngoscope blade
US4232660A (en) * 1979-03-26 1980-11-11 Coles Robert L Winged irrigating surgical retractor
US4562832A (en) * 1984-01-21 1986-01-07 Wilder Joseph R Medical instrument and light pipe illumination assembly
US4627421A (en) * 1984-08-03 1986-12-09 Symbas Panagiotis N Sternal retractor
US4894057A (en) * 1987-06-19 1990-01-16 Howes Randolph M Flow enhanced multi-lumen venous catheter device
US5054906A (en) * 1986-01-17 1991-10-08 Brimfield Precision, Inc. Indirectly illuminating ophthalmological speculum
US5246440A (en) * 1990-09-13 1993-09-21 Noord Andrew J Van Electrosurgical knife
DE4227369C1 (en) * 1992-08-19 1994-02-17 Wolfgang Daum Surgical knife with suction unit - has tubular blade flattened and ground at one end and connected to suction unit at other, has channels for fluid feed inside tube
US5372592A (en) * 1992-06-22 1994-12-13 C. R. Bard, Inc. Method and device for preparing catheters prior to use
US5460626A (en) * 1994-04-06 1995-10-24 Laser Industries, Ltd. Tongue blade evacuation system
US5474519A (en) * 1994-05-10 1995-12-12 Bloomer; William E. Method for obtaining stereoscopic imagery from a pair of endoscopes
US5584796A (en) * 1994-08-10 1996-12-17 Cohen; Barry J. Apparatus and method for retracting and viewing bodily tissues on remote display device
US5588952A (en) * 1993-08-02 1996-12-31 Dandolu; Bhaktavathsala R. Intracardiac illuminator with suction
US5755660A (en) * 1995-10-31 1998-05-26 Tyagi; Narendra S. Combination surgical retractor, light source, spreader, and suction apparatus
US5799661A (en) * 1993-02-22 1998-09-01 Heartport, Inc. Devices and methods for port-access multivessel coronary artery bypass surgery
US5865730A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-02-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having remotely actuated feet
WO1999012477A1 (en) * 1997-09-09 1999-03-18 General Surgical Innovations, Inc. Vascular retractor
ES2128232A1 (en) * 1996-03-13 1999-05-01 Fernandez Manuel Sevillano Brain separator with incorporated aspiration
US5928139A (en) * 1998-04-24 1999-07-27 Koros; Tibor B. Retractor with adjustable length blades and light pipe guides
US5984864A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-11-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery
US6007487A (en) * 1996-03-22 1999-12-28 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Tissue retractor for use through a cannula
US6007486A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-12-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having a segmented shaft
US6013027A (en) * 1997-10-07 2000-01-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Method for using a tissue stabilization device during surgery
US6139493A (en) * 1998-07-08 2000-10-31 Koros; Tibor B. Retractor with adjustable length blades and light pipe guides
US6193652B1 (en) 1997-10-07 2001-02-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having spherical curved feet
US6206826B1 (en) 1997-12-18 2001-03-27 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Devices and methods for percutaneous surgery
US6217509B1 (en) 1996-03-22 2001-04-17 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Devices and methods for percutaneous surgery
US6241658B1 (en) * 2000-07-12 2001-06-05 Harriet T. Goodrich Suction retractor
US6364833B1 (en) * 1999-01-24 2002-04-02 Genzyme Corpforation Irrigator for use with surgical retractor and tissue stabilization device and methods related thereto
US6537212B2 (en) * 1996-04-26 2003-03-25 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical retractor
US6651671B1 (en) 1993-02-22 2003-11-25 Heartport, Inc. Lens-invasive devices and methods for cardiac valve surgery
US20040143169A1 (en) * 2002-08-02 2004-07-22 Branch Charles L. Systems and techniques for illuminating a surgical space
US20040204716A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-10-14 Jonathan Fanger Drill guide with alignment feature
US20040267274A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2004-12-30 Tushar Patel Tissue retractor and drill guide
US20050277812A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Myles Robert T Minimally invasive surgical spinal exposure system
US7056321B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2006-06-06 Endius, Incorporated Method of securing vertebrae
US20060241350A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2006-10-26 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Instruments and methods for selective tissue retraction through a retractor sleeve
US20060287583A1 (en) * 2005-06-17 2006-12-21 Pool Cover Corporation Surgical access instruments for use with delicate tissues
US20070060793A1 (en) * 2005-08-30 2007-03-15 Degould Michael D Suction retraction instrument for surgery
US20070133935A1 (en) * 2002-12-09 2007-06-14 Eran Fine Flexible optical device
US20070244489A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2007-10-18 Tushar Patel Tissue retractor and guide device
US20080287937A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Surgical Instrument for Illuminating and Monitoring a Surgical Site
US20090001397A1 (en) * 2007-05-29 2009-01-01 Oree, Advanced Illumiation Solutions Inc. Method and device for providing circumferential illumination
US7608040B1 (en) * 2003-02-24 2009-10-27 City Of Hope Device to aid in placing tracheal tubes
US20100022844A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2010-01-28 Mangiardi John R Surgical Access Instruments for Use with Spinal or Orthopedic Surgery
