US3596703A - Method of preventing core shift in casting articles - Google Patents

Method of preventing core shift in casting articles Download PDF

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US3596703A
US3596703A US3596703DA US3596703A US 3596703 A US3596703 A US 3596703A US 3596703D A US3596703D A US 3596703DA US 3596703 A US3596703 A US 3596703A
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Prior art keywords
pattern
core
wires
casting
mold
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Expired - Lifetime
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Thomas H Bishop
Kenneth K Young Jr
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Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp
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Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C21/00Flasks; Accessories therefor
    • B22C21/12Accessories
    • B22C21/14Accessories for reinforcing or securing moulding materials or cores, e.g. gaggers, chaplets, pins, bars
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/02Sand moulds or like moulds for shaped castings
    • B22C9/04Use of lost patterns
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/10Cores; Manufacture or installation of cores
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49316Impeller making
    • Y10T29/49336Blade making
    • Y10T29/49337Composite blade

Abstract

Shell-type casting molds for producing hollow cast articles, the mold being built up by forming a low melting pattern about a ceramic core, inserting thin metal pins through the pattern and into engagement with the core, forming a shell mold about the resulting pattern so that the ends of the pins are anchored in the resulting shell mold, removing the meltable pattern, and casting the molten metal into the cavity thus produced whereby the molten metal dissolves the pins and no holes appear in the finished article.

Description

United States Patent Thomas H. B'shop Alliance;

Kenneth K. Young, Jr., Paris, both of, Ohio 764,208

Oct. 1, 1968 Aug. 3, 1971 TRW Inc.

Cleveland, Ohio lnventors App]. No. F ile'd Patented Assignee METHOD OF PREVENTING CORE SHIFT IN CASTING ARTICLES 4 Claims, 6 Drawing Figs.

US. Cl 164/132, 164/30, 164/137, 164/340, 164/399 Int. Cl. B22d 29/00 Fleld of Search 164/23, 24,

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,096,679 10/1937 Gibson 164/399 3,401,738 9/1968 Parille 164/399 X FOREIGN PATENTS 568,678 l/1959 Canada 164/25 470,283 1/1929 Germany 164/398 Primary Examiner.l. Spencer Overholser Assistant Examiner-John E. Roethel Attorney1-lill, Sherman, Meroni, Gross and Simpson ABSTRACT: Shell-type casting molds for producing hollow cast articles, the mold being built up by forming a low melting pattern about a ceramic core, inserting thin metal pins through the pattern and into engagement with the core, forming a shell mold about the resulting pattern so that the ends of the pins are anchored in the resulting shell mold, removing the meltable pattern, and casting the molten metal into the cavity thus produced whereby the molten metal dissolves the pins and no holes appear in the finished article.

METHOD OF PREVENTING CORE SI-IIFI IN CASTING ARTICLES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention is in the field of precision investment casting molds and, more specifically relates to a means for preventing core movement or shifting of a core in a shell mold, such means including a plurality of thin wire pins which are anchored in the shell mold and extend into engagement with the surface of the core, thereby spacing the core properly from the wall of the casting cavity.

2. Description of the Prior Art Modern investment casting procedures are frequently used to produce castings which have complex hollow interiors. Some of the best examples of such cast articles are turbine blades and vanes containing a hollow interior for the purpose of providing cooling to the blade or vane during use. In order to provide the hollow interior in the cast article, of course, it is necessary to use a core, usually ceramic in composition. A problem arises when there is even a slight movement or shift of the core in the mold which may occur during removal of the pattern material, during preheating of the mold prior to pouring the metal therein, or during pouring of the metal into the mold.

A prior practice which has attempted to solve this problem involved drilling holes in the wax pattern until the core was reached. Then, when the shell mold was formed about the pattern, the holes would be filled with the ceramic material of the shell mold making composition. After removal of the wax, the portions of the ceramic material which had found their way into the holes formed posts which remained to hold the core in place. However, when the metal was cast around these ceramic posts, holes were left in the casting wall. These holes then had to be plugged with metal or otherwise removed.

