New! View global litigation for patent families

US3593718A - Physiologically controlled cardiac pacer - Google Patents

Physiologically controlled cardiac pacer Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3593718A
US3593718A US3593718DA US3593718A US 3593718 A US3593718 A US 3593718A US 3593718D A US3593718D A US 3593718DA US 3593718 A US3593718 A US 3593718A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
output
source
frequency
pacer
heart
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Jerome L Krasner
Paul Nardella
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BIOCYBERNETICS Inc
Original Assignee
BIOCYBERNETICS Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/362Heart stimulators
    • A61N1/365Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential
    • A61N1/36514Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential controlled by a physiological quantity other than heart potential, e.g. blood pressure
    • A61N1/36521Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential controlled by a physiological quantity other than heart potential, e.g. blood pressure the parameter being derived from measurement of an electrical impedance
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/362Heart stimulators
    • A61N1/365Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential
    • A61N1/368Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential comprising more than one electrode co-operating with different heart regions

Abstract

A cardiac pacer is described which uses a physiological function such as breathing rate, to vary the production of electronic pulses which are fed to a constant current source connected to the ventricle. A constant source compensates for the fibrotic growths that often occur around the electrodes implanted in the heart. In another variation, the pulses are fed to two separate constant current sources, one connected to the atrium and the other, with delay, to the ventricle.

Description

United States Patent 1 swam 3,358,690 12/1967 Cohen Jerome L. Krasner Woburn;

Paul Nardella, Stougton, both of, Mass. 653,056

July 13, 1967 July 20, 197i Biocybernetics, Ilnc.

Walertown, Mass.

Inventors Appl. No. Filed Patented Assignee PHYSIOLOGICALLY CONTROLLED CARDIAC PACER 11 Claims, 5 Drawing Figs.

US. Cl 128/419 P Int. Cl A6ln 1/36 Field of Search 128/419- References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS lMPEDANC LTAGE 3,433,228 3/l969 Keller,Jr

OTHER REFERENCES Myers et 21]., AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ELECTRONICS ()ct.-Dec., 1964, pp. 233-236 (copy in 128/419 P) Primary Examiner william E Kamm Attorney-Joseph Zallen FREQUENCY FREQUENCY CONVERTER CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER /PULSE CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE r RATIE OSCILLATOR DELAY PAIENTEU JULBO m1 SHEET 2 OF 2 I50msec 60msec A-V DELAY [0 VENTRICLE CONSTANT CURRENT TO ATRIUM EONSTANT CURRENT [FIG 4 PHYSIOLOGICALLY CONTROLLED CARDIAC PACER BACKGROUND OF INVENTION One may enumerate cardiac pacer classes in many ways depending upon the context of the point the author is trying to make. For this reason we choose to categorize pacers into the following classes: p-wave synchronous pacers, RF pacers and inductive-coupled pacers.

P-wave synchronous pacers function by detecting and amplifying the electrocardiographic p-wave and stimulating the ventricles via a delay mechanism. In this manner, heart rate is accommodated to the variations of the SA node.

Radio frequency cardiac stimulation provides a method free of the discomforts and dangers of long term, externally applied cardiac stimulation. This technique consists of transmitting electrical energy to the heart through radio waves via a two megacycle frequency generator and a transmitter antenna coil to a small receiving coil. Heart rate is externally controlled by the patient.

The inductive coupled pacer consists of a pulse generator, attached by a flexible lead to an external primary coil that is strapped to the skin over the implanted secondary coil, the ends of which are the myocardial electrodes. The pulse in the primary coil produces a pulse in the secondary coil by simple electromagnetic induction. Heart rate is externally controlled by the patient.

Artificial pacers are not self-regulatory. They are therapeutically applied to patients with disturbances of the conducting system. The origin of the conduction block may be from congenital heart disease, congenital AV block, surgical, or acquired nonsurgical block. In the latter case, the conduction system may thus be interrupted in myocarditis, endocarditis, coronary ischemia, tumor, sclerosis of the cardiac skeleton, fatty infiltration, uremia, and hemochromatosis, After the application of the artificial pacer, drugs are given to cause complete AV block. Under the influence of such drugs atrial fibrillation may occur. This would be disastrous for a p-wave synchrony pacer (an amplifier failure would give the same result).

A second limitation of present cardiac pacers arises from their inability to insure atrioventricular synchrony. It is a consequence of the artificial pacer that the need for atrioventricular synchronization arises. The procedure of applying the pacer does not include the excision of the sinoauricular node, thereby creating two cardiac pacers: the auricular, i.e., the SA node; and the ventricular, i.e., the artificial pacer. There is no guarantee that these pacers will beat in proper synchronization with one another.

A third limitation is concerned with automatically adjusting the intensity of stimulation to compensate for growths of fibrotic tissue around the myocardial electrodes.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION We have found that if the pacer frequency is controlled by one of several interrelated physiological functions, the heart rate will be accommodated to the needs of the organism. Such interrelated functions can be described as follows:

a. Vasoconstriction, tachycardia, increase in respiratory minute volume and increase in skeletal muscle tone.

b. Vasodilation, bradycardia, decrease in respiratory minute volume and decrease in skeletal muscle tone.

In either group, when one reaction is stimulated, it is followed by the occurrence of the other three reactions. For example, when an individual changes from the lying to the standing position, the venous return is reduced and a drop in arterial pressure occurs. The organism compensates by vasoconstriction (in both, arteries and veins) and by an increase of the heart rate. This reaction is always accompanied by an increase in respiratory minute volume and an increase in skeletal muscle tone. The opposite happens when an individual changes from the standing to the lying position. The resulting increase in blood pressure is compensated for by Vasodilation,

and simultaneously by bradycardia, decrease in respiratory minute volume and decrease in skeletal muscle tone. Similar reactions are observed during muscular exercise: Vasocon striction, tachycardia, increase in muscular tone.

We have found it preferable to use respiration as the controlling factor and for this purpose employ an impedance pneumograph. The waveform is converted into DC voltage which in turn fires a DC/pulse rate oscillator. The pulses are fed to either one constant current source which is connected to an electrode implanted in the ventricle of the heart or to two constant current sources, one connected to an electrode implanted in the atrium of the heart and the other delay-connected to the ventricle so that the atrium pulse is always ahead of the ventricle pulse.

The novel features ofthis invention include the enslavement of the cardiac frequency to a different physiological parame ter, the stimulation of both the atrium and the ventricle, the use with such dual stimulation of a delay which varies in accordance with atrial frequency, the use of a constant current source for stimulating the heart, and the use of the combination of an impedance/voltage converter, frequency/DC converter and DC/pulse rate oscillator.

