US3572983A - Fluid-operated motor - Google Patents

Fluid-operated motor Download PDF

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US3572983A
US3572983A US3572983DA US3572983A US 3572983 A US3572983 A US 3572983A US 3572983D A US3572983D A US 3572983DA US 3572983 A US3572983 A US 3572983A
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valve
fluid
groove
lubrication
motor
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Hugh L Mcdermott
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GERMANE CORP
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GERMANE CORP
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C15/00Component parts, details or accessories of machines, pumps or pumping installations, not provided for in groups F04C2/00 - F04C14/00
    • F04C15/0088Lubrication
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C2/00Rotary-piston machines or pumps
    • F04C2/08Rotary-piston machines or pumps of intermeshing-engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co-operating members similar to that of toothed gearing
    • F04C2/10Rotary-piston machines or pumps of intermeshing-engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co-operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of internal-axis type with the outer member having more teeth or tooth-equivalents, e.g. rollers, than the inner member
    • F04C2/103Rotary-piston machines or pumps of intermeshing-engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co-operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of internal-axis type with the outer member having more teeth or tooth-equivalents, e.g. rollers, than the inner member one member having simultaneously a rotational movement about its own axis and an orbital movement
    • F04C2/104Rotary-piston machines or pumps of intermeshing-engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co-operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of internal-axis type with the outer member having more teeth or tooth-equivalents, e.g. rollers, than the inner member one member having simultaneously a rotational movement about its own axis and an orbital movement having an articulated driving shaft
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D3/00Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive
    • F16D3/16Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts
    • F16D3/18Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts the coupling parts (1) having slidably-interengaging teeth
    • F16D3/185Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts the coupling parts (1) having slidably-interengaging teeth radial teeth connecting concentric inner and outer coupling parts

Abstract

A fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type, the motor having a hydraulically balanced and actuated valve-seating mechanism equally responsive to reversed motor-operating fluid flow and a positive circulation lubrication system providing controlled lubrication at all wear points during operation of the motor.

Description

United States Patent 1 1 3,572,983
[ Im'CmQY "98 Mfnerfnofl [56] References Cited Mmmlml's UNITED STATES PATENTS [2]] Appl. No 874,757 [22 Filed Nov. 7,1969 2,956,512 10/1960 Brundage 418/132 [45] Patented Man, 1971 3,270,683 9/1966 lvlcDermott... 418/61 [73] Assignee Germane Corporation 3,289,542 12/1966 Fikse 418/61 Minneapolis Minn 3,391,608 7/1968 Huber 418/61 3,452,543 7/1969 Goffet al 418/61 3,452,680 7/1969 White,Jr. 418/61 Primary Examiner-Carlton R. Croyle Assistant Examiner-Wilbur .l Goodlin 541 FLUID-OPERATED MOTOR 8 Claims, 9 Drawing Figs.
[52] US. Cl 418/61, ABSTRACT: A fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type,
418/13 1 the motor having a hydraulically balanced and actuated valve- [51] Int. Cl F0lc 1/02, seating mechanism equally responsive to reversed motor- FOlc 19/08 operating fluid flow and a positive circulation lubrication [50] Field of Search 418/61 system providing controlled lubrication at all wear points dur- 131, 132 ing operation of the motor.
file
Patented March 30, 1971 4 Sheets-Sheet l rvw INVENTOR.
HUGH 1.. 44 015 44077 4770EA/EV Patented March 30, 1971 3,572,983
4 Sheets-Sheet 2 O 67 *mlln' g 46 108 INVENTOR.
' HUGH A. MQDEQIJOTT F1155 Patented 'March so, 1971 3,572,983
4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
HUGH L. M "DEE/14077 ATTOPUEI/ Patented March 30, 1971 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.