Another method which has been tried involves the use of chaplets consisting of two discs of metal connected by a cylinder. The pattern material such as wax was injected around the chaplet, with one head of the chaplet contacting the core and the other head pressing against the mold wall. The chaplet was held in place by the pressure exerted against the two heads. The disadvantage of this method is that a relatively large mass of metal in the chaplet prevents fusion with the poured metal.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a mold structure for producing hollow castings. The mold is built up by first forming a low melting pattern about a ceramic core, then inserting metal wires through the resulting pattern into engagement with the ceramic core while leaving exposed end portions on the wires. A ceramic shell mold is then formed about the combination of core, pattern and wires, thereby anchoring the exposed end portions of the wires in the completed shell mold. When the pattern material is melted out, the metal wires remain anchored in the shell mold and provide lateral support for the core. Next, the molten metal is cast into the casting cavity provided by the removal of the pattern, thereby causing the portions of the wires which extended through the casting cavity to be fused within the molten metal and disappear, so that no imperfections remain in the body of the finished casting.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a view in elevation of a pattern having a core therein;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line II-II of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2 but illustrating the manner in which the wire pins are positioned through the pattern and against the core;

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 but illustrating the complete assembly resulting after the shell mold has been formed around the core and pattern;

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 but illustrating the elements of the assembly alter the pattern material has been removed; and

FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 5 but showing the mold assembly after casting and solidification of the metal, but prior to the removal of the core.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In FIG. 1, reference numeral 10 indicates generally a relatively low melting pattern composed of wax, polystyrene or similar low melting pattern making material. The particular pattern shown in FIG. 1 is to be used for the manufacture of a turbine blade, the blade having an arcuate vane section 1 1, an upper shroud 12 and a relatively massive root portion 13. A gate forming portion 14 is also included on the pattern to provide the cavity through which molten metal may be introduced into the finished mold. While FIG. 1 is concerned, for purposes of simplicity, with a single pattern it should be recognized that the present invention can be used and usually will be used with clusters of patterns.

The pattern material has an internal core 15 composed of a ceramic material such as fused silica. Typically, the material of the pattern is injected about the ceramic core 15 in a conventional pattern making mold. The core 15 may be provided with upper and lower extensions 15a and 15b which serve to anchor the top and bottom of the core when the ceramic mold is formed about the core.

As illustrated in FIG. 3, a plurality of wire pins 16 is then positioned at selected locations along the length and breadth of the pattern, each of the pins 16 having an end portion 17 which passes through the pattern material and engages the surface of the ceramic core 15. In order to expedite insertion of the pin 16 through the pattern material, it is preferable to preheat the pin 16 slightly above the melting temperature of the wax or other pattern material so that only a minimum diameter hole is provided by the insertion of the pin 16 through the pattern material. In order to facilitate removal of the pin, it is desirable that the diameter of the pin 16 be kept very small, on the order of less than 0.050 inch, although this value can be increased for larger sizes of castings.

As also illustrated in FIG. 3, the opposed end portions 18 of the pin 16 extend beyond the pattern material by a matter of one-eighth or one-fourth inch or so to serve as anchoring means in the completed shell mold.

In order to avoid contamination of the melt with the metal of the pins I8 when they are fused therein, it is preferable that the pins be composed of the same metal as will be used for forming the ultimate casting.

As seen in FIG. 4, a shell mold 19 is then built up around the combination of the core 15, the pattern 10 and the pin 16.

There are a number of ways in which to build up a ceramic shell mold about a low melting pattern. Usually, the pattern assembly is dipped in a series of ceramic slurries, with intermediate drying, to form a mold which, after firing, provides a relatively gas permeable ceramic structure of one-eighth to one-fourth inch or so in thickness.

A particularly preferred method of building up the ceramic shell mold involves dipping the pattern in an aqueous ceramic slurry having a temperature about the same as that of the pattern material to form a refractory layer of a few mils in thickness. A typical slurry may contain ceramic material such as zirconium oxide, a binder such as colloidal silica and a thickener and low temperature binder such as methyl cellulose. The initial layer while still wet is then dusted with small particles (40 to 200 mesh) of a refractory glass composition such as that known as Vycor which is a finely divided, high silicon oxide glass containing about 96 percent silica and a small amount of boric acid, together with traces of aluminum, sodium, iron and arsenic. The pattern with the dusted wet refractory layer on it is then suspended on a conveyor and moved to a drying oven having a controlled humidity and temperature, thereby drying the coated pattern adiabatically.

The steps of dipping, dusting and adiabatic drying are then repeated using air at progressively lower humidities for succeeding coats. For example, the first two coats can be dried with air having a relative humidity of 45 to 55 percent. The third and fourth coats can then be dried with a relative 'humidity of 35 to 45 percent, the fifth and sixth coats with a relative humidity of 25 to 30 percent, and the final coat with a relative humidity of to 25 percent.