This invention is applicable to a pacer for a so-called artifcial heart as well as a natural heart. The term cardiac pacer as used in the appended claims is intended to include an artificial heart.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. I is a schematic block diagram illustrating the invention.

FIG. 2 is a graph of normal heart rate as a function of respiration rate.

FIG. 3 is a graph of heart rate as a function of atrioventricular delay.

FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of one example of this invention.

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram ofa constant current source.

SPECIFIC EXAMPLE OF INVENTION As illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 4, electrodes are placed on the chest and connected to an impedance/voltage converter 11. Examples of impedance/voltage converters are described in the book by .I. J. Nybor, Electrical Impedance Plethysmog raphy," the article, Quantitative Evaluation of the Impedance Spirometry in Man," by Baker, Geddes, and Hoff in American Journal of Medical Electronics," April-June 1965, pp. 73-77, and the article, The Measurement of Physiological Events by Impedance Change," by Geddes and Hoff in Proceedings of the San Diego Symposium for Biomedical Engineering," 1963, pp. l15l22. The output wave is then fed to a frequency/DC converter 112 to yield a DC voltage response to frequency. An example of a frequency/DC converter is described on pages 660-662 of the book, Electronic and Radio Engineering," by F. E. Terman, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, 1955. This DC voltage is then fed to a DC/pulse rate oscillator 13. An example ofa DC/pulse rate oscillator is described in the article, A Two-Transistor Analog to Frequency Converter," by .l. L. Krasner, Electronic Design," Nov., I964, and also in block 1130f the circuit illustrated in FIG. 4 in the drawings. The frequency of pulses produced by oscillator 13 is dependent on the input DC voltage. The pulses are used in two ways with a constant current source to send impulses to the heart.

In one method illustrated by the dotted line in FIG. ll, the pulses are fed to a constant current source 17 to send impulses to an electrode implanted in the ventricle of the heart. An example of such a constant current source is illustrated in FIG. 5. In the other arrangement, delineated by the solid lines of FIG. I, the pulses are fed to two branches, one being a constant current source 14 whose impulses are sent to an electrode imbedded in the atrium of the heart. The other branch consists of a variable delay 115 before permitting the pulses to feed the constant current source 16 whose output is connected to an electrode imbedded in the ventricle of the heart. This latter arrangement provides atrioventricular synchronization. Pulse shape is controlled by block 18 as shown in FIG. 4. As shown in FIG. 3, the required delay for proper synchronization varies according to the heart rate. The atrial rate may exceed but never be less than the ventricular rate. However, the atria, when not fibrillating, must be in phase with the ventricles according to the graph of atrioventricular delay versus heart rate shown in FIG. 3.

Synchrony is obtained by designing the artificial pacer to set a pace slightly in excess of that pace the normal SA node would set. in this manner, the pacer artificially takes over the regulation of the atrium, i.e. increases the slope of the curve shown in FIG. 2. The ventricles are stimulated by a variable delay mechanism (consistent with FIG. 3) which operates by changing the temporal relation between two pulse generators, regulated by the same physiological parameters, as a function of their frequencies. (See block in FIG. 4) ln the case of atrial fibrillation, artificial atrial control is biologically overridden. Also, the atrial rate can never be less than the ventricular rate.

We have determined that there is no apparent difference between normal heart rate and pulse frequency response when the subject lies, sits, or stands, or does light muscular exercise. There is, however, significant difference between heart rate and pacer frequency response during hyperpnoea, and heavy muscular exercise, as well as during application of pressure on the carotid sinuses (carotid sinus reflex). Accordingly, the pacer is so designed that its frequency output can not be slowed below a selected output, as for example 60 pulses per minute, or increased above a selected maximum, as for example 160 pulses per minute. For this purpose a relaxation oscillator can be used whose frequency increases as a linear function of voltage. Thus, if only positive or ground signals are applied, the pacer will not fire at less than the relaxation frequency. The result is that extreme bradycardia is avoided.

The term pacer" is used in the title, abstract, specification and claims as the full equivalent of the generic term pacemaker to indicate a device for stimulating the heart with an alternating current to steady the heart or to reestablish the rhythm of an arrested heart, as defined in Websters Third New International Dictionary (Unabridged Copyright 1966). The term Pacemaker" is a registered trademark for one form of such device.

We claim:

1. The combination ofa first means responsive to a separate but normally heart-related physiological function and a cardiac pacer, said means controlling the output frequency of said pacer and comprising in series an impedance/voltage converter, a frequency/DC converter, and a DC/pulse rate oscillalOf.

2. Claim 1 wherein said function is respiration.

3. Claim 1 wherein a constant current source connects said oscillator to said pacer.

4. Claim 1 wherein said pacer includes a first constant current source whose output is adapted for connection to the atrium, a second constant current source whose output is adapted for connection to the ventricle, and a second means for delaying the output of the second source with respect to the output of said first source.

5. Claim 4, wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.

6. Claim 1 wherein said pacer comprises a first output adapted for connection to the atrium, a second output adapted for connection to the ventricle, and a second means for delaying the second output with respect to the first output.

7. Claim 6 wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.

8. Claim 1 wherein said combination comprises an impedance/voltage converter, the output of which is fed to a frequency/DC converter, whose output voltage is fed to a DC/pulsc rate oscillator, which branches into two constant current sources; the output of one said source being adapted for connection to the atrium, the output of the second said source being adapted for connection to the ventricle; second means being provided for delaying the output of said second source with respect to the output of said first source.

9. Claim 8 wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.

10. A cardiac pacer which includes two constant current sources, one whose output is adapted for connection to the atrium and a second whose output is adapted for connection to the ventricle; means being provided for delaying the output of said second source with respect to the output of said first source.

