US3619181A - Aluminum scandium alloy - Google Patents

Aluminum scandium alloy Download PDF

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US3619181A
US3619181A US3619181DA US3619181A US 3619181 A US3619181 A US 3619181A US 3619181D A US3619181D A US 3619181DA US 3619181 A US3619181 A US 3619181A
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Lowell A Willey
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium

Abstract

Aluminum and aluminum alloys of varying binary, ternary and multicomponent types having from 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium characterized by improved physical properties and methods of thermally treating the same.

Description

United States Patent inventor Appl. No.

Lowell A. Willey Lower Burrell. Pa.

Oct. 29, 1968 Nov. 9, l 97 1 Aluminum Company of America Pittsburgh, Pa.

Continuation-impart oi application Ser. No. 474,470, July 23, 1965, now abandoned.

ALUMINUM SCANDIUM ALLOY 35 Claims, No Drawings US. Cl

Int. Cl

[50] FieldoiSearch 148/1217.

Primary ExaminerL. Dewayne Rutledge Assislan! Examiner-W. W. Stallard Allurneys-Rohert E. lsncr. Albert (1 Johnston. Lewis H.

Esiinger and Alvin Sinderbrand ABSTRACT: Aluminum and aluminum alloys of varying binary, ternary and multicomponent types having from 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium characterized by improved physical properties and methods ot'thermaily treating the same.

ALUMINUM SCANDIUM ALLOY This application is a continuation-in-part of my earlier filed application Ser. No. 474,470, filed July 23, 1965, and now abandoned.

The methods and alloys to which the inventions disclosed herein relate are basically predicated on my discovery that very small amounts of scandium when added to aluminum, and aluminum alloys as herein later defined, produce unusually useful effects of considerable relative magnitude as to the physical properties of the thus formed alloys particularly, in some instances, if the addition of the scandium is coupled with the use of certain thermal treatments hereinafter described. In other aspects of the invention these small amounts of scandium also, I have found, substantially and favorably affect the recrystallization temperature of aluminum and of the aluminum alloys herein defined.

The objects of the inventions, which are reflected in the above statement of the general nature of the inventions, are more specifically stated in the following discussion thereof.

The amount of scandium contemplated by the inventions as added to, in the case of the method, or as present in aluminum or aluminum alloy is about 0.01 to about 1.0 percent by weight of scandium of the total alloy, although the utilization of greater amounts as, for example, 1.5 to 5.0 percent, while perhaps not effecting a further enhancement of the character of the product also does result in the improved physical properties obtained according to the invention. in the preferred development of the advantages and results of the inventions amounts of scandium of about 0.1 to about 0.8 percent by weight of the total alloys are used. For maximum results, particularly as to beneficiation of physical properties, I employ scandium in amounts of about 0.2 to about 0.6 percent by weight of the total alloy.

The aluminum to which reference is herein made is relatively pure aluminum, about 98.5 percent by weight or more of aluminum, such as is produced by the known electrolytic processes by which aluminum is won from its ores. The aluminum alloys to which reference is here made are those containing about 85 percent or more by weight of this aluminum and one or more alloying elements that are not subversive of the improved effects produced by the scandium addition. Among such suitable alloying elements are at least one element selected from the group of essentially character forming alloying elements and consisting of manganese zinc, beryllium, lithium, copper and magnesium. 1 term these alloying elements as essentially character forming for the reason that the contemplated alloys containing one or more of them essentially derive their characteristic properties from such elements. Usually the amounts of each of the elements which impart such characteristics are, as to each of magnesium, copper and zinc about 0.5 to about percent by weight of the total alloy if the element be present as an alloying element in the alloy, as to the element beryllium about 0.001 to about 5.0 percent of the total alloy if such element be present as an alloying element, as to the element lithium about 0.2 to about 3.0 percent of the total alloy if such element be present as an alloying element, and, as to the element manganese, if it be present as an alloying element, usually about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent of the total alloy.

The elements iron and silicon, while perhaps not entirely or always accurately classifiable as essentially character forming alloying elements are often present in aluminum alloy in appreciable quantities and can have a marked effect upon the derived characteristic properties of certain alloys containing the same. Iron, for example, which if often present and considered as an undesired impurity, is oftentimes desirably present and adjusted in amounts of about 0.3 to 2.0 percent by weight of the total alloy to perform specific functions. Silicon may also be so considered and while found in range varying from about 0.25 to as much as percent is more often desirably found in the range of about 0.3 to 1.5 percent to perform specific functions. in light of the foregoing dual nature of these elements and for convenience of definition, the elements iron and silicon may, at least when desirably present in character affecting amounts in certain alloys, be properly also considered as character forming alloying ingredients.

Such aluminum and aluminum alloys, which may contain one or more of these essential character forming elements, may contain, either with or without the aforementioned character forming elements, quantities of certain well known ancillary alloying elements for the purpose of enhancing particular properties. Such ancillary elements are usually chromium, nickel, zirconium, vanadium, titanium, boron, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and occasionally, silicon and iron. Also, while lithium is listed above as an essential character forming element, it may in some instances occur in an alloy as an ancillary element in an amount within the range outlined above. When one of these ancillary elements is present in the aluminum alloy of the type herein contemplated the amount, in terms of percent by weight of the total alloy, varies with the element in question but is usually about as follows: nickel about 0.5 to 2.5 percent, chromium about 0.05 to 0.4 percent, titanium about 0.01 to 0.15 percent, vanadium or zirconium about 0.05 to 0.25 percent, boron about 0.0002 to 0.04 percent, cadmium about 0.05 to 0.5 percent, and bismuth or lead about 0.4 to 0.7 percent.

While 1 have referred to the possibility of the aluminum and aluminum alloys of my invention which contain scandium as also containing certain character-forming elements and certain ancillary elements, in some instances according to my invention, they need not contain either one or more characterforming elements or one or more ancillary elements. Likewise the scandium-containing aluminum and aluminum alloys of my invention may contain one or more ancillary elements without one or more character-forming elements or one or more character-forming elements without one or more ancillary elements, the content of 0.01 to 5.0 percent by weight scandium to give the improved tensile and yield strength being essential in all instances.