US7776047B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2010-08-17 Depuy Spine, Inc. Guide for spinal tools, implants, and devices
US7826698B1 (en) 2007-12-19 2010-11-02 Oree, Inc. Elimination of stitch artifacts in a planar illumination area
US7929816B2 (en) 2007-12-19 2011-04-19 Oree, Inc. Waveguide sheet containing in-coupling, propagation, and out-coupling regions
US20110112376A1 (en) * 2009-11-10 2011-05-12 Invuity, Inc. Illuminated Suction Apparatus
US7985247B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2011-07-26 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for treating the spine through an access device
US8128272B2 (en) 2005-06-07 2012-03-06 Oree, Inc. Illumination apparatus
US8215815B2 (en) 2005-06-07 2012-07-10 Oree, Inc. Illumination apparatus and methods of forming the same
US8231237B2 (en) 2008-03-05 2012-07-31 Oree, Inc. Sub-assembly and methods for forming the same
US8272758B2 (en) 2005-06-07 2012-09-25 Oree, Inc. Illumination apparatus and methods of forming the same
US8301002B2 (en) 2008-07-10 2012-10-30 Oree, Inc. Slim waveguide coupling apparatus and method
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DE102011055366A1 (en) * 2011-11-15 2013-05-16 Michael Unger Valve for surgical aid for lifting thorax, comprises support surface, wing projecting from support surface on one hand and suction tube arranged on other hand of support surface, where suction hole is introduced into support surface
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US9216015B2 (en) 2004-10-28 2015-12-22 Vycor Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for performing brain surgery
RU2623449C2 (en) * 2015-12-08 2017-06-26 Елена Юрьевна Камалова Method for light cervical intraepitelial neoplasia and/or papillomavirus infection treatment and gynecological mirror for its implementation
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Cited By (130)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3796214A (en) * 1972-12-04 1974-03-12 R Davis Perineal retractor
US4049000A (en) * 1975-08-01 1977-09-20 Williams Robert W Suction retraction instrument
US4126127A (en) * 1976-09-27 1978-11-21 May Laurence M Suctioning/oxygenating laryngoscope blade
US4232660A (en) * 1979-03-26 1980-11-11 Coles Robert L Winged irrigating surgical retractor
US4562832A (en) * 1984-01-21 1986-01-07 Wilder Joseph R Medical instrument and light pipe illumination assembly
US4627421A (en) * 1984-08-03 1986-12-09 Symbas Panagiotis N Sternal retractor
US5054906A (en) * 1986-01-17 1991-10-08 Brimfield Precision, Inc. Indirectly illuminating ophthalmological speculum
US4894057A (en) * 1987-06-19 1990-01-16 Howes Randolph M Flow enhanced multi-lumen venous catheter device
US5246440A (en) * 1990-09-13 1993-09-21 Noord Andrew J Van Electrosurgical knife
US5372592A (en) * 1992-06-22 1994-12-13 C. R. Bard, Inc. Method and device for preparing catheters prior to use
DE4227369C1 (en) * 1992-08-19 1994-02-17 Wolfgang Daum Surgical knife with suction unit - has tubular blade flattened and ground at one end and connected to suction unit at other, has channels for fluid feed inside tube
US6651671B1 (en) 1993-02-22 2003-11-25 Heartport, Inc. Lens-invasive devices and methods for cardiac valve surgery
US5799661A (en) * 1993-02-22 1998-09-01 Heartport, Inc. Devices and methods for port-access multivessel coronary artery bypass surgery
US5588952A (en) * 1993-08-02 1996-12-31 Dandolu; Bhaktavathsala R. Intracardiac illuminator with suction
US5460626A (en) * 1994-04-06 1995-10-24 Laser Industries, Ltd. Tongue blade evacuation system
US5474519A (en) * 1994-05-10 1995-12-12 Bloomer; William E. Method for obtaining stereoscopic imagery from a pair of endoscopes
US5584796A (en) * 1994-08-10 1996-12-17 Cohen; Barry J. Apparatus and method for retracting and viewing bodily tissues on remote display device
US5817005A (en) * 1994-08-10 1998-10-06 Cohen; Barry J. Apparatus and method for simultaneously retracting and viewing bodily tissues
US5755660A (en) * 1995-10-31 1998-05-26 Tyagi; Narendra S. Combination surgical retractor, light source, spreader, and suction apparatus
ES2128232A1 (en) * 1996-03-13 1999-05-01 Fernandez Manuel Sevillano Brain separator with incorporated aspiration
US6425859B1 (en) 1996-03-22 2002-07-30 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Cannula and a retractor for percutaneous surgery
US6217509B1 (en) 1996-03-22 2001-04-17 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Devices and methods for percutaneous surgery
US6520907B1 (en) 1996-03-22 2003-02-18 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Methods for accessing the spinal column
US6007487A (en) * 1996-03-22 1999-12-28 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Tissue retractor for use through a cannula
US7993378B2 (en) 1996-03-22 2011-08-09 Warsaw Orthopedic, IN. Methods for percutaneous spinal surgery
US6206822B1 (en) 1996-03-22 2001-03-27 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Devices and methods for percutaneous surgery
US6537212B2 (en) * 1996-04-26 2003-03-25 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical retractor
WO1999012477A1 (en) * 1997-09-09 1999-03-18 General Surgical Innovations, Inc. Vascular retractor
US5865730A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-02-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having remotely actuated feet
US6193652B1 (en) 1997-10-07 2001-02-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having spherical curved feet