11. Claim 10, wherein said means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.

Claims (11)

1. The combination of a first means responsive to a separate but normally heart-related physiological function and a cardiac pacer, said means controlling the output frequency of said pacer and Comprising in series an impedance/voltage converter, a frequency/DC converter, and a DC/pulse rate oscillator.
2. Claim 1 wherein said function is respiration.
3. Claim 1 wherein a constant current source connects said oscillator to said pacer.
4. Claim 1 wherein said pacer includes a first constant current source whose output is adapted for connection to the atrium, a second constant current source whose output is adapted for connection to the ventricle, and a second means for delaying the output of the second source with respect to the output of said first source.
5. Claim 4, wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.
6. Claim 1 wherein said pacer comprises a first output adapted for connection to the atrium, a second output adapted for connection to the ventricle, and a second means for delaying the second output with respect to the first output.
7. Claim 6 wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.
8. Claim 1 wherein said combination comprises an impedance/voltage converter, the output of which is fed to a frequency/DC converter, whose output voltage is fed to a DC/pulse rate oscillator, which branches into two constant current sources; the output of one said source being adapted for connection to the atrium, the output of the second said source being adapted for connection to the ventricle; second means being provided for delaying the output of said second source with respect to the output of said first source.
9. Claim 8 wherein said second means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.
10. A cardiac pacer which includes two constant current sources, one whose output is adapted for connection to the atrium and a second whose output is adapted for connection to the ventricle; means being provided for delaying the output of said second source with respect to the output of said first source.
11. Claim 10, wherein said means provides a delay which is a function of artificially stimulated atrial frequency.
US3593718A 1967-07-13 1967-07-13 Physiologically controlled cardiac pacer Expired - Lifetime US3593718A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US65305667 true 1967-07-13 1967-07-13

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3593718A true US3593718A (en) 1971-07-20

Family

ID=24619321

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3593718A Expired - Lifetime US3593718A (en) 1967-07-13 1967-07-13 Physiologically controlled cardiac pacer

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3593718A (en)