The subject aluminum base alloys may, in addition to the essential character-forming elements, and/or the ancillary elements above named, also contain incidental elements such as small amounts of any of the elements above named but such elements are usually those resulting as residuals from the aluminum smelting process. Iron and silicon, for example, when not present in the appreciable amounts set forth above and in alloys wherein they effect the characteristics thereof as set forth above, often are included in such residuals and, in total, usually represent the bulk thereof. Residual elements are regularly present in some amounts in the aluminum or the aluminum base alloys, the beneficiation of which is contemplated by this invention.

Representative aluminum and aluminum alloys to which scandium may be added according to my invention as identified by The Aluminum Association are 7075, 7079, 7178, 7005, 7039, 6061, 6351, 6161, 6063, 5005, 5050,5052, 5083, 5454, 5456, 3003, 3005, 2014, 2017, 2618, 2219, 2020 and 2024. I

The addition of the above-mentioned small amounts of scandium to aluminum, and to aluminum base alloy of the type above defined, increases substantially the tensile strength, yield strength, and often the elongation of the resultant metal as compared to the same aluminum, or aluminum alloy, to which such scandium has not been added. For instance to a 99.998 percent pure aluminum, the balance being 0.001 percent of copper and 0.001 percent silicon, was added small amounts of scandium. The resultant alloys were cast in ingot form and cold rolled to a reduction of 89 percent. The results were as set forth in the following table 1.

lli 17.8 4 0.10 19.7 18.3 4 0.20 20.7 19.5 4 0.29 21.9 20.6 5 (1.49 29.2 26.I 5 0.911 27.2 24.4 9

Similar effects are observed when a 99.903 percent pure alu minum, the balance being 0.054 percent of iron and 0.043 percent of silicon, is alloyed with 1 percent by weight of manganese and small amounts of scandium, cast in ingot form and then cold rolled to an 89 percent reduction. The beneficial results of the presence of scandium on the physical properties is as shown below:

TABLE 11 Tensile Yield Percent by weight strength, strength,

thousands thousands Percent of pounds of pounds elongation Seandium Manganese pcrsq. in. per sq. in. in 1 lllt'll t). 05 1.0 29. 1 1 t). 1. 0 .221. 8 .i 0. 50 1.0 33. .1 5 0.80 1.0 37. 4 6

(1:111 rolled and rein-ato l lwlwt-l-n rolling opt-rations for a total tinn- 01211 11111111105111 313 Fifty perm-n1 illllllt'tllt1l'ltlllt'lltlll.

Hot and t'tll'l rolled. l'rl-ln-atwl 1 hour at 2: ltr-ln-atml lu-twt'l-n rnlli|u operations for -10 minutes :u 300' t'. Filly pt-rt'vnt linal t-oltl nluvtinn.

Hot and t-old rollt-ll. l'rt-lu-utt-d 15 minute at 313" t'. lit-heated het\\'een rolling operations for n total of .0 minutes nt 313 Thirtysix percent final ('Ultl reduction.

6 Hot and t'tlltl rolled to .032 with l'vllt'uls during hot rolling of 15 It- 15 minutes at 260 Final ('0111 reduction 75",.

(oltl rolled to .032 lllt'll with 10 1111111111 rt-ln-nl at Lt'vtl" at .125 lllt'll.

Hut and cold rolled to inch with preheat and reheat tlurim: hot rolling totalling minutes -60 linzil cold n-thn-tion T5'.;.

(01d rolled to 0.125 incl]. lltilll' l 15 minutes at 200 t. and 00111 rulle l to 0.03; inch.

Tensile strength, thousands of pounds per sq. in.

Percent by weight Yield strength, thousands of pounds per sq llltll 01 scandium (1) (3 (3) (4) (5) (6) (7 (1) (3) (4) (5) (0) 1T) (1.11 10. 2 7. 1 5. 1 4.11 8.1! 2. 1 2. 2 l8. 3 .2. 1 1. ti 1.1 5. 5 6.5 11). l (1.8 5.2 5. t) 7.11 3.1 .'.1 18.2 2. t) 1.5 1.3 ti." (1.7 20.1 10.11 5.5 5.3 8.8 3.1 2.0 18.4 'J.-l 1.11 1.4 6. 8 20. 1 13. 5 5. 3 5. 3 11. 2 2. 7 3. it 18. 4 l3. 4 2 t] 1. ti 10. .l

15. 6 '21. 0 21. 5 5. 4 10. 5 15.9 3. 1 l0. .2 10. T 20.1 L. ti. 8 14. t) 26. 8 20. 3 30. 2 6. 4 22. 8 8 3. 2 23. 1 111. ll 28. T L. l 21. 3 25. t) 31. J 24. 4 38. 3 7. 8 28. 9 37. 3 5. 2 28. ll 23. 0 34. 8 2.0 33. 9 31.1! 24. 0 24. 6 26. 6 13. O 27. 8 34. 3 8. 8 13. 5 21.51 23. 6 -l. 3 26. 7 31.1 24. 0 26. 3 28.1 11. 6 30. 1 36. 7 8. 9 13. 2 22.1 21.2 3. 7 27.1! 35. 3 23. 4 26. 0 .58. 0 11. 7 31. 2 3G. 9 1.0 12. (1 21. 4 21. 2 4. 1 2S. 4 311. ll

NOTES.(1) As cast. (2) As cast; aged 8 hours at 288 C. (3) As cats; cold rolled (80% 30 min. at 649 C., CWQ. (6) Cold rolled: heat treated 30 min. Cold rolled; heat treated 30 min. at 640 C., CWQ, cold rolled (507,

288 C. (5) Cold rolled; heat treated at 288 C. (7

1n the case of other aluminum alloys of the type above defined the effects are similar. In Table IV below is illustrated a number of aluminum base alloys, with and without scandium in the indicated amounts in the range of from 0.2 to 0.4 percent. In each case the aluminum of the alloy is of at least the purity mentioned above in respect of the alloys of Table 11. In each case the essential character forming or ancillary alloying elements are set forth in percent by weight of the total alloys.