US6013027A (en) * 1997-10-07 2000-01-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Method for using a tissue stabilization device during surgery
US6007486A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-12-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery having a segmented shaft
US5984864A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-11-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue stabilization device for use during surgery
US6206826B1 (en) 1997-12-18 2001-03-27 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Devices and methods for percutaneous surgery
US5928139A (en) * 1998-04-24 1999-07-27 Koros; Tibor B. Retractor with adjustable length blades and light pipe guides
US6139493A (en) * 1998-07-08 2000-10-31 Koros; Tibor B. Retractor with adjustable length blades and light pipe guides
US8540746B2 (en) 1998-08-20 2013-09-24 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Cannula for receiving surgical instruments
US6364833B1 (en) * 1999-01-24 2002-04-02 Genzyme Corpforation Irrigator for use with surgical retractor and tissue stabilization device and methods related thereto
US6241658B1 (en) * 2000-07-12 2001-06-05 Harriet T. Goodrich Suction retractor
US7699877B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2010-04-20 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method of securing vertebrae
US9622735B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2017-04-18 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method for securing vertebrae
US7056321B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2006-06-06 Endius, Incorporated Method of securing vertebrae
US9101353B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2015-08-11 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method of securing vertebrae
US8864785B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2014-10-21 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method for securing vertebrae
US8777997B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2014-07-15 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method for securing vertebrae
US7850695B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2010-12-14 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method of securing vertebrae
US8277486B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2012-10-02 Zimmer Spine, Inc. System for performing a procedure at a spinal location
US7722530B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2010-05-25 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Method of securing vertebrae
US7985247B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2011-07-26 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for treating the spine through an access device
US20040143169A1 (en) * 2002-08-02 2004-07-22 Branch Charles L. Systems and techniques for illuminating a surgical space
US7556601B2 (en) * 2002-08-02 2009-07-07 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Systems and techniques for illuminating a surgical space
US20070133935A1 (en) * 2002-12-09 2007-06-14 Eran Fine Flexible optical device
US20090116801A1 (en) * 2002-12-09 2009-05-07 Oree, Advanced Illumination Solutions Inc. Flexible optical device
US8351750B2 (en) 2002-12-09 2013-01-08 Noam Meir Flexible optical device
US7639916B2 (en) 2002-12-09 2009-12-29 Orec, Advanced Illumination Solutions Inc. Flexible optical device
US8358896B2 (en) 2002-12-09 2013-01-22 Oree, Advanced Illumination Solutions Inc. Flexible optical device
US20100014822A1 (en) * 2002-12-09 2010-01-21 Oree Advanced Illumination Solutions Inc. Flexible Optical Device
US7608040B1 (en) * 2003-02-24 2009-10-27 City Of Hope Device to aid in placing tracheal tubes
US20040204716A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-10-14 Jonathan Fanger Drill guide with alignment feature
US7776047B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2010-08-17 Depuy Spine, Inc. Guide for spinal tools, implants, and devices
US7935123B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2011-05-03 Depuy Acromed, Inc. Drill guide with alignment feature
US8394107B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2013-03-12 Depuy Spine, Inc. Guide for spinal tools, implants, and devices
US7909829B2 (en) * 2003-06-27 2011-03-22 Depuy Spine, Inc. Tissue retractor and drill guide
US20070244489A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2007-10-18 Tushar Patel Tissue retractor and guide device
US20040267274A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2004-12-30 Tushar Patel Tissue retractor and drill guide
US7909848B2 (en) * 2003-06-27 2011-03-22 Depuy Spine, Inc. Tissue retractor and guide device
US7150714B2 (en) 2004-06-14 2006-12-19 Ebi, L.P. Minimally invasive surgical spinal exposure system
US20050277812A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Myles Robert T Minimally invasive surgical spinal exposure system
US9216015B2 (en) 2004-10-28 2015-12-22 Vycor Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for performing brain surgery
US9386974B2 (en) 2004-10-28 2016-07-12 Vycor Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for performing brain surgery
US7427264B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-09-23 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Instruments and methods for selective tissue retraction through a retractor sleeve
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