The first layer is preferably applied to a thickness of 0.005 to 0.020 inch, and the fine refractory particles are dusted onto the wet layer with sufficient force to embed the particles therein. it is preferred that the dusting procedure used provide a dense uniform cloud of fine particles that strike the wet coating with substantial impact force. The force should not be so great, however, as to break or knock off the wet prime layer from the pattern. This process is repeated until a plurality of integrated layers is obtained, the thickness of the layers being about 0.005 to 0.020 inch.

After the mold is built up on the pattern material, the pattern can be removed by heat, and then the green mold is ready for firing. Generally, firing temperatures on the order of 1,500 to l,900 F. are used. The resulting shell molds are hard, smooth and relatively penneable.

The condition of the assembly after melt out of the pattern and firing of the mold is illustrated in FIG. 5. it will be seen that the core 15 remains laterally supported within the casting cavity by virtue of the pins 16 which have become.

anchored in the ceramic shell mold.

FIG. 6 illustrates the assembly after the molten metal has been poured into the casting cavity 20 to provide a casting 21. The molten metal which is usually superheated by a matter of several hundred degrees above its liquidus temperature before pouring, causes the portions of the pins 16 which had previously extended into the casting cavity to become fused therein while the end portions 18 of the pins remain anchored in the walls of the shell mold l9.

After solidification of the metal, the shell mold 19 is broken off and the silica core 15 is removed as by dissolution in strong alkali solutions. The presence of the wires maintains the same distance between the core surface and the mold wall surface during wax removal, mold preheating, and during pouring of the metal into the mold. This prevents core movement and the resulting undersize wall thickness.

The process of the present invention was used to cast turbine blades from a nickel base superalloy. The pins employed were about 0.020 inch in diameter and extended for about one-eighth to one-fourth inch beyond the surface of the pattern. Consistently good results were obtained with respect to preventing core movement during the mold making and casting process as evidenced by the fact that the method was used on a two hundred piece production run and resulted in a better than 90 percent yield of good parts, whereas the same number of blades produced without the supporting wires yielded only about 10 percent good parts.

It should be evident that various modifications can be made to the described embodiments without departing from the scope of the present invention.

We claim as our invention:

1. The method of making a hollow casting which comprises fonning a low melting pattern about a ceramic core, inserting metal wires through the resulting pattern into engagement with said ceramic core while leaving exposed end portions on said wires, forming a ceramic shell mold about said pattern thereby anchoring said exposed end portions therein, melting out said pattern to leave said metal wires providing lateral support for said core, casting molten metal into the casting cavity provided by melting out said pattern to thereby melt out the portions of the wires extending through said casting cavity, and removing the ceramic core from the casting.

2. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are composed of the same metal as said molten metal. I

3. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are inserted through said pattern while hot.

4. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are less than about 0.050 inch in diameter.

Claims (4)

1. The method of making a hollow casting which comprises forming a low melting pattern about a ceramic core, inserting metal wires through the resulting pattern into engagement with said ceramic core while leaving exposed end portions on said wires, forming a ceramic shell mold about said pattern thereby anchoring said exposed end portions therein, melting out said pattern to leave said metal wires providing lateral support for said core, casting molten metal into the casting cavity provided by melting out said pattern to thereby melt out the portions of the wires extending through said casting cavity, and removing the ceramic core from the casting.
2. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are composed of the same metal as said molten metal.
3. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are inserted through said pattern while hot.
4. The method of claim 1 in which said wires are less than about 0.050 inch in diameter.
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Cited By (49)