TABLE IV Tensile Yield strength, strength, Percent thousands thousands elongalcrcent of essential lcrcent 01' of pounds of pounds tlon in alloying elements scandium per sq. in. per sq. in. 1 inch 3.0% copper 1 47. 4 43. 8 4 D0. 0. 3 53. 0 48. G 4 1.0% silicon 23.0 21. 1 ti 0, 0. 3 36. 7 33. 2 7 1.0% magnesium 32. 5 30. t) 4 Do. 0. 3 34. El 32. t) 4 5.25% magnesium 52. (l 47. 3 4 3 0. 3 59. 7 54. 5 t1 53. 6 48. 0 3 t1. 3 76. 5 68. 8 6 7.0% zinc Z 24. 8 22. 8 (1 D01 0. 3 42. 0 40. .5 0 0.1% beryllium 25. 5 23. t) 5 Do. 0. 3 30. 7 2t). 1 4 2.0% magnesium,

4.0% zinc 4 51. 7 45.11 5 D0. ll. 3 5!). 1 56 6 2 1% magnesium, 1%

manganese l 42. 3 40. 4 3 D01. 0.3 45.3 43.0 4

reduction). (4) Cold rolled, aged 8 hours at at 640 C., CWQ, aged 5 hours reduction), aged 8 hours at 288 C.

it will be noted, in the case of each of the above alloys in table 1V, that the presence of as little as 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight of scandium caused tensile strengths and yield strengths to increase from about 6 percent to as much as 50 percent and the general effect persisted regardless of whether preheating or reheating treatments were applied during the cold rolling operation.

The addition of the small amounts of scandium to aluminum, and aluminum alloy, often benefit the physical properties of the aluminum or alloy to an even greater extent if the alloy is cold worked and thereafter subjected to an aging treatment under selected conditions of temperature and duration. More specifically, the subjection of age hardenable alloys to selective aging treatments appears to produce an enhanced benefit in physical properties when scandium, in the amounts herein disclosed, has been added thereto. Such age hardening treatment may be of a single or multistep character, may utilized temperatures as low as C. up to as high as 425 C. and for preferred time periods of from one-fourth hour to 50 hours, but with periods of from 6 to 18 hours proving satisfactory in most instances. When multistep aging is used, the second step or later steps are at higher temperatures than the first, the time for each stage usually being from about onefourth hour to 25 hours. Appreciable enhancement of the physical properties are usually obtained even if preheating or reheating operations, such as are often employed to facilitate cold working, are applied and which generally operate to diminish somewhat the effect of the aging treatment as to tensile strength. Thus, where practical considerations of fabrication do not require preheating of the ingot, or substantial reheating during cold working. the aging effect is very substantial. otherwise it is useful particularly where increases in elongation are of importance. What is said immediately above is generally illustrated in the following table V, where is shown the effect of aging after cold working of aluminum and of various aluminum alloys as herein defined. Where reheating during hot or cold working or where preheating of the ingot has been employed the nature of the heating is indicated in a footnote. In each case. however, the metal was aged after cold rolling. the aging taking place in a single step at a temperature ofabout 285290C. for about 8 hours.

10 each case the cold worked metal. after having been given the indicated heat treatment for 30 minutes and then quenched in cold water was aged for 8 hours at about 285-29() C.

TABLE Tensile strength. Yield strength.

thousands of thousands of lereent pounds per pounds per elongation Percent by sq. in. sq. in. in one inch we=ght 01 Percent by essential alloying weight of Before Alter liefore Alter lieforr After elements seandium aging aging aging aging aging aging None, aluminum only 8. 17. i 2.1 t 30 D01... 29.1 10.5 35.0 -t 10 1.)0. 34. 0 20.6 20. K 8 Do. -12. 6 26.1 311.1 5 11 D0. 33. 0 2 -l .1 'J 121 1% manganese 32. 1 7 31.3 :i T. 5 Do. 46.0 32.5 11.5 T 0.75% manganese,

0.25% chromium. 21.7 27. 2 i 5 l)o. 41.1 30.6 5 7 16. l 30. 0 l 1. 13. 1 32. 0 4 it 37. o 17. I! i 23 58. 1 51. 5 ii 12 14. 1 22. t t; 33 30. J 40. 3 6 E1 14. 7 10. 0 3 ll 66. I 68. 8 6 T 42. 3 35. 2 40. i 31. 0 3 h 45. 3 48. ii 43. 0 46. 4 4 6 23. 4 13. 1 20. 3 1). 4 5 l l 26. 5 36. t) 24. 0 31. .2 4 8 .23. 0 12.3 21. 1 4. 7 t 36 86. 7 3i. 7 33. 2 28. 8 7 8 0.7% magncsitn 1% silicon 24. 7 12.7 23. o 4. 8 5 3t l)o. 42. 5 3!). 2 40. 8 36. 8 5 it 47. 4 .20 1 43. it 0. 2 -1 21 53.6 43 3 48. (i 41, 3 l 6 0.75"/, nnniganese,

2.75 magnesium 56. 5 46. 5 51. 0 110. 4 '5. 0 11 Do." g 0.25 01. 4 50 0 56.1 53. 8 5 0 0.75 manganese,

5.25 magnesium. 72. 1 57 0 63.3 46 3 H 4 l)o. 74.7 G6 2 6-1.5 57 1 T 2 1.6 magnesium.

21110.. 43. 7 33. 4 40 17. 6 7 10 D04-" 0 35 50. s 47. 2 4b a 44. 2 0 x 1.5% magnesium,"

2.3% copper 52. 4 30. 1 2-1. 5 i 11 l) 0. 30 55. 5 48. 1 46. 0 1 i3 .7% magnesium,

11% silicon. 40. 1 21. 4 15. 5 7 13 no. 46. 8 10. 3 37.11 0 7 1.0%1nagnesi ni,'" .67. 43. 0 27. 6 23. h 5 10 si icon.