HUGH 444 3591400 FUJtD-GPERATEDMOTDR SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type and, more particularly, relates to a fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type having a hydraulically balanced and actuated valve-seating mechanism and positive lubrication to all moving parts therein.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Although fluid-operated motors and pumps of the radial or disc valve type have been known and utilized in the past, many difficulties have been experienced with the valve and valve seating of these motors. For example, ports of a radial valve acting under or conveying pressurized fluid to a valve plate tend to be urged away from the valve plate which they confront and, diametrically opposed to the pressure ports on the radial valve, are exhaust ports which do not have corresponding forces urging the valve away from the valve plate. Consequently, there is a tilting or cocking force on the valve as it rotates. Although this problem is capable of solution, as may be seen in US. Pat. No. 3,270,683 issued to H. L. McDermott on Nov. 6, I966 entitled Porting Arrangements for Balancing Valve of Fluid Pressure Device", the solution to the tilting or cocking force was made at the expense of loss of bearing surface between the valve and the valve plate. Obviously, without adequate bearing surface, wear is accelerated and corresponding inefficiencies result. A radial valve having a diameter increased sufficient to compensate for the loss of wearing surface in the valve of US. Pat. No 3,270,683 may be provided, but in so doing, the diameter of the motor is correspondingly increased, limiting the applications in which the motor may be utilized.
Besides the tilting force on the valve as described above, there are other forces acting on the valve. Typically, the radial valve of a motor of the type described herein, must be driven in synchronization with the displacement mechanism. Since the displacement mechanism is connected to the output shaft, oftentimes the valve is subjected to the thrust loads on the output shaft transmitted to the valve by the mechanical connections between the shaft and the valve. This thrust load on the valve separates the rotating valve from the stationary valve plate during operation. Obviously, this would cause a leakage between the highand low-pressure passages, and possibly, a total malfunction of the valve and therefore of the motor could result.
Conventional spring-loaded or hydraulically actuated valveseating mechanisms are inadequate to offset or compensate for all of the forces acting on the valve. Among the problems experienced with conventional valve-seating mechanisms, and their corresponding valves, are lubrication between the stationary and rotating elements and, problems experienced from the inability to totally lubricate the motor when conventional valve-seating mechanisms and valves are utilized in a motor of the type herein described.
In motors heretofor available, lubrication was approached in a random fashion. For example, leakage through high-pressure interfaces supplied the lubrication to various bearings, spline connections and between other parts moving at relatively different rotational speeds. Since this lubrication was random, in that some high-pressure interfaces allowed leakage and others did not, lubrication was oftentimes inadequate. In the manufacture of high-precision hydraulic motors for operation under very high torque requirements at very low speeds, controlled lubrication must be provided assuring proper lubrication to each of the moving parts.
With these comments in mind, it is to the elimination of these and other disadvantages to which this invention is directed.
OBJECT S OF THE INVENTION An object of this invention is the provision of a new and novel fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type of simple and inexpensive construction and operation.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a new and improved fluid-operated motor having controlled lubrication of all moving parts therein.
Still another object of this invention is the provision of a new and novel fluidbperated motor having a hydraulically balanced and hydraulically responsive valve-seating mechanism to maintain the valve in proper seated relation relative to the valve plate and to overcome thrust exerted on the valve as a result of thrust on the output shaft.
A further object of this invention is the provision of a fluidoperated motor having a radial valve which is balanced in such a way as to provide optimum wear characteristics in a valve having a minimum diameter thereby maintaining the overall diameter of the motor at a minimum.
These and other objects and advantages of this invention will more fully appear from the following description made in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference characters refer to the same or similar parts throughout the several views.
DRAWINGS OF THE INVENTION FIG. I is a longitudinal sectional view of the fluid-operated motor of this invention.