Cited By (122)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3709229A (en) * 1969-03-26 1973-01-09 American Optical Corp Free-running atrial and demand ventricular pacer
US3716059A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-02-13 Cardiac Resuscitator Corp Cardiac resuscitator
DE2252312A1 (en) * 1971-11-19 1973-05-30 American Optical Corp Pacemaker with demand adjustment
US3746005A (en) * 1968-04-11 1973-07-17 American Optical Corp Constant energy heartbeat stimulating apparatus with pulse width control
FR2162392A1 (en) * 1971-12-06 1973-07-20 American Optical Corp
US3747604A (en) * 1969-12-15 1973-07-24 American Optical Corp Atrial and ventricular demand pacer with separate atrial and ventricular beat detectors
US3773051A (en) * 1972-03-01 1973-11-20 Research Corp Method and apparatus for stimulation of body tissue
US3794045A (en) * 1971-12-06 1974-02-26 American Optical Corp Passive hysteresis circuit demand pacer
US3845773A (en) * 1972-07-07 1974-11-05 Ass Rech Et D Entraide Cardiol Cardiac stimulators
US3882851A (en) * 1971-10-20 1975-05-13 Systron Donner Corp Impedance plethysmograph
DE2613463A1 (en) * 1975-04-24 1976-11-04 Pacer Snc Pacemaker
US4088138A (en) * 1974-01-02 1978-05-09 Cardiac Resuscitator Corp. Cardiac resuscitator and monitoring apparatus
DE2809091A1 (en) * 1977-03-03 1978-09-07 Bozal Gonzalez Jose L Pacemaker
US4114627A (en) * 1976-12-14 1978-09-19 American Hospital Supply Corporation Cardiac pacer system and method with capture verification signal
US4140132A (en) * 1978-03-23 1979-02-20 Dahl Joseph D Variable rate timer for a cardiac pacemaker
US4144891A (en) * 1977-04-20 1979-03-20 Medtronic, Inc. Heart stimulator lead set
US4165750A (en) * 1978-03-18 1979-08-28 Aleev Leonid S Bioelectrically controlled electric stimulator of human muscles
US4202339A (en) * 1977-04-21 1980-05-13 Alexander Wirtzfeld Cardiac pacemaker
US4228803A (en) * 1978-06-23 1980-10-21 Credit Du Nord International N.V. Physiologically adaptive cardiac pacemaker
USRE30750E (en) * 1972-05-15 1981-09-29 Cardiac Resuscitator Corporation Cardiac resuscitator and monitoring apparatus
US4305396A (en) * 1979-04-16 1981-12-15 Vitatron Medical B.V. Rate adaptive pacemaker and method of cardiac pacing
US4397316A (en) * 1979-03-30 1983-08-09 Medtronic, Inc. Rate and A-V delay generator for heart pacemaker
EP0089014A2 (en) * 1982-03-16 1983-09-21 Gianni Plicchi Physiological implantable cardiac pacemaker in which the stimulation rate is regulated by the respiration rate of the patient
EP0096464A1 (en) * 1982-05-19 1983-12-21 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responsive cardiac pacemaker
US4527568A (en) * 1983-12-27 1985-07-09 Vitafin N.V. Dual chamber pacer with alternative rate adaptive means and method
EP0151689A2 (en) * 1984-02-07 1985-08-21 SCHIAPPARELLI MEDTRONIC S.p.A. Minute ventilation dependent rate responsive pacer
US4543954A (en) * 1982-05-19 1985-10-01 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responsive cardiac pacemaker
US4543955A (en) * 1983-08-01 1985-10-01 Cordis Corporation System for controlling body implantable action device
US4545380A (en) * 1984-04-16 1985-10-08 Cordis Corporation Method and apparatus for setting and changing parameters or functions of an implanted device
WO1986000234A1 (en) * 1984-06-21 1986-01-16 Medtronic, Inc. Process and apparatus for diaphragmic stimulation
US4566456A (en) * 1984-10-18 1986-01-28 Cordis Corporation Apparatus and method for adjusting heart/pacer rate relative to right ventricular systolic pressure to obtain a required cardiac output
DE3428975A1 (en) * 1984-08-06 1986-02-13 Michael S Lampadius Breathing-controlled pacemaker
US4576183A (en) * 1983-09-21 1986-03-18 Gianni Plicchi Electronic circuit for monitoring respiratory parameter for controlling operation of implantable medical device
EP0218007A1 (en) * 1985-10-04 1987-04-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heart pace maker
US4697591A (en) * 1986-06-16 1987-10-06 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart and pacing method
US4702253A (en) * 1985-10-15 1987-10-27 Telectronics N.V. Metabolic-demand pacemaker and method of using the same to determine minute volume
US4712555A (en) * 1984-10-19 1987-12-15 Siemens-Elema Ab Physiologically responsive pacemaker and method of adjusting the pacing interval thereof
EP0249824A1 (en) 1986-06-16 1987-12-23 Pacesetter AB A cardiac pacer for pacing a heart
EP0249819A1 (en) 1986-06-16 1987-12-23 Pacesetter AB Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart
US4726383A (en) * 1982-05-19 1988-02-23 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise-responsive cardiac pacemaker lead
US4730389A (en) * 1986-08-15 1988-03-15 Medtronic, Inc. Method for fabrication of an implantable hermetic transparent container
US4757815A (en) * 1985-12-20 1988-07-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heart pacemaker
US4771780A (en) * 1987-01-15 1988-09-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Rate-responsive pacemaker having digital motion sensor
US4791935A (en) * 1986-08-15 1988-12-20 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4791931A (en) * 1987-08-13 1988-12-20 Pacesetter Infusion, Ltd. Demand pacemaker using an artificial baroreceptor reflex
US4807629A (en) * 1986-08-15 1989-02-28 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4813421A (en) * 1986-08-15 1989-03-21 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4858611A (en) * 1987-06-03 1989-08-22 Dimed, Inc. Sensing system and method for sensing minute ventilation
US4860751A (en) * 1985-02-04 1989-08-29 Cordis Corporation Activity sensor for pacemaker control
US4884576A (en) * 1987-09-28 1989-12-05 Eckhard Alt Self adjusting rate responsive cardiac pacemaker and method
US4903701A (en) * 1987-06-05 1990-02-27 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4907593A (en) * 1987-05-21 1990-03-13 Biocontrol Technology, Inc. Adaptation of heart pacing to physical activity
US4940053A (en) * 1989-01-25 1990-07-10 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Energy controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatically adjustable control parameters
DE3914680A1 (en) * 1989-05-03 1990-11-08 Alt Eckhard Pacemaker
US5010893A (en) * 1987-01-15 1991-04-30 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Motion sensor for implanted medical device
US5036849A (en) * 1990-04-04 1991-08-06 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Variable rate cardiac pacer
US5040535A (en) * 1989-01-25 1991-08-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Average amplitude controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatically adjustable control parameters
US5040534A (en) * 1989-01-25 1991-08-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Microprocessor controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatic rate response threshold adjustment
US5081988A (en) * 1982-05-19 1992-01-21 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responive cardiac pacemaker
US5137019A (en) * 1990-03-08 1992-08-11 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Variation in cardiac chamber volume or pressure as a controlling parameter
US5164898A (en) * 1988-06-10 1992-11-17 Ricoh Company, Ltd. System for determining hazardous substance exposure rate from concentration measurement and heart rate data
US5235976A (en) * 1991-12-13 1993-08-17 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatus for managing and monitoring cardiac rhythm using active time as the controlling parameter
US5282840A (en) * 1992-03-26 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple frequency impedance measurement system
US5284136A (en) * 1990-04-04 1994-02-08 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Dual indifferent electrode pacemaker
WO1994008657A1 (en) * 1992-10-20 1994-04-28 Noel Desmond Gray A heart pacemaker
US5330510A (en) * 1991-12-31 1994-07-19 Ela Medical Pacemaker with patient effort-controlled frequency
WO1995016484A1 (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-06-22 Temple University - Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Process and apparatus for controlling helium/oxygen
US5480441A (en) * 1994-03-30 1996-01-02 Medtronic, Inc. Rate-responsive heart pacemaker
US5522860A (en) * 1993-12-31 1996-06-04 Ela Medical S.A. Control of an active implantable medical device
WO1996036395A1 (en) * 1995-05-19 1996-11-21 Medtronic, Inc. Respiratory muscle electromyographic rate responsive pacemaker
US5800470A (en) * 1994-01-07 1998-09-01 Medtronic, Inc. Respiratory muscle electromyographic rate responsive pacemaker
US5919210A (en) * 1997-04-10 1999-07-06 Pharmatarget, Inc. Device and method for detection and treatment of syncope
US5935153A (en) * 1996-11-21 1999-08-10 Ela Medical S.A. Active implantable medical device enslaved to a signal of acceleration
US5954757A (en) * 1991-05-17 1999-09-21 Gray; Noel Desmond Heart pacemaker
US6044300A (en) * 1991-05-17 2000-03-28 Gray; Noel Desmond Heart pacemaker
EP1078650A1 (en) 1999-08-20 2001-02-28 BIOTRONIK Mess- und Therapiegeräte GmbH & Co Ingenieurbüro Berlin Rate adaptive pacemaker
US6405738B1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2002-06-18 Ultrafryer Systems, Inc. Spray cleaning apparatus for deep fryer
US20020165586A1 (en) * 2000-10-26 2002-11-07 Medtronic, Inc. Closed-loop neuromodulation for prevention and treatment of cardiac conditions
US20030114889A1 (en) * 2000-07-14 2003-06-19 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatuses for monitoring hemodynamic activities using an intracardiac impedance-derived parameter
US20040215263A1 (en) * 2003-04-23 2004-10-28 Nathalie Virag Detection of vasovagal syncope
US20040260348A1 (en) * 2003-06-19 2004-12-23 Bakken Earl E. Method and apparatus for temporarily varying a parameter in an implantable medical device
US20050004610A1 (en) * 2003-07-02 2005-01-06 Jaeho Kim Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US20050096704A1 (en) * 2003-10-29 2005-05-05 Scott Freeberg Cross-checking of transthoracic impedence and acceleration signals
US6952610B2 (en) * 2000-09-18 2005-10-04 Cameron Health, Inc. Current waveforms for anti-tachycardia pacing for a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter- defibrillator
US20050275494A1 (en) * 2004-05-25 2005-12-15 Morteza Gharib In-line actuator for electromagnetic operation
US7092757B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2006-08-15 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Minute ventilation sensor with dynamically adjusted excitation current
US7101339B2 (en) 2002-12-13 2006-09-05 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Respiration signal measurement apparatus, systems, and methods
US20080177350A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2008-07-24 Cvrx, Inc. Expandable Stimulation Electrode with Integrated Pressure Sensor and Methods Related Thereto
US20090275854A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Zielinski Todd M System and method of monitoring physiologic parameters based on complex impedance waveform morphology
US20090276022A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Medtronic , Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090275855A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Zielinski Todd M Multi-frequency impedance monitoring system
US7628757B1 (en) 2005-05-25 2009-12-08 Pacesetter, Inc. System and method for impedance-based detection of pulmonary edema and reduced respiration using an implantable medical system
US20100114208A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114224A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114205A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction housing for an implantable therapy system
US20100114202A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114198A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114217A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Therapy system including cardiac rhythm therapy and neurostimulation capabilities
US20100114199A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114201A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114197A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114200A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114211A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction techniques for an implantable therapy system
US20100113958A1 (en) * 2008-11-06 2010-05-06 Cyrille Casset Active Implantable Medical Device Integrating Spirometric Means for Diagnosing Lung Diseases
US20100138340A1 (en) * 2002-09-19 2010-06-03 John Earl Shirey System and apparatus for transaction fraud processing
US7813812B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2010-10-12 Cvrx, Inc. Baroreflex stimulator with integrated pressure sensor
US7840271B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2010-11-23 Cvrx, Inc. Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
US7949400B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2011-05-24 Cvrx, Inc. Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control via coupled electrodes
US8209011B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2012-06-26 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Automatically configurable minute ventilation sensor
US8452394B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-05-28 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8498698B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-07-30 Medtronic, Inc. Isolation of sensing and stimulation circuitry
US8560060B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-10-15 Medtronic, Inc. Isolation of sensing and stimulation circuitry
US8606359B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2013-12-10 Cvrx, Inc. System and method for sustained baroreflex stimulation
US8688210B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2014-04-01 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8706217B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-04-22 Cameron Health Cardioverter-defibrillator having a focused shocking area and orientation thereof
US8718760B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-05-06 Cameron Health Inc. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement methods
US8750989B2 (en) 2001-11-21 2014-06-10 Cameron Health, Inc. Apparatus and method for identifying atrial arrhythmia by far-field sensing
US8831720B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-09-09 Cameron Health, Inc. Method of implanting and using a subcutaneous defibrillator
US20140299159A1 (en) * 2011-10-18 2014-10-09 Peter Helm Cooking appliance with a pan and a method for cleaning the pan
US9125655B2 (en) 2010-07-16 2015-09-08 California Institute Of Technology Correction and optimization of wave reflection in blood vessels
US9144683B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2015-09-29 Cameron Health, Inc. Post-shock treatment in a subcutaneous device
US9656009B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2017-05-23 California Institute Of Technology Cardiac assist system using helical arrangement of contractile bands and helically-twisting cardiac assist device