Do." 0. .20 47. I 30. 0 3G. 2 6 T 0.5% iron, 1.0% nickel 20.1 16. 1 S. 5 4 20 l)o. 0.40 33.0 41.4 351.1 5 .t 0.1% beryllium 25.5 1.3 2 6. 7 5 23 Do. l) 3 30. 7 38 ii 37. b -l 7 1 Cold rolled to 80% reduction.

? Cold rolled. Rchentcd between rolling operations for a total time of20minntes at 313 Fifty percent final cold reduction.

Hot and cold rolled. lreheatmll hour at 288 C. Rebeatcd between rolling operations fol 10 minutes at 200 C. Fifty percent final cold reduction.

4 Hot. and cold rolled. l'reheaied minutesat 313 (3. lteheatcd between rolling operations for a total of minutes at 313 Fifty percent final coltl reduction.

5 Hot and Cold rolled. lttho ed 15 minutes at 313 (I. ltchentod between rolling opera- Seventy livc percent linal cold reduction.

7 Hot and cold rolled. lreheated 16 hours at 127 (7. Hot rolled to 0.121 inch, annealed one hour at 371 and cold rolled to 0.010 inch.

3 Cold rolled. Reheat for 10 minutes at 200 (1. at. 0.125 inch. Seventy five percent final cold reduction.

llot and cold rolled. ltehcat and reheat during hot rolling totaling '15 minutes at 260 Seventy five percent linul cold reduction.

" Cold rolled lehcnt for 15 minutes at 260 at 0.125 inch. Seventy live percent llnnl cold reduction.

'lAliLli \l TlIlSllt' Yit-ld i'll'lllll 'lvntpt-t- 51 TOWN l1. .sl r -ngl h, ll-rwnl by weight :lllll'l of thousands thousand 010111!- 01 lunt ll'llllof pounds of pounds lion 1n sl'nn lilnn nnnt. l. per sq. in. pm sq. in. lllll l1 1' coppt 1 501) 35.1 21. 7 J 110 5110 -11." Jill, -l l.! 1113'}. 1'1'011 [H 10. 1 .I 33 [)n. I), 13 (H0 31.0 .ll 1') l,',' silicon 500 17.5 .1. 11 D0. (L3 591) 20. l 22 l',','. nlanunnvsv. 630 12. 7 .2 31 1) 631' 30. 5 7 I0 615 10. T .i :0 G15 37. 1 7 Ill 1127 21. 0 :1 2'. 627 35. ii is. a 13 627 .11. b 1 l. 7 Do (l. 3 627 .7. I- ll. .3 15 None. 00 0 15",; aluminum. 643-651 5 7 1.7 :11 D0 643-1350 31. T 3. 5 .3"; manmnnv. .11 '1. 0 3'2.

1) .0 37.5 11... 6.75); inant'nncsv,

ma nesium .0 15. 6 Do. 4 31. 2 11 Do. .2 13. 1 J2 l)o .4: .4 11. 1.67, magnum .'.I .s T l)() .5 11 1.5-}; nni znt-silnn ,7 10 l n :10. 0 1 .7, maunl' iinn, 1-1.1 11 l I. ll. 5 1'. T 11. 5 l6 1 23. ll 1?, .13 5. Ii 33 H 5 R, l 5 27. 10

00.00%; pure aluminum plus I llcntod for fifteen minutes TABLE \'ll 'lypc 'll'nsilv Yil-ld Percent of heat sln-npth. strength. liOlllri'nlnn-nt Percent by thousands thousands gallon Percent by weight of essential and cold Weight of Aging 1011111., 01' pounds of pounds in Oil! alloying clement rolling scandium (.li1nc,ln's. per sq. in 111-1 sq. in. inch 0.75 manganese, 2.75

magnesium. 36. h 26 8 12 12.5 33.7 11.21 -l1. 0 36. (i (i. .2 18. 4 43. .2 5. (l 31.11 15.0 .10. 5 36.3 22.3 113.5 31. 2 23. 0 13. 8 13.7 34.0 10.5 0.75 manganese, 25

magnesium. 11. '1 22. 3 23. 2 D0 v 411.0 28. 4 ll. 3 1.0% magm m, 4.4% Zl11('.. (5) 107/8 50. 3 45. 0 0. 5

and 140/10 D0 (5) 0. 107/8 57. 0 52.11 0

and 1411/16 0.;,% manganese, 2.5% copper... (6) 216/16 34. 2 23.2 s. 5 D (6) 0 25 216/16 42. 2 3-1.0 8. 5 1.5% magnesium. 2.3% copper... (7) 204/16 50. is 4!). s 5. 5 (7) 0.15 204/16 61.0 54. 0 5. 8 0.7% magnesium, 0.4% silicon. (8) 177/4 and 288/8 .4 14. 2 13, 0 0. 25 177/4 and 288/8 31. .2 24. 4 13. 0 1.0% magnesium, .6 silicon. (3) 177/4 and 288/8 31. 8 11.3 18. Do (3) 0. 177/4u11d 288/8 21.x 23.3 13.0 2.5% copper, 1.5% lithium (l l 204/16 55. 7 15. 0 5. 5 Do (1 0 5 204/115 58.3 47.4 6.2 I) (l 160/16 49.6 34.0 10.5 Do (ll) 0 15 160/113 52.8 32.4 13. 2 Norm:

(1) 30 minutes at 593 (3., CWQ, cold rolled 20%.

30 minutes at 593 C., CWQ, cold rolled 20% before and after aging.

30 minutes at 593 (1., CWQ.

30 minutes at 560 (3., CWQ.

30 minutes at 593 (2., CWQ, aged 4 days at room temperature. 20 minutes at 593 (7., CWQ, cold rolled 8%.

30 minutes at 552 (1., CWQ, cold rolled 8%.