FIG. 2 is an end view taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is sectional view taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. I.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 7 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 7-7 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 8 is a partial enlarged sectional view taken along the line 8-8 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 9 is a partial enlarged sectional view showing a detail of the valve seating mechanism and the lubrication system.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring now to FIG. I, the fluid-operated motor of this invention is indicated in general by reference numeral It), and comprises several main portions joined to form a generally cylindrically shaped motor or pump. An end cap ll, which may be constructed from cast aluminum, includes fluid inlet opening 12 and fluid outlet opening 13, each of which is internally threaded to receive a hydraulic line. It should be noted that fluid inlet and outlet may be reversed in the event opposite direction of rotation of the output shaft is desired. The end cap contains valve Id which is rotatably mounted in opening 15 for rotation of valve 314, about the longitudinal axis In of motor 10. Valve 114 includes a transverse valve plate confront ing surface l7 as well as a plurality of fluid-conducting passages which will be discussed hereinbelow.
Stationary valve plate portion 18, having a transverse valve confronting surface 19, is positioned adjacent end cover plate ll. Valve plate section 118 includes a plurality of axially oriented fluid-conducting passages in fluid communication with valve is and its fluid-conducting passages; the detail and relation therebetween will be discussed hereinbelow. Valve plate section I8 includes a valve drive receiving opening 21 which is axially oriented and adapted to receive a valve drive which is substantially oriented for rotation along axis id, but at a slight angle thereto. The valve plate section may be constructed from powdered metal.
A displacement mechanism or gerotor set is indicated at reference numeral 22; and is positioned adjacent valve plate section If sandwiching valve plate section l8 between end cover plate ii and displacement mechanism 22. It should be noted that the displacement mechanism is in fluid communication with the axially oriented fluid-conducting passages in valve plate section 28. The displacement mechanism will be discussed in detail hereinbelow.
Displacement mechanism sealing plate portion 23 is positioned adjacent the displacement mechanism and includes an axially oriented opening 24 adapted to receive a drive member for rotation substantially along axis l6 but at a slight angle thereto. Displacement mechanism sealing plate portion 23 is stationary and sandwiches displacement mechanism 22 between sealing plate portion 23 and valve plate 18. It may be constructed of powdered metal or steel as desired. 7
A generally cylindrically shaped shaft housing 25, having an axial bore 26 therein concentric with axis 16, is connected adjacent displacement mechanism sealing plate portion 23. The shaft housing is typically constructed of cast aluminum.
A front end cap 27 is connected to shaft housing by a plurality of axially oriented bolts 28. The front end cap includes an axial opening 29 adapted to receive an output shaft. A shaft seal 30 is positioned in counter bore 31 and shaft seal 32 is positioned in annular groove 33. The end cap may be constructed from steel.
End cap ll, valve plate 18, displacement mechanism 22, displacement mechanism sealing plate 23 and shaft housing 25. are connected by a plurality of axially extending circumferentially spaced bolts 34, forming a generally cylindrically shaped motor body or frame.
Output shaft 35 is positioned in shaft housing 25 for rotation within bore 26 about axis l6. The output shaft includes a loan naled portion 36 adapted to be connected to the drive chain of a mechanism either directly coupled or through a sprocket, gear, or pulley, as appropriate. Thrust bearing 37 is seated between shaft 35 at the journaled portion 36 thereof, sandwiched between shaft shoulder portion 38 and the front end plate 27. Forward roller bearing assembly 39 and rearward roller bearing assembly 40 are positioned within housing 25 to receive shdt 35. Rear thrust bearing 41 is seated within circumferential groove 42 of displacement mechanism maling plate 23. Shaft 35 has an internal, axially oriented receiving bore 43.