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US3707152A (en) * 1971-01-18 1972-12-26 Ormco Corp Method of casting parts having dimensionally critical apertures
US3805874A (en) * 1971-03-15 1974-04-23 Saab Scania Ab Method for forming a canal when moulding a metal block
US3957104A (en) * 1974-02-27 1976-05-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The United States National Aeronautics And Space Administration Method of making an apertured casting
DE3312867A1 (en) * 1982-04-12 1983-11-17 Howmet Turbine Components A method and apparatus for producing a cast metal article
US4417381A (en) * 1981-04-14 1983-11-29 Rolls-Royce Limited Method of making gas turbine engine blades
US4422229A (en) * 1979-02-24 1983-12-27 Rolls-Royce Limited Method of making an airfoil member for a gas turbine engine
EP0105602A2 (en) * 1982-09-02 1984-04-18 PCC Airfoils, Inc. Mold core and method of forming internal passages in an airfoil
US4474224A (en) * 1981-08-12 1984-10-02 Rolls-Royce Limited Foundry machinery
US4617977A (en) * 1982-07-03 1986-10-21 Rolls-Royce Limited Ceramic casting mould and a method for its manufacture
US4811778A (en) * 1987-06-03 1989-03-14 Rolls-Royce Plc Method of manufacturing a metal article by the lost wax casting process
US4861546A (en) * 1987-12-23 1989-08-29 Precision Castparts Corp. Method of forming a metal article from powdered metal
US4940074A (en) * 1986-06-30 1990-07-10 United Technologies Corporation Core pinning machine
US4986333A (en) * 1988-01-13 1991-01-22 Rolls-Royce, Plc Method of supporting a core in a mold
US4987944A (en) * 1989-11-13 1991-01-29 Pcc Airfoils, Inc. Method of making a turbine engine component
US5241737A (en) * 1991-03-21 1993-09-07 Howmet Corporation Method of making a composite casting
US5241738A (en) * 1991-03-21 1993-09-07 Howmet Corporation Method of making a composite casting
US5296308A (en) * 1992-08-10 1994-03-22 Howmet Corporation Investment casting using core with integral wall thickness control means
US5505250A (en) * 1993-08-23 1996-04-09 Rolls-Royce Plc Investment casting
US5678298A (en) * 1991-03-21 1997-10-21 Howmet Corporation Method of making composite castings using reinforcement insert cladding
US5853044A (en) * 1996-04-24 1998-12-29 Pcc Airfoils, Inc. Method of casting an article
US5981083A (en) * 1993-01-08 1999-11-09 Howmet Corporation Method of making composite castings using reinforcement insert cladding
US6119761A (en) * 1996-08-09 2000-09-19 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for making a hollow cast article by the lost wax method
US6464462B2 (en) 1999-12-08 2002-10-15 General Electric Company Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control
US20040055736A1 (en) * 2002-08-08 2004-03-25 Doncasters Precision Castings-Bochum Gmbh Method of making turbine blades having cooling channels
US20040112564A1 (en) * 2002-12-17 2004-06-17 Devine Robert Henry Methods and apparatus for fabricating turbine engine airfoils
US20040123967A1 (en) * 2002-11-14 2004-07-01 Bhangu Jagnandan K. Investment moulding process and apparatus
US20040202542A1 (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-10-14 Cunha Frank J. Turbine element
US20060090871A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting cores and methods
US20060243413A1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2006-11-02 Jens-Peter Thiel Method for production of hollow bodies and grinding bodies so produced
US7172012B1 (en) * 2004-07-14 2007-02-06 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting
US20070175009A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2007-08-02 Snecma Method of manufacturing a turbomachine component that includes cooling air discharge orifices
WO2011103064A1 (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-08-25 Nuovo Pignone S.P.A. System and method for enhancing chaplet fusion
FR2978069A1 (en) * 2011-07-22 2013-01-25 Snecma Module, useful in a mold for molding a part of an aircraft turbomachine or part for manufacture of turbomachine, comprises a module body defining a portion of a molding surface and a supporting device comprising orifices and two assemblies
US8646511B2 (en) 2010-08-04 2014-02-11 Siemens Energy, Inc. Component with inspection-facilitating features
US20170051613A1 (en) * 2015-08-17 2017-02-23 United Technologies Corporation Cupped contour for gas turbine engine blade assembly
US9579714B1 (en) 2015-12-17 2017-02-28 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a lattice structure
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US9968991B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-05-15 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a lattice structure
US9987677B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-06-05 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a jacketed core
US10022790B2 (en) 2014-06-18 2018-07-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Turbine airfoil cooling system with leading edge impingement cooling system turbine blade investment casting using film hole protrusions for integral wall thickness control
US10046389B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-08-14 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a jacketed core
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US10118217B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-11-06 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a jacketed core
US10137499B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-11-27 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having an internal passage defined therein