30 minutes zit-500 (3., CWQ, cold rolled 8%.

In each ofthe comparative instances set forth above, heat treatable alloys of both binary and ternary types, exclusive of the scandium addition, were essentially uniformly subjected to single step aging for an 8 hour period and at temperatures in the range of 285-290 C., independent of the nature of the heat treatment involved. However, as noted earlier, the benefits flowing from the inclusion of scandium in aluminum and aluminum base alloys are not limited to the above described aging procedures but rather are obtainable over a relatively broad range of aging temperatures and periods.

30mi11utos at 538 0., CWQ, alloy also contains 1.0% Fe. 1.0% Ni and 330% Cd.

Likewise such benefits are obtained when further cold reduction is introduced intermediate the heat treatment and the aging operations. Instances of the above are presented in the following table Vll both in respect to previously mentioned al- The scandium-containing aluminum of my invention also exhibits improved physical properties, especially tensile and yield strengths, upon exposure to elevated temperatures for prolonged periods, viz., upon exposure for L000 hours or longer periods at 149 C. or higher temperature. table Vlll, which follows demonstrates this improvement.

TABLE Vlll.IEl\'hlLE PROPERTIES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Tensile Yield strength, strength, thousands of thousands of Percent pounds per pounds per elongation sq. in. sq. in. in 1 inch Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). None, 00.99+% aluminum only 2 Percent scandium. 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.30

7.1 38. 3 2.1 34. ii 27 Ii 3. 1 22.1 1. 5 10. 32 18 2.4 16.0 1.8 37 17 1. 8 11. 0.8 8. l 44 0 Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 1"},- manganese, 19;- inagncsium 2 Percent scandium 0.00 0. 30 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.30

35. 2 48. 8 40. 4 8 6 20. 8 30. 0 30. 3 ll 26.1 30.1 23. J 10 15 17.4 18.0 13.4 12 21 Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 0.75% manganese,

2.15% magnesium 1 Percent scandium 0. 00 0. 25 0. 00 O. 25 0. O0 0. 25

46.5 511.0 30. 4 53. s 14 1| i 38. .1 43. b 34. I 45.0 13 12 32. J 35. 7 28. 5 20. 3 22 22 10. 4 l0. 5 l3. 4 12. 2 30 Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 3% copper, 0.3% manganese 4 Percent scandium O. 00 0. 20 0 00 0. 20 0. 00 0. 20

Temp. C.:

24 37. 1 45. 4 26. 0 36. 4 8 8 149 30. 4 36. 4 22. 6 31. 0 11 10 204 22. 5 30. 7 l7. 4 27. 1 ll 11 260 17. 0 24. 0 14. 0 20. 4 J 12 Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 3% copper, 0.3%

v manganese, 0.1% vanadium, 0.15% zirconium Percent scandium 0. 00 0.20 0.00 0.20 0. 00 0.20

41. 4 46. 8 29. 4 36. 7 .1 ll 32.8 37. 1 25. 5 31. 0 10 ll 25. 4 31.0 20.6 27. 3 10 8 19. 4 22. 0 15. J 20. 3 11 .J Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 2.3% copper, 1.5%

magnesium, 0.5% manganese 5 Percent scandium 0.00 0.15 0.00 0. 0.00 0. 15

56. 8 58. 5 40. 2 52. 4 7 7 47. 4 40. 3 44. 2 46. 4 8 ti 28. 0 33. 2 20. 2 31.1 8 J 14.3 15. 0 11.8 13.2 24 24 Essential alloying elements (percent by weight). 2.3% copper, 1.5%

magnesium, 1.0% 111111, 1.0% nickel 5 Percent scandium 0.00 0. 15 0.00 0. 15 0. 00 0. 15

Temp., C.:'

at temperature after 1,000 hours at the same 1 Properties determined 0. where time was usually greater than 1,000

l have determined that the above noted small amounts of scandium have a most profound effect on the recrystallization temperature of aluminum. and of aluminum alloy of the types herein described. For instance. a cold worked aluminum ofa purity of 99.9 percent was found to have a recrystallization range which started at about 230 C. The addition of0.33 percent by weight of scandium to this aluminum. which was then cold worked as before, raised the start of the recrystallization to 450 C. Substantially the same effect was noted in cold worked aluminum containing 5.25 percent magnesium as the essential alloying element, the addition to this alloy of 0.3 per cent scandium raised the beginning of recrystallization from about 245 C. to about 450 C. Another example of this beneficial effect may be. noted in an aluminum alloy with l percent manganese. Here the addition of about 0.33 percent of scandium raised the start of recrystallization of the cold worked alloy from about 385 to about 470 C. A further alloy to which scandium imparts a higher recrystallization temperature according to my invention is 7075 alloy. ln the above noted instances the start of recrystallization was determined by X-ray diffraction methods ofa well-known type.

The scandium-containing alloys of my invention also in general exhibit an improved strength to conductivity ratio, that is have a higher strength for a given conductivity, especially electrical conductor alloys such as EC alloy and 6l0l alloy containing scandium. For example, substantially pure aluminum containing 0.5 percent scandium has a 57 percent greater tensile strength than standard EC alloy. with only an 8 percent decrease in conductivity.

While the invention has been described in terms of preferred embodiments, the claims appended hereto are intended to encompass all embodiments which fall within the spirit ofthe invention.

Having thus described my invention and certain embodiments thereof, 1 claim:

1. A method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy comprising the steps of alloying a small amount of scandium with said metal and subsequently aging said metal at a temperature of from to 425 centigrade to produce a scandium enriched metal characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not containing said scandium.

2. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of subjecting said scandium enriched metal to cold work prior to the aging thereof.

3. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of heating said scandium enriched metal at a temperature in the range of 450 to 650 centigrade substantially without incipient fusion prior to the aging thereof.

4. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of heatingsaid scandium enriched metal for at least 15 minutes at a temperature in the range of 450 to 650 centigrade substantially without incipient fusion prior to the aging thereof.

5. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein'said aluminum alloy comprises aluminum and at least one essential character forming element selected from the group consisting of copper in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; magnesium in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; zinc in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; manganese in amount of about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent; beryllium in amount of about 0.001

to about 5.0 percent; lithium in amount of about 0.2 to 3.0

percent; iron in the amount of about 0.3 to about 2.0 percent and silicon in amount of about 0.25 to about 15 percent.

6. The method as set forth in claim 5 wherein said aluminum alloy further comprises at least one ancillary alloying element selected from the group consisting of nickel in amount of about 0.5 to about 2.5 percent; chromium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.4 percent; titanium in amount of about 0.01 to about 0.15 percent; vanadium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.25 percent; zirconium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.25 percent; boron in amount of about 0.0002 to about 0.04 percent; bismuth in amount ofabout 0.4 to about 0.7 per- 7. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight.

8. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.

9. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.1 to 0.8 percent by weight.

10. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is for at least one-fourth hour.

11. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is for from 1 to 50 hours in duration.

12. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is effected in two stages with the temperature of the second stage being higher than that of the first of said two stages and with each of said two stages being of from one-fourth to 25 hours in duration.

13. The method of raising the recrystallization temperature ofa metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum and of aluminum alloy containing at least 85 percent of aluminum, said aluminum alloy containing at least 85 percent of aluminum, said aluminum having the basic characteristics essentially imparted by the presence in said aluminum of at least one of the elements selected from the group consisting of copper in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent, zinc in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent, magnesium in amount of 0.5 to about 10 percent, beryllium in amount of about 0.001 to about 5.0 percent, lithium in amount of about 0.2 to about 3.0 percent, manganese in amount of about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, iron in amount of about 0.3 to about 2 percent and silicon in amount of about 0.25 to about 15 percent, which method consists of alloying in said metal prior to working of an amount of scandium within the range of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of the total metal, and

thereafter working said alloy.

14. The method of claim 13 characterized by the fact that the alloy also contains at least one element selected from the ancillary group consisting of the following elements in amounts within the indicated range ofpercent by weight of the total alloy:

Nickel :5 to 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0.01 to 0.|5 Vanadium 0.05 to 0.25 Zirconium 0.05 to 0.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7 Lead 0.4 to 0.7 Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5

15. In a method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof by adding an alloying ele ment to said metal, the improvement consisting in alloying scandium with said metal in an amount of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100 to about 425 centigrade, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.

16. In a method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof, by adding an alloying element to said metal the improvement consisting in alloying scandium with said metal in an amount of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight and aging the resultant metal at a tem perature within a range of about 100 to about 425 centigrade for at least one-fourth hour, said metal being characterized by,

higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.

17. In the method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least percent thereof by adding an alloying element to said metal. the improvement consisting in alloying at least 0.01 percent scandium with said metal and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about to about 425 centigrade, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not subjected to said aging treatment.

18. In the method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof by adding an alloying element to said metal, the improvement consisting in alloying at least 0.01 percent scandium with said metal and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100 to about 425 centigrade for periods of from one-fourth hour to 50 hours, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not subjected to said aging treatment.

19. Aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base material, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of zinc, beryllium, lithium, magnesium, and manganese, in total amount up to 15 percent, the zinc being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the beryllium being from about 0.001 to about 5 percent, the lithium being from about 0.2 to about 3 percent, the magnesium being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, and the manganese being from about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, said aluminum base alloy having the basic alloy characteristics essentially imparted thereto by the presence in said aluminum base material of said selected elements and being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aluminum base alloys of the same composition but not including said amount ofscandium.

20. The alloys ofclaim 19 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.

21. The alloys of claim 19 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereofis in the range of about 0.1 to about 0.8 percent by weight.

22. Cold worked aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the group consisting of copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, beryllium, iron and silicon, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, vanadium, iron, zirconium, boron, silicon, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloy being at least 85 percent by weight and the character forming elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of:

Copper 0.5 to 10 Zinc 0.5 to 10 Manganese 0.15 to 2 Magnesium 0.5 to 10 Nickel 0.510 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0.01 to 0.15 Vanadium 0.05 to 0.25 Zirconium 0.05 to 0.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Lithium 0.2 to 3.0 Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7 Lead 04 to 0.7 Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5 Beryllium 0.001 to 5.0 Silicon 0.25 to 15.0 Iron 0.3 to 2.0

the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than similarly cold worked alloys of similar composition which are free ofsaid scandium.

23. The alloys of claim 22 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.

24. The alloys of claim 22 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range ofabout 0.1 to about 0.8 percent by weight.

25. Aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base metal, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight ofscandium and at least one ancillary element selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, boron, lead, cadmium, lithium and bismuth, the chromium being from about 0.05 to about 0.4 percent, the nickel from about 0.5 to about 2.5 percent. the boron from about 0.0002 to 0.04 per cent, the lead from about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent, the cadmi um from about 0.05 to about 0.5 percent, the lithium from about 0.2 to about 3 percent and the bismuth from about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent.

26. Aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0

percent by weight ofscandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the group consisting of zinc, magnesium, manganese, and beryllium, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, boron, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloys being at least 85 percent by weight and the character forming elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of:

Zinc 0.5 to 10 Manganese 0.15 to 2 Magnesium 05 to Nickel 0.5 to 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Boron 0,0002 to 0.04 Lithium 0.2 to 3.0 Bismuth 0.41007 Lead 0.4 to 0.7 Cadmium (1.05 to 0.5 Beryllium 0.001 to 5.0

the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than alloys of similar composition which are free of said scandium.

27. Aged aluminum or aluminum alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum and with the remainder constituted, at least in part, by scandium in an amount greater than 0.01 percent and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths imparted thereto by aging at temperatures in the range of 100 to 425 centigrade than metal of the same composition but not exposed to such temperatures.

28. The product of claim 27 further characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures than aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium after the same prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures.