Referring now to the displacement mechanism or gerotor set 22, the construction thereof is best shown in FlG. 3. Gerotor set 22 comprises an outer. substantially ring-shaped member 44- having a generally circular, axially oriented and concentric opening 35 therein. Outer ring member 44 includes a plurality of axially oriented arcuate openings, circumferentially spaced about axially oriented opening 45, and denoted by reference numerals 46. Each arcuate opening is typically slightly more than 180. Rolls 47 are rotatably mounted in openings 46 for rotation about a longitudinal axis parallel with axis 16 but spaced radially outwardly therefrom. Rolls 47 form a plurality of internal teeth with which externally toothed star gear member 48 mates. Star gear member 48 has a plurality of external teeth 49 numbering one fewer than the internal teeth or rolls 47 of ring member 44. The star gear member is eccentrically disposed in ring member 44 and orbits relative thereto about motor axis 16 and rotates on its own axis 50. During this orbital movement, external teeth 49 of the star gear member mesh with ring member rolls or teeth 47 in sealing engagement and with a rolling action therebetween, to form expanding and contracting cells 51 which are equal in number to the number of teeth of ring member 44. Cells 51 are in fluid communication with passages in valve plate 18. The outer ring member is typically constructed from powdered metal and the rolls from a selected hardened steel alloy.
A line of eccentricity of displacement mechanism 22 is indicated by the centerline at reference numeral 52 and is defined as that line which passes through motor axis 16 and the star gear member axis 50. The function of a gerotor set is well known and will not be described in detail herein. it should be noted that the outer ring member may comprise integral teeth providing a sliding action between the inner star gear member and the outer ring member.
Valve plate 18 is best seen in FIG. 4. it includes a plurality of fluid-conducting openings 53 in fluid communication with cells 51 of displacement mechanism 22. Fluid-conducting openings 53 are adapted to convey fluid under pressure or exhaust fluid to and from cells 511. Valve plate 18 is stationary. it is typically constructed of powdered metal. Openings 53 are axially oriented circumferentially spaced, and positioned radially outwardly from axis 16 of motor ill}. They correspond in number to the number of cells in the displacement mechanism. The valve plate and the valve-sealing plate sandwiches the gerotor set inbetween to enclose displacement mechanism cells 51 in a manner well known in the art.
Valve-balancing ports 54 are shown positioned between fluid-conducting openings 53. Each valve-balancing port includes a bearing surface 55 therein and a fluid-receiving groove 56 adapted to receive fluid under pressure to provide balancing of the valve at the valve plate confronting surface l7 thereof.
Referring now to H6. 5, the valve 14 is shown mounted in end cap ll for rotatable movement about axis 16. Valve plate confronting surface 17 confronts and mates with valve plate surface l9. A plurality of valve ports are included in valve 14. Assuming fluid inlet pressure is at port l2, valve fluid pressure ports are indicated by reference numeral 57 and exhaust ports are indicated by reference numeral 58. Obviously, valve pressure ports 57 are in communication with inlet port 12 and valve exhaust ports 58 are in fluid communication with exhaust port 13. in the event reverse direction of output shaft 35 is desired, inlet and outlet fluid to and from ports 52 and l3 is reversed; port 12 becomes the outlet port and port 13 the inlet port. Accordingly, valve port 57 is the exhaust port and valve port 58 is the pressure port. I
During operation of the valve relative to the valve plate, certain of valve ports 57 are in registry or fluid communica tion with certain of valve plate openings 53 at the same time that valve ports 58 are in registry with other of valve plate openings 53. The relation therebetween will be discussed more completely hereinbelow.
Star gear member 48 of displacement mechanism 22 is connected to valve M which is synchronized therewith. It should be noted that the exhaust passages correspond in numberto the number of teeth 49 of star gear member 48. Of course, the number of pressure passages also correspond to the number of teeth 49. in this way fluid is supplied to and exhausted from cells 51 of the displacement mechanism synchronized with the rotation of the star gear member.
The connection between the star gear member and the valve is provided by valve drive 59. The valve drive includes a splined portion 69 mating with an internal spline 61 in the star gear member and a splined portion 62 which mates with a mating internal spline 63 in valve 14.