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3358690A (en) * 1964-11-18 1967-12-19 Marvin M Cohen Heart stimulator utilizing a pressuresensitive semiconductor
US3433228A (en) * 1966-05-06 1969-03-18 Cordis Corp Multimode cardiac pacer

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3358690A (en) * 1964-11-18 1967-12-19 Marvin M Cohen Heart stimulator utilizing a pressuresensitive semiconductor
US3433228A (en) * 1966-05-06 1969-03-18 Cordis Corp Multimode cardiac pacer

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Myers et al., AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ELECTRONICS Oct.-Dec., 1964, pp. 233 236 (copy in 128/419 P) *

Cited By (197)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3746005A (en) * 1968-04-11 1973-07-17 American Optical Corp Constant energy heartbeat stimulating apparatus with pulse width control
US3709229A (en) * 1969-03-26 1973-01-09 American Optical Corp Free-running atrial and demand ventricular pacer
US3747604A (en) * 1969-12-15 1973-07-24 American Optical Corp Atrial and ventricular demand pacer with separate atrial and ventricular beat detectors
US3716059A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-02-13 Cardiac Resuscitator Corp Cardiac resuscitator
US3882851A (en) * 1971-10-20 1975-05-13 Systron Donner Corp Impedance plethysmograph
DE2252312A1 (en) * 1971-11-19 1973-05-30 American Optical Corp Pacemaker with demand adjustment
US3807410A (en) * 1971-11-19 1974-04-30 American Optical Corp Adaptive demand pacer
FR2162392A1 (en) * 1971-12-06 1973-07-20 American Optical Corp
US3783878A (en) * 1971-12-06 1974-01-08 American Optical Corp Atrial and ventricular pacer having independent rate and av delay controls
US3794045A (en) * 1971-12-06 1974-02-26 American Optical Corp Passive hysteresis circuit demand pacer
US3773051A (en) * 1972-03-01 1973-11-20 Research Corp Method and apparatus for stimulation of body tissue
USRE30750E (en) * 1972-05-15 1981-09-29 Cardiac Resuscitator Corporation Cardiac resuscitator and monitoring apparatus
US3845773A (en) * 1972-07-07 1974-11-05 Ass Rech Et D Entraide Cardiol Cardiac stimulators
US4088138A (en) * 1974-01-02 1978-05-09 Cardiac Resuscitator Corp. Cardiac resuscitator and monitoring apparatus
FR2308352A1 (en) * 1975-04-24 1976-11-19 Pacer Snc De Cerchiai Vanna Et perfects artificial pacemaker
DE2613463A1 (en) * 1975-04-24 1976-11-04 Pacer Snc Pacemaker
US4009721A (en) * 1975-04-24 1977-03-01 Pacer S.N.C. Of Cerchiai Vanna & C. Artificial pacemaker
US4114627A (en) * 1976-12-14 1978-09-19 American Hospital Supply Corporation Cardiac pacer system and method with capture verification signal
DE2809091A1 (en) * 1977-03-03 1978-09-07 Bozal Gonzalez Jose L Pacemaker
US4201219A (en) * 1977-03-03 1980-05-06 Bozal Gonzalez Jose L Cardiac pace-maker
US4144891A (en) * 1977-04-20 1979-03-20 Medtronic, Inc. Heart stimulator lead set
US4202339A (en) * 1977-04-21 1980-05-13 Alexander Wirtzfeld Cardiac pacemaker
US4165750A (en) * 1978-03-18 1979-08-28 Aleev Leonid S Bioelectrically controlled electric stimulator of human muscles
US4140132A (en) * 1978-03-23 1979-02-20 Dahl Joseph D Variable rate timer for a cardiac pacemaker
US4228803A (en) * 1978-06-23 1980-10-21 Credit Du Nord International N.V. Physiologically adaptive cardiac pacemaker
US4397316A (en) * 1979-03-30 1983-08-09 Medtronic, Inc. Rate and A-V delay generator for heart pacemaker
US4305396A (en) * 1979-04-16 1981-12-15 Vitatron Medical B.V. Rate adaptive pacemaker and method of cardiac pacing
US4567892A (en) * 1982-03-16 1986-02-04 Gianni Plicchi Implantable cardiac pacemaker
EP0089014A2 (en) * 1982-03-16 1983-09-21 Gianni Plicchi Physiological implantable cardiac pacemaker in which the stimulation rate is regulated by the respiration rate of the patient
EP0089014A3 (en) * 1982-03-16 1984-12-05 Gianni Plicchi Physiological implantable cardiac pacemaker in which the stimulation rate is regulated by the respiration rate of the patient
US4726383A (en) * 1982-05-19 1988-02-23 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise-responsive cardiac pacemaker lead
US5081988A (en) * 1982-05-19 1992-01-21 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responive cardiac pacemaker
US4543954A (en) * 1982-05-19 1985-10-01 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responsive cardiac pacemaker
EP0096464A1 (en) * 1982-05-19 1983-12-21 Purdue Research Foundation Exercise responsive cardiac pacemaker
US4543955A (en) * 1983-08-01 1985-10-01 Cordis Corporation System for controlling body implantable action device
US4576183A (en) * 1983-09-21 1986-03-18 Gianni Plicchi Electronic circuit for monitoring respiratory parameter for controlling operation of implantable medical device
US4527568A (en) * 1983-12-27 1985-07-09 Vitafin N.V. Dual chamber pacer with alternative rate adaptive means and method
EP0147820A3 (en) * 1983-12-27 1988-06-08 Vitafin N.V. Dual chamber pacer with alternative rate adaptive means and method
EP0147820A2 (en) * 1983-12-27 1985-07-10 Vitatron Medical B.V. Dual chamber pacer with alternative rate adaptive means
EP0151689A3 (en) * 1984-02-07 1987-06-16 Gianni Plicchi Minute ventilation dependent rate responsive pacer
EP0151689A2 (en) * 1984-02-07 1985-08-21 SCHIAPPARELLI MEDTRONIC S.p.A. Minute ventilation dependent rate responsive pacer
US4596251A (en) * 1984-02-07 1986-06-24 Gianni Plicchi Minute ventilation dependent rate responsive pacer
US4545380A (en) * 1984-04-16 1985-10-08 Cordis Corporation Method and apparatus for setting and changing parameters or functions of an implanted device
WO1986000234A1 (en) * 1984-06-21 1986-01-16 Medtronic, Inc. Process and apparatus for diaphragmic stimulation
DE3428975A1 (en) * 1984-08-06 1986-02-13 Michael S Lampadius Breathing-controlled pacemaker
US4721110A (en) * 1984-08-06 1988-01-26 Lampadius Michael S Respiration-controlled cardiac pacemaker
US4566456A (en) * 1984-10-18 1986-01-28 Cordis Corporation Apparatus and method for adjusting heart/pacer rate relative to right ventricular systolic pressure to obtain a required cardiac output
US4712555A (en) * 1984-10-19 1987-12-15 Siemens-Elema Ab Physiologically responsive pacemaker and method of adjusting the pacing interval thereof
US4860751A (en) * 1985-02-04 1989-08-29 Cordis Corporation Activity sensor for pacemaker control
US4694830A (en) * 1985-10-04 1987-09-22 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heart pacemaker with respiratory signal generation capability
EP0218007A1 (en) * 1985-10-04 1987-04-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heart pace maker
US4702253A (en) * 1985-10-15 1987-10-27 Telectronics N.V. Metabolic-demand pacemaker and method of using the same to determine minute volume
US4757815A (en) * 1985-12-20 1988-07-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heart pacemaker
US4730618A (en) * 1986-06-16 1988-03-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart and pacing method
US4790318A (en) * 1986-06-16 1988-12-13 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart
EP0249824A1 (en) 1986-06-16 1987-12-23 Pacesetter AB A cardiac pacer for pacing a heart
US4697591A (en) * 1986-06-16 1987-10-06 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart and pacing method
EP0249819A1 (en) 1986-06-16 1987-12-23 Pacesetter AB Cardiac pacer for pacing a human heart
US4807629A (en) * 1986-08-15 1989-02-28 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4813421A (en) * 1986-08-15 1989-03-21 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4791935A (en) * 1986-08-15 1988-12-20 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4730389A (en) * 1986-08-15 1988-03-15 Medtronic, Inc. Method for fabrication of an implantable hermetic transparent container
US4771780A (en) * 1987-01-15 1988-09-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Rate-responsive pacemaker having digital motion sensor
US5010893A (en) * 1987-01-15 1991-04-30 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Motion sensor for implanted medical device
US4907593A (en) * 1987-05-21 1990-03-13 Biocontrol Technology, Inc. Adaptation of heart pacing to physical activity
US4858611A (en) * 1987-06-03 1989-08-22 Dimed, Inc. Sensing system and method for sensing minute ventilation
US4903701A (en) * 1987-06-05 1990-02-27 Medtronic, Inc. Oxygen sensing pacemaker
US4791931A (en) * 1987-08-13 1988-12-20 Pacesetter Infusion, Ltd. Demand pacemaker using an artificial baroreceptor reflex
US5003976A (en) * 1987-09-28 1991-04-02 Eckhard Alt Cardiac and pulmonary physiological analysis via intracardiac measurements with a single sensor