29. The product of claim 27, further characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths after exposure at at least 149 C. for at least 1,000 hours than aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium after exposure at the same at least 149 C. for the same at least 1,000 hours.

30. Age hardened aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the essential group consisting of copper, zinc, beryllium, magnesium, iron, silicon and man ganese, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, vanadium, zirconium, boron, iron, silicon, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloy being at least percent by weight and the essential elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of:

Copper 05 to 10 Zinc 0 5 to It) Manganese 0. I5 to 2 Magnesium 05 w 10 Nickel 0.51025 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0 01 lo 0.15 Vanadium (1.05 to 0.25 llrconium (105 [(111.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Lithium 0.2 to 3 Bismuth 04:110.? Lead 0 4 to (1.7 Cadmium 0 05 to 0.5

Beryllium 0.00I to 5.0 Silicon 0.25 to 15 Iron (1.3 In 2.0

the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than similarly age hardened alloys of similar composition which are free of said scandium.

31. Aged aluminum or aluminum alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum and with the remainder constituted, at least in part, by scandium in an amount greater than 0.01 percent and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths imparted thereto by aging at temperatures in the range of to 425 centigrade for at least one-fourth hour than metal of the same composition but not exposed to such temperatures.

32. Aged aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base metal, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium and having the basic alloy characteristics essentially imparted thereto by the presence in said aluminum base metal of at least one element selected from the group consisting of copper, zinc, beryllium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, iron and silicon in total amount up to 15 percent, the copper being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the zinc being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the beryllium being from about 0.001 to about 5 percent, the lithium being from about 0.2 to about 3 percent, the magnesium being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, and the manganese being from about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, the iron being from about 0.3 to about 2 percent and the silicon being from about 0.25 to about 15 percent, said aged aluminum base alloy being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum base alloys of the same composition but not including said amount ofscandium.

33. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloy containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged by exposure to temperatures of at least 100 C.

and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloy of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.

34. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloys containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged at a temperature within the range of about 100 to 425 centigrade and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.

35. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloys containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged for at least a one-fourth hour at a temperature within the range of about 100 100 to 425 centigrade and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.

Claims (34)