Star gear member 453 is connected to output shaft 35 by main drive member 64. The main drive member is inserted within shaft 35 at bore 43 and includes a splined portion 65 which mates with an internal spline 66 within bore 43. Also included in main drive member 64 is a splined portion 67 which mates with internal spline 61 of the star-gear member 48. It should be noted that, since the main drive member and valve drive member are each slightly angulated relative to axis 16 that the splines must be so designed to accommodate this angulation caused by the eccentricity of star gear member 4% as it rotates on its axis 50 and orbits about axis 16 of the motor. The configuration or tooth form of the splined portions is well known in the art and will not be discussed herein. A spacer 68 is positioned in a counter bore 69. The diameter of spacer 68 approximates the minor diameter of spline 65 in order to allow fluid to circulate around the splined connections.
' The valve-seating ring is indicated by reference numeral 79 in PEG. 1. The valve-seating ring detail is best shown in FIG. 7. Valve-seating ring 70 is circular and typically constructed of powdered metal. A central bore 7ll is provided and the valveseating ring is mounted in end cap ill concentric with axis 16 utilizing rearwardly proiecting integral ring portion 72 which is inserted into a corresponding and mating groove 73 in end cap Ill. It should be noted that axial movement of valve-seating ring relative to end cap it is allowed by the assembly. Groove 73, in end cap Ill, includes a plurality of axially extending bores 7 2- adapted to receive pin '75 which projects rearwardly from ring 72 of valve-seating mechanism 763. Pin
75 acts as a rotation preventing and aligning element. A spring 76 surrounds pin 75 and is caged between projecting portion 72 and bore 74. The pins and springs are utilized as needed; typically two pins and two springs are needed. In this manner, the seating ring is urged axially outwardly from end cap l1 into contact with valve l4 at the valve-seating ring confronting surface 77 thereof. The valve-seating ring 74) includes valveconfronting surface '78 which mates with surface 77 in sealing engagement relative thereto, yet allowing relative movement therebetween.
Valve-confronting surface 78 of valve-seating ring 70 is made up of a series of lands and grooves each concentric with axis 16 of motor ill). Inner bearing land 80 is followed by first inner groove iii. A plurality of inner notches 32 are provided causing groove 81 to be in fluid communication with notches 52. Inner sealing land 83 separates first inner groove 81 from second inner groove 84, providing sealing therebetween. Inner middle bearing land 35 is provided and is followed by middle groove 36. Outer middle bearing land 87 is followed by second outer groove '88. Outer sealing land 89 seals outer grove 90 from second outer groove 88. Outer bearing land 91, in com-' bination with inner and outer bearing lands 85 and 87 respectively, provides the bearing surface on which the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface of valve 14 is supported. A plurality of outer notches 92 are provided placing outer groove 90 in fluid communication therewith. A plurality of axially projecting openings 93are circumferentially spaced at predetermined intervals interrupting and communicating with second inner groove 84, middle groove 86 and second outer groove $8.
As best seen in FIG. 3, inner sealing ring 94 is provided and seated in end cap ll at the connection between valve-seating ring assembly 70 and end cap 11. Ring 94 is constructed from resilient material such as Teflon. Sealing ring d4 is seated between end cap transverse surface 95 and the rear facing transverse surface '96 of valve-seating ring 70. Axial movement of valve-seating ring 70 causes surfaces 95 and 96 to be urged axially inwardly and outwardly. Seal 94 effectively seals at all times during the axial movement.
Outer sealing ring 97 provides a seal between transverse surface 95 of end cap ll and surface 96a of valve-seating mechanism '70. Sealing ring 97 is resilient, typically Teflon, and when surfaces 95 and 96a are axially apart as well as when surfaces 95 and 9601 are urged together from the action of hydraulic fluid during operation of the motor.