US4884576A (en) * 1987-09-28 1989-12-05 Eckhard Alt Self adjusting rate responsive cardiac pacemaker and method
US4919136A (en) * 1987-09-28 1990-04-24 Eckhard Alt Ventilation controlled rate responsive cardiac pacemaker
US5164898A (en) * 1988-06-10 1992-11-17 Ricoh Company, Ltd. System for determining hazardous substance exposure rate from concentration measurement and heart rate data
EP0426775A1 (en) * 1989-01-25 1991-05-15 Pacesetter, Inc. Automatically adjustable energy controlled rate-responsive pacemaker
US4940053A (en) * 1989-01-25 1990-07-10 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Energy controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatically adjustable control parameters
US5040535A (en) * 1989-01-25 1991-08-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Average amplitude controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatically adjustable control parameters
US5040534A (en) * 1989-01-25 1991-08-20 Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc. Microprocessor controlled rate-responsive pacemaker having automatic rate response threshold adjustment
EP0426775A4 (en) * 1989-01-25 1992-10-21 Siemens Elema Ab Automatically adjustable energy controlled rate-responsive pacemaker
DE3914680A1 (en) * 1989-05-03 1990-11-08 Alt Eckhard Pacemaker
US5137019A (en) * 1990-03-08 1992-08-11 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Variation in cardiac chamber volume or pressure as a controlling parameter
US5391190A (en) * 1990-03-08 1995-02-21 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Variation in cardiac chamber volume or pressure as a controlling parameter
US5284136A (en) * 1990-04-04 1994-02-08 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Dual indifferent electrode pacemaker
US5036849A (en) * 1990-04-04 1991-08-06 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Variable rate cardiac pacer
US5954757A (en) * 1991-05-17 1999-09-21 Gray; Noel Desmond Heart pacemaker
US5792208A (en) * 1991-05-17 1998-08-11 Gray; Noel Domond Heart pacemaker
US6044300A (en) * 1991-05-17 2000-03-28 Gray; Noel Desmond Heart pacemaker
US5235976A (en) * 1991-12-13 1993-08-17 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatus for managing and monitoring cardiac rhythm using active time as the controlling parameter
US5330510A (en) * 1991-12-31 1994-07-19 Ela Medical Pacemaker with patient effort-controlled frequency
US5282840A (en) * 1992-03-26 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple frequency impedance measurement system
US5674259A (en) * 1992-10-20 1997-10-07 Gray; Noel Desmond Multi-focal leadless apical cardiac pacemaker
WO1994008657A1 (en) * 1992-10-20 1994-04-28 Noel Desmond Gray A heart pacemaker
WO1995016484A1 (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-06-22 Temple University - Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Process and apparatus for controlling helium/oxygen
US5429123A (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-07-04 Temple University - Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Process control and apparatus for ventilation procedures with helium and oxygen mixtures
US5522860A (en) * 1993-12-31 1996-06-04 Ela Medical S.A. Control of an active implantable medical device
US5800470A (en) * 1994-01-07 1998-09-01 Medtronic, Inc. Respiratory muscle electromyographic rate responsive pacemaker
US5480441A (en) * 1994-03-30 1996-01-02 Medtronic, Inc. Rate-responsive heart pacemaker
WO1996036395A1 (en) * 1995-05-19 1996-11-21 Medtronic, Inc. Respiratory muscle electromyographic rate responsive pacemaker
US5935153A (en) * 1996-11-21 1999-08-10 Ela Medical S.A. Active implantable medical device enslaved to a signal of acceleration
US5919210A (en) * 1997-04-10 1999-07-06 Pharmatarget, Inc. Device and method for detection and treatment of syncope
US6078834A (en) * 1997-04-10 2000-06-20 Pharmatarget, Inc. Device and method for detection and treatment of syncope
EP1078650A1 (en) 1999-08-20 2001-02-28 BIOTRONIK Mess- und Therapiegeräte GmbH & Co Ingenieurbüro Berlin Rate adaptive pacemaker
US6519494B1 (en) 1999-08-20 2003-02-11 Biotronik Mess-Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & Co. Ingenieurbuero Berlin Rate-adaptive cardiac pacemaker
US6405738B1 (en) * 1999-10-22 2002-06-18 Ultrafryer Systems, Inc. Spray cleaning apparatus for deep fryer
US20030114889A1 (en) * 2000-07-14 2003-06-19 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatuses for monitoring hemodynamic activities using an intracardiac impedance-derived parameter
US7062326B2 (en) 2000-07-14 2006-06-13 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatuses for monitoring hemodynamic activities using an intracardiac impedance-derived parameter
US8706217B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-04-22 Cameron Health Cardioverter-defibrillator having a focused shocking area and orientation thereof
US8412320B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2013-04-02 Cameron Health, Inc. Nontransvenous and nonepicardial methods of cardiac treatment and stimulus
US9144683B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2015-09-29 Cameron Health, Inc. Post-shock treatment in a subcutaneous device
US8831720B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-09-09 Cameron Health, Inc. Method of implanting and using a subcutaneous defibrillator
US8718760B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-05-06 Cameron Health Inc. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement methods
US6952610B2 (en) * 2000-09-18 2005-10-04 Cameron Health, Inc. Current waveforms for anti-tachycardia pacing for a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter- defibrillator
US20050277990A1 (en) * 2000-09-18 2005-12-15 Cameron Health, Inc. Current waveforms for anti-tachycardia pacing for a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
US8880190B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2014-11-04 Cvrx, Inc. Electrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
US7840271B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2010-11-23 Cvrx, Inc. Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
US8712531B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2014-04-29 Cvrx, Inc. Automatic baroreflex modulation responsive to adverse event
US7949400B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2011-05-24 Cvrx, Inc. Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control via coupled electrodes
US7813812B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2010-10-12 Cvrx, Inc. Baroreflex stimulator with integrated pressure sensor
US8290595B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2012-10-16 Cvrx, Inc. Method and apparatus for stimulation of baroreceptors in pulmonary artery
US8606359B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2013-12-10 Cvrx, Inc. System and method for sustained baroreflex stimulation
US20080177350A1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2008-07-24 Cvrx, Inc. Expandable Stimulation Electrode with Integrated Pressure Sensor and Methods Related Thereto
US8838246B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2014-09-16 Cvrx, Inc. Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex treatments
US9427583B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2016-08-30 Cvrx, Inc. Electrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
US8060206B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2011-11-15 Cvrx, Inc. Baroreflex modulation to gradually decrease blood pressure
US8086314B1 (en) 2000-09-27 2011-12-27 Cvrx, Inc. Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control
US9044609B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2015-06-02 Cvrx, Inc. Electrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
US8718789B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2014-05-06 Cvrx, Inc. Electrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
US8583236B2 (en) 2000-09-27 2013-11-12 Cvrx, Inc. Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control
US20020165586A1 (en) * 2000-10-26 2002-11-07 Medtronic, Inc. Closed-loop neuromodulation for prevention and treatment of cardiac conditions
US7218964B2 (en) * 2000-10-26 2007-05-15 Medtronic, Inc. Closed-loop neuromodulation for prevention and treatment of cardiac conditions
US9138589B2 (en) 2001-11-21 2015-09-22 Cameron Health, Inc. Apparatus and method for identifying atrial arrhythmia by far-field sensing
US8750989B2 (en) 2001-11-21 2014-06-10 Cameron Health, Inc. Apparatus and method for identifying atrial arrhythmia by far-field sensing