  1. 2. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of subjecting said scandium enriched metal to cold work prior to the aging thereof.
  2. 3. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of heating said scandium enriched metal at a temperature in the range of 450* to 650* centigrade substantially without incipient fusion prior to the aging thereof.
  3. 4. The method as set forth in claim 1 including the step of heating said scandium enriched metal for at least 15 minutes at a temperature in the range of 450* to 650* centigrade substantially without incipient fusion prior to the aging thereof.
  4. 5. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aluminum alloy comprises aluminum and at least one essential character forming element selected from the group consisting of copper in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; magnesium in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; zinc in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent; manganese in amouNt of about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent; beryllium in amount of about 0.001 to about 5.0 percent; lithium in amount of about 0.2 to 3.0 percent; iron in the amount of about 0.3 to about 2.0 percent and silicon in amount of about 0.25 to about 15 percent.
  5. 6. The method as set forth in claim 5 wherein said aluminum alloy further comprises at least one ancillary alloying element selected from the group consisting of nickel in amount of about 0.5 to about 2.5 percent; chromium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.4 percent; titanium in amount of about 0.01 to about 0.15 percent; vanadium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.25 percent; zirconium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.25 percent; boron in amount of about 0.0002 to about 0.04 percent; bismuth in amount of about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent; lead in amount of about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent and cadmium in amount of about 0.05 to about 0.5 percent.
  6. 7. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight.
  7. 8. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.
  8. 9. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said scandium is present in amounts of from about 0.1 to 0.8 percent by weight.
  9. 10. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is for at least one-fourth hour.
  10. 11. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is for from 1 to 50 hours in duration.
  11. 12. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said aging is effected in two stages with the temperature of the second stage being higher than that of the first of said two stages and with each of said two stages being of from one-fourth to 25 hours in duration.
  12. 13. The method of raising the recrystallization temperature of a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum and of aluminum alloy containing at least 85 percent of aluminum, said aluminum alloy containing at least 85 percent of aluminum, said aluminum having the basic characteristics essentially imparted by the presence in said aluminum of at least one of the elements selected from the group consisting of copper in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent, zinc in amount of about 0.5 to about 10 percent, magnesium in amount of 0.5 to about 10 percent, beryllium in amount of about 0.001 to about 5.0 percent, lithium in amount of about 0.2 to about 3.0 percent, manganese in amount of about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, iron in amount of about 0.3 to about 2 percent and silicon in amount of about 0.25 to about 15 percent, which method consists of alloying in said metal prior to working of an amount of scandium within the range of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of the total metal, and thereafter working said alloy.
  13. 14. The method of claim 13 characterized by the fact that the alloy also contains at least one element selected from the ancillary group consisting of the following elements in amounts within the indicated range of percent by weight of the total alloy: Nickel 0.5 to 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0.01 to 0.15 Vanadium 0.05 to 0.25 Zirconium 0.05 to 0.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7 Lead 0.4 to 0.7 Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5
  14. 15. In a method of improving the physical properties of metal sElected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof by adding an alloying element to said metal, the improvement consisting in alloying scandium with said metal in an amount of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100* to about 425* centigrade, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.
  15. 16. In a method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof, by adding an alloying element to said metal the improvement consisting in alloying scandium with said metal in an amount of about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100* to about 425* centigrade for at least one-fourth hour, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.
  16. 17. In the method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof by adding an alloying element to said metal, the improvement consisting in alloying at least 0.01 percent scandium with said metal and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100* to about 425* centigrade, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not subjected to said aging treatment.
  17. 18. In the method of improving the physical properties of metal selected from the class of aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum and of aluminum alloy wherein the total of said aluminum in said alloy constitutes at least 85 percent thereof by adding an alloying element to said metal, the improvement consisting in alloying at least 0.01 percent scandium with said metal and aging the resultant metal at a temperature within a range of about 100* to about 425* centigrade for periods of from one-fourth hour to 50 hours, said metal being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than metal of the same composition but not subjected to said aging treatment.
  18. 19. Aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base material, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of zinc, beryllium, lithium, magnesium, and manganese, in total amount up to 15 percent, the zinc being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the beryllium being from about 0.001 to about 5 percent, the lithium being from about 0.2 to about 3 percent, the magnesium being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, and the manganese being from about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, said aluminum base alloy having the basic alloy characteristics essentially imparted thereto by the presence in said aluminum base material of said selected elements and being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aluminum base alloys of the same composition but not including said amount of scandium.
  19. 20. The alloys of claim 19 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.
  20. 21. The alloys of claim 19 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 0.8 percent by weight.
  21. 22. Cold worked aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the group consisting of copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, beryllium, iron and silicon, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, vanadium, iron, zirconium, boron, silicon, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloy being at least 85 percent by weight and the character forming elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of: Copper 0.5 to 10 Zinc 0.5 to 10 Manganese 0.15 to 2 Magnesium 0.5 to 10 Nickel 0.5 to 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0.01 to 0.15 Vanadium 0.05 to 0.25 Zirconium 0.05 to 0.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Lithium 0.2 to 3.0 Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7 Lead 0.4 to 0.7 Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5 Beryllium 0.001 to 5.0 Silicon 0.25 to 15.0 Iron 0.3 to 2.0 the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than similarly cold worked alloys of similar composition which are free of said scandium.
  22. 23. The alloys of claim 22 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 1.5 percent by weight.
  23. 24. The alloys of claim 22 characterized by the fact that the scandium content thereof is in the range of about 0.1 to about 0.8 percent by weight.
  24. 25. Aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base metal, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium and at least one ancillary element selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, boron, lead, cadmium, lithium and bismuth, the chromium being from about 0.05 to about 0.4 percent, the nickel from about 0.5 to about 2.5 percent, the boron from about 0.0002 to 0.04 percent, the lead from about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent, the cadmium from about 0.05 to about 0.5 percent, the lithium from about 0.2 to about 3 percent and the bismuth from about 0.4 to about 0.7 percent.
  25. 26. Aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the group consisting of zinc, magnesium, manganese, and beryllium, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, boron, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloys being at least 85 percent by weight and the character forming elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of: Zinc 0.5 to 10Manganese 0.15 to 2Magnesium 0.5 to 10Nickel 0.5 to 2.5Chromium 0.05 to 0.4Boron 0.0002 to 0.04Lithium 0.2 to 3.0Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7Lead 0.4 to 0.7Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5Beryllium 0.001 to 5.0 the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than alloys of similar composition which are free of said scandium.
  26. 27. Aged aluminum or aluminum alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum and with the remainder constituted, at least in part, by scandium in an amount greater than 0.01 percent and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths imparted thereto by aging at temperatures in the range of 100* to 425* centigrade than metal of the same composition but not exposed to such temperatures.
  27. 28. The product of claim 27 further characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures than aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium after the same prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures.
  28. 29. The product of claim 27, further characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths after exposure at at least 149* C. for at least 1,000 hours than aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium after exposure at the same at least 149* C. for the same at least 1,000 hours.
  29. 30. Age hardened aluminum alloys containing about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium, said alloys deriving their basic characteristics from the presence therein of at least one element selected from the essential group consisting of copper, zinc, beryllium, magnesium, iron, silicon and manganese, said alloys also containing as additives at least one element selected from an ancillary group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, vanadium, zirconium, boron, iron, silicon, cadmium, lithium, bismuth and lead, the aluminum content inclusive of impurities of the alloy being at least 85 percent by weight and the essential elements and ancillary elements when selected and present forming a percent by weight portion within the approximate range of: Copper 0.5 to 10 Zinc 0.5 to 10 Manganese 0.15 to 2 Magnesium 0.5 to 10 Nickel 0.5 to 2.5 Chromium 0.05 to 0.4 Titanium 0.01 to 0.15 Vanadium 0.05 to 0.25 Zirconium 0.05 to 0.25 Boron 0.0002 to 0.04 Lithium 0.2 to 3 Bismuth 0.4 to 0.7Lead 0.4 to 0.7Cadmium 0.05 to 0.5 Beryllium 0.001 to 5.0 Silicon 0.25 to 15 Iron 0.3 to 2.0 the said alloys being further characterized by higher physical properties than similarly age hardened alloys of similar composition which are free of said scandium.
  30. 31. Aged aluminum or aluminum alloy containing at least about 85 peRcent aluminum and with the remainder constituted, at least in part, by scandium in an amount greater than 0.01 percent and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths imparted thereto by aging at temperatures in the range of 100* to 425* centigrade for at least one-fourth hour than metal of the same composition but not exposed to such temperatures.
  31. 32. Aged aluminum base alloy containing at least about 85 percent aluminum base metal, about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium and having the basic alloy characteristics essentially imparted thereto by the presence in said aluminum base metal of at least one element selected from the group consisting of copper, zinc, beryllium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, iron and silicon in total amount up to 15 percent, the copper being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the zinc being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, the beryllium being from about 0.001 to about 5 percent, the lithium being from about 0.2 to about 3 percent, the magnesium being from about 0.5 to about 10 percent, and the manganese being from about 0.15 to about 2.0 percent, the iron being from about 0.3 to about 2 percent and the silicon being from about 0.25 to about 15 percent, said aged aluminum base alloy being characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum base alloys of the same composition but not including said amount of scandium.
  32. 33. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloy containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged by exposure to temperatures of at least 100* C. and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloy of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.
  33. 34. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloys containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged at a temperature within the range of about 100* to 425* centigrade and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.
  34. 35. Aged aluminum and aluminum alloys containing from about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight of scandium which has been aged for at least a one-fourth hour at a temperature within the range of about 100* 100* to 425* centigrade and characterized by higher tensile and yield strengths than aged aluminum and aluminum alloys of the same composition but not containing said amount of scandium.
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