A first fluid containing volume 98 is defined by the valve 14, valve-seating mechanism 70, inner sealing ring 94, end cap ll, and inner sealing land 83. A second fluid-containing volume lid is defined by valve l4, valve-sealing mechanism 70, outer sealing ring 97, end cap ii, and outer sealing land 89. Assum ing the fluid pressure inlet is at port 12, first volume 98 contains operating fluid under pressure and volume 99 contains fluid under exhaust. In the event it is desired to reverse motor rotation, the fluid inlet and outlet are reversed and the functions of volumes 9% and 99 are reversed with 99 becoming pressure and 9f becoming exhaust.
The controlled lubrication system is best described by assuming that fluid under pressure enters port 12 into volume 98. Lubrication system fluid flow first contacts metering notch rue positioned in valve M confronting surface 78 of valveseating mechanism '70. Metering notch ms allows a predetermined amount of fluid under pressure to be placed in fluid communication with middle groove 86 of the valve-seating ring 7%. Middle groove 85 is, in turn, in fluid communication with a plurality of valve-circulating system passaged 101 which allow fluid to be conducted therethrough into contact with valve drive mating splines 62 and 63 and mating splines as and fill thereby lubricating the spline connection. Circulation fluid flow is through bore 24 in shaft 35 providing lubrication at the spline connection 67 and bi and the spline connection 65 and as. Lubrication fluid flows around spacer 63 into transverse openings W2 and M33 which communicate with bearings Lubrication to thrust bearing '37 is through the surface between the bearing 39 and the shaft 35. hearing spacer 104 is provided to separatebearings 3 9 and db. The bearing spacer includes opening res allowing lubrication fluid to pass therethrough into angulated housing lubrication system passage 1%. The displacement mechanism sealing plate includes a lubrication system passage W7 positioned to registry with passage W5 of the housing 25. Displacement mechanism 22 includes lubrication system passage lfld in registry with passage m7. Valve plate it) includes lubrication system passage M9 in fluid communication with passage W8. Lubrication fluid flows into branch passage lit) in end cap 11 at which point spring-loaded pressure responsive ball 111 is unseated for seat Illa (Exhaust pressure is slightly less than lubrication fluid pressure.) Bore 11112 encloses spring M3 which is contained therein by bolt 1M and at seat lllla, caging the spring and allowing pressure to unseat the ball. Lubrication passage l15 connects bore 112 with second fluid-containing volume 99. Lubrication fluid is exhausted from the motor since volume 99 is in fluid communication with outlet port 13. It should be noted that the shaft-supporting housing includes a drain plug 116 which is in fluid communication with the lubrication system. if desired, fluid may be exhausted directly from the motor by opening the drain port.
Assuming that operating fluid under pressure enters at port 13, metering notch 1% allows fluid flow from volume 99 through outer sealing land 89 into middle groove 86 which is in fluid communication with valve circulation system passages llll. Fluid circulates around the valve drive and the main drive members as above and into branch passage ill). As may be seen in FIG. l, the fluid under pressure in volume 9% in communication with passage urges ball llll into seat 111a. With reference now to FIG. 6, fluid flow is then through branch I17 unseating ball 118 from seat 118a. Spring 119, which is caged in bore 120 by bolt lZl, allows lubrication fluid pressure to overcome the spring-biasing force. Fluid flow is into bore 220 and then into passage 122. With reference to FIG. 9, it should be noted that passage 122 is in fluid communication with volume 98 allowing the lubrication fluid to flow through port l2 which is the exhaust port for reverse rotation.
OPERATION OF THE lNVlENTION The general operationof a fluid-operated motor of the gerotor or roller gerotor type is well known in the art and will not be described in detail herein. However, for purposes of describing the operation of the invention as it pertains to a fluid-operated motor, a brief description of the operation of a gerotor-type fluid-operated motor will be included.