US10150158B2 (en) 2015-12-17 2018-12-11 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components having internal passages using a jacketed core
US10286450B2 (en) 2016-04-27 2019-05-14 General Electric Company Method and assembly for forming components using a jacketed core
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Cited By (67)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3707152A (en) * 1971-01-18 1972-12-26 Ormco Corp Method of casting parts having dimensionally critical apertures
US3805874A (en) * 1971-03-15 1974-04-23 Saab Scania Ab Method for forming a canal when moulding a metal block
US3957104A (en) * 1974-02-27 1976-05-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The United States National Aeronautics And Space Administration Method of making an apertured casting
US4422229A (en) * 1979-02-24 1983-12-27 Rolls-Royce Limited Method of making an airfoil member for a gas turbine engine
US4417381A (en) * 1981-04-14 1983-11-29 Rolls-Royce Limited Method of making gas turbine engine blades
US4474224A (en) * 1981-08-12 1984-10-02 Rolls-Royce Limited Foundry machinery
DE3312867A1 (en) * 1982-04-12 1983-11-17 Howmet Turbine Components A method and apparatus for producing a cast metal article
US4487246A (en) * 1982-04-12 1984-12-11 Howmet Turbine Components Corporation System for locating cores in casting molds
US4617977A (en) * 1982-07-03 1986-10-21 Rolls-Royce Limited Ceramic casting mould and a method for its manufacture
EP0105602A2 (en) * 1982-09-02 1984-04-18 PCC Airfoils, Inc. Mold core and method of forming internal passages in an airfoil
EP0105602A3 (en) * 1982-09-02 1985-04-10 Trw Inc. Mold core and method of forming internal passages in an airfoil
US4596281A (en) * 1982-09-02 1986-06-24 Trw Inc. Mold core and method of forming internal passages in an airfoil
US4940074A (en) * 1986-06-30 1990-07-10 United Technologies Corporation Core pinning machine
US4811778A (en) * 1987-06-03 1989-03-14 Rolls-Royce Plc Method of manufacturing a metal article by the lost wax casting process
US4861546A (en) * 1987-12-23 1989-08-29 Precision Castparts Corp. Method of forming a metal article from powdered metal
US4986333A (en) * 1988-01-13 1991-01-22 Rolls-Royce, Plc Method of supporting a core in a mold
US4987944A (en) * 1989-11-13 1991-01-29 Pcc Airfoils, Inc. Method of making a turbine engine component
US5241737A (en) * 1991-03-21 1993-09-07 Howmet Corporation Method of making a composite casting
US5241738A (en) * 1991-03-21 1993-09-07 Howmet Corporation Method of making a composite casting
US5678298A (en) * 1991-03-21 1997-10-21 Howmet Corporation Method of making composite castings using reinforcement insert cladding
US5296308A (en) * 1992-08-10 1994-03-22 Howmet Corporation Investment casting using core with integral wall thickness control means
US5981083A (en) * 1993-01-08 1999-11-09 Howmet Corporation Method of making composite castings using reinforcement insert cladding
US5505250A (en) * 1993-08-23 1996-04-09 Rolls-Royce Plc Investment casting
US5853044A (en) * 1996-04-24 1998-12-29 Pcc Airfoils, Inc. Method of casting an article
US6119761A (en) * 1996-08-09 2000-09-19 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for making a hollow cast article by the lost wax method
US6464462B2 (en) 1999-12-08 2002-10-15 General Electric Company Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control
US6896036B2 (en) * 2002-08-08 2005-05-24 Doncasters Precision Castings-Bochum Gmbh Method of making turbine blades having cooling channels
US20040055736A1 (en) * 2002-08-08 2004-03-25 Doncasters Precision Castings-Bochum Gmbh Method of making turbine blades having cooling channels
US20040123967A1 (en) * 2002-11-14 2004-07-01 Bhangu Jagnandan K. Investment moulding process and apparatus
US7032642B2 (en) 2002-11-14 2006-04-25 Rolls-Royce Plc Investment moulding process and apparatus
US6915840B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2005-07-12 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for fabricating turbine engine airfoils
US20040112564A1 (en) * 2002-12-17 2004-06-17 Devine Robert Henry Methods and apparatus for fabricating turbine engine airfoils
US20060243413A1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2006-11-02 Jens-Peter Thiel Method for production of hollow bodies and grinding bodies so produced
US7316258B2 (en) * 2003-03-25 2008-01-08 Claudius Peters Technologies Gmbh Method for production of hollow bodies and grinding bodies so produced
US7014424B2 (en) * 2003-04-08 2006-03-21 United Technologies Corporation Turbine element
US20040202542A1 (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-10-14 Cunha Frank J. Turbine element
US7172012B1 (en) * 2004-07-14 2007-02-06 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting
US7134475B2 (en) 2004-10-29 2006-11-14 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting cores and methods
US20060090871A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-05-04 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting cores and methods
US20080169412A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2008-07-17 United Technologies Corporation Investment casting cores and methods
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US20070175009A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2007-08-02 Snecma Method of manufacturing a turbomachine component that includes cooling air discharge orifices
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SE354210B (en) 1973-03-05

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