US9522283B2 (en) 2001-11-21 2016-12-20 Cameron Health Inc. Apparatus and method for identifying atrial arrhythmia by far-field sensing
US7092757B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2006-08-15 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Minute ventilation sensor with dynamically adjusted excitation current
US20100138340A1 (en) * 2002-09-19 2010-06-03 John Earl Shirey System and apparatus for transaction fraud processing
US7101339B2 (en) 2002-12-13 2006-09-05 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Respiration signal measurement apparatus, systems, and methods
US8423142B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2013-04-16 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cross-checking of transthoracic impedance and acceleration signals
US8209011B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2012-06-26 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Automatically configurable minute ventilation sensor
US20040215263A1 (en) * 2003-04-23 2004-10-28 Nathalie Virag Detection of vasovagal syncope
US7647106B2 (en) 2003-04-23 2010-01-12 Medtronic, Inc. Detection of vasovagal syncope
US7133718B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2006-11-07 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily varying a parameter in an implantable medical device
WO2004112897A1 (en) 2003-06-19 2004-12-29 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily varying a parameter in an implantable medical device
US20040260348A1 (en) * 2003-06-19 2004-12-23 Bakken Earl E. Method and apparatus for temporarily varying a parameter in an implantable medical device
US8688214B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2014-04-01 Cardiac Pacemakers. Inc. Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US7200440B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2007-04-03 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US8306621B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2012-11-06 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US8880171B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2014-11-04 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US20050004610A1 (en) * 2003-07-02 2005-01-06 Jaeho Kim Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US8442633B2 (en) 2003-07-02 2013-05-14 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cardiac cycle synchronized sampling of impedance signal
US8050764B2 (en) 2003-10-29 2011-11-01 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cross-checking of transthoracic impedance and acceleration signals
US20050096704A1 (en) * 2003-10-29 2005-05-05 Scott Freeberg Cross-checking of transthoracic impedence and acceleration signals
US8197234B2 (en) * 2004-05-25 2012-06-12 California Institute Of Technology In-line actuator for electromagnetic operation
US20050275494A1 (en) * 2004-05-25 2005-12-15 Morteza Gharib In-line actuator for electromagnetic operation
US7628757B1 (en) 2005-05-25 2009-12-08 Pacesetter, Inc. System and method for impedance-based detection of pulmonary edema and reduced respiration using an implantable medical system
US9656009B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2017-05-23 California Institute Of Technology Cardiac assist system using helical arrangement of contractile bands and helically-twisting cardiac assist device
US8532793B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2013-09-10 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090275855A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Zielinski Todd M Multi-frequency impedance monitoring system
US8315713B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-11-20 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US9572982B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2017-02-21 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090275956A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090275996A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090276022A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Medtronic , Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US8744565B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2014-06-03 Medtronic, Inc. Multi-frequency impedance monitoring system
US9642558B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2017-05-09 Medtronic, Inc. Multi-frequency impedance monitoring system
US20090276025A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US9561369B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2017-02-07 Medtronic, Inc. Techniques for placing medical leads for electrical stimulation of nerve tissue
US20090275854A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Zielinski Todd M System and method of monitoring physiologic parameters based on complex impedance waveform morphology
US8560060B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-10-15 Medtronic, Inc. Isolation of sensing and stimulation circuitry
US20100114197A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114201A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8611996B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-12-17 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8688210B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2014-04-01 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114221A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Therapy system including cardiac rhythm therapy and neurostimulation capabilities
US8532779B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-09-10 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114217A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Therapy system including cardiac rhythm therapy and neurostimulation capabilities
US20100114198A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8527045B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-09-03 Medtronic, Inc. Therapy system including cardiac rhythm therapy and neurostimulation capabilities
US8473057B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-06-25 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction housing for an implantable therapy system
US20100114205A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction housing for an implantable therapy system
US8774918B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2014-07-08 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114224A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114208A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US9597505B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2017-03-21 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8452394B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-05-28 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114200A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US9026206B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2015-05-05 Medtronic, Inc. Therapy system including cardiac rhythm therapy and neurostimulation capabilities
US20100114211A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction techniques for an implantable therapy system
US8249708B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2012-08-21 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US9775987B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2017-10-03 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8005539B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2011-08-23 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US9192769B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2015-11-24 Medtronic, Inc. Shunt-current reduction techniques for an implantable therapy system
US8260412B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2012-09-04 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114199A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US20100114202A1 (en) * 2008-10-31 2010-05-06 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device crosstalk evaluation and mitigation
US8498698B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-07-30 Medtronic, Inc. Isolation of sensing and stimulation circuitry
US20100113958A1 (en) * 2008-11-06 2010-05-06 Cyrille Casset Active Implantable Medical Device Integrating Spirometric Means for Diagnosing Lung Diseases
EP2184011A1 (en) * 2008-11-06 2010-05-12 Ela Medical Medical device such as an implantable artificial heart, including spirometric means for diagnosing pulmonary pathologies
US9125655B2 (en) 2010-07-16 2015-09-08 California Institute Of Technology Correction and optimization of wave reflection in blood vessels
US20140299159A1 (en) * 2011-10-18 2014-10-09 Peter Helm Cooking appliance with a pan and a method for cleaning the pan