For a given direction of shaft rotation, fluid under pressure enters port l2 into first volume 98. Fluid flows from volume 98 into passages 57 in valve 14 into passages 53 in registry therewith and then into displacement mechanism cells Sl on one side of the line of eccentricity 52. The cells expand and simultaneously urge inner star gear member 48 to rotate about its axis 50 and orbit about motor axis lb. Correspondingly, fluid exhausted from cells on the other side of the line of eccentricity 52 is conveyed through appropriate passages 53, in valve block 18, into passages 58 in valve 14 and exhausted from the fluid-operated motor through port l3. As the star gear member rotates it causes valve 14, through valve drive member 59, to synchronously rotate about axis .116 providing timing between the displacement mechanism and the valve so that fluid enters appropriate cells on one side of the line of eccentricity and is exhausted from cells on the other side of the line of eccentricity. The inner star gear member is connected line of eccentricity, and passages 57 become the fluid exhaust passages. Fluid is conveyed through the valve plate 18 passages 53 timed to the rotation of the star gear member 48 of displacement mechanism 22. Cells 51 are expanded and contracted as for rotation described above, except that fluid flow from the contracting cells is through valve passages 57 into fluid-containing volume 98 and then exhausted from the motor through passage 12.
The specific operation of valve-seatingmechanism 70 is best described by assuming that the operating fluid inlet is at port i2. Fluid is conveyed into fluid-containing volume 98 under pressure of, for example, 2,000 p.s.i. This fluid is contained within this volume by valve 14, inner sealing land 83, valve-seating mechanism 70 and inner sealing ring 9 in order to prevent leakage at valve confronting surface 19 and valve plate confronting surface 17 between passages 57 which are under pressure and passages 58 which are under exhaust (approximately l p.s.i.), valve 14 must be maintained in sealing engagement with valve plate l8. Valve plate confronting surface 37 of valve 34 bears against valve confronting surface E9 of valve plate 1%. The fluid under pressure in fluid-containing volume provides the force urging surfaces 17 and 19, respectively, into tight sealing engagement. However, since valve 14 rotates relative to stationary valve plate 18, the forces urging valve 14 against plate 1% must be carefully controlled in order to accomplish sealing without preventing rotation therebetween. To this end fluid under pressure flows through notches 82 in valve-seating ring mechanism 70 into first inner groove bi placing a predetermined area of the valve seating mechanism confronting surface 77 of valve 14 under the influence of the operating fluid urging valve 14 axially into contact with plate 38. Inner sealing land 83 prevents the fluid under pressure from acting on a larger area of surface 77. in this manner, the proper amount of force is constantly supplied during operation of the fluid operated motor.
it should be noted that valve-seating mechanism 70 is biased axially forwardly by a plurality of springs 76. At the time of starting motor l0, springs 76 urge valve-seating mechanism 70 axially forwardly into contact with valve 14 engaging sealing land 33 thereagainst. Valve 14, in turn, is urged axially forwardingly into contact with valve plate 18 thereby preventing leakage between ports 57 and 58 at the startup. it should be noted that inner sealing ring 94 prevents fluid under pressure (approximately 2,000 p.s.i.) from leaking from volume 98 into the lubrication system containing fluid-at lubricating pressure (approximately 100 p.s.i.). Further, sealing ring 94 is resilient and seals regardless of the axial position of valve-sealing mechanism 70 thereby preventing loss of efficiency caused by leakage from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area.
The operation of the valve-seating mechanism for shaft rotation reversed from the description immediately above is as follows. Fluid enters volume 99 under pressure of approximately 2,000 p.s.i. from port l3. Fluid flows through outer notches 92 into outer. groove 90 of the valve-seating mechanism 70. In this manner, fluid under pressure is allowed to act upon valve M at the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface 77 thereof. Valve 14 is urged axially forwardly into tight sealing contact with valve plate 18 at the valveconfronting surface 19 thereof. Outer sealing ring 97 prevents fluid under pressure from flowing out of fluid-containing volume 99 into the lubrication system. Outer sealing ring 97, since it is resilient, seals in all axially oriented positions of valve-seating mechanism 70. Valve passages 58 provide fluid under pressure to the displacement mechanism cells and passages 57 exhaust the fluid from the collapsing cells