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Benchimol et al. Hemodynamic consequences of atrial and ventricular pacing in patients with normal and abnormal hearts: Effect of exercise at a fixed atrial and ventricular rate
Braunwald et al. Clinical observations on paired electrical stimulation of the heart: effects on ventricular performance and heart rate
Benchimol et al. Cardiac hemodynamics during stimulation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle in normal and abnormal hearts
US3460542A (en) Instrument for electrically stimulating the activity of the heart
Samet et al. Hemodynamic effects of tachycardias produced by atrial and ventricular pacing
Chardack et al. Slowing of the heart by paired pulse pacemaking
Hamlin et al. Sinus arrhythmia in the dog
Gallagher et al. Esophageal pacing: a diagnostic and therapeutic tool.
US4880004A (en) Implantable cardiac stimulator with automatic gain control and bandpass filtering in feedback loop
US4899751A (en) System for and method of therapeutic stimulation of a patient's heart
US5158079A (en) Implantable device for preventing tachyarrhythmias
US4349030A (en) External noninvasive electric cardiac stimulation
Ross et al. Effects of changing heart rate in man by electrical stimulation of the right atrium: studies at rest, during exercise, and with isoproterenol
US5133350A (en) Mode switching pacemaker
US6408205B1 (en) System for delivering mechanical waves
US7340302B1 (en) Treating sleep apnea in patients using phrenic nerve stimulation
Zoll et al. The effects of external electric currents on the heart: control of cardiac rhythm and induction and termination of cardiac arrhythmias
US6556866B2 (en) Active implantable medical device, in particular a pacemaker, defibrillator and/or cardiovertor of the multisite type providing resynchronization of the ventricles
US7765000B2 (en) Neural stimulation system with pulmonary artery lead
US7668594B2 (en) Method and apparatus for delivering chronic and post-ischemia cardiac therapies
US5203326A (en) Antiarrhythmia pacer using antiarrhythmia pacing and autonomic nerve stimulation therapy
US6611713B2 (en) Implantable device for diagnosing and distinguishing supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias
US5183040A (en) Apparatus and method for detecting abnormal cardiac rhythms using an ultrasound sensor in an arrhythmia control system
US7215997B2 (en) Dynamic device therapy control for treating post myocardial infarction patients
US4303075A (en) Method and apparatus for maximizing stroke volume through atrioventricular pacing using implanted cardioverter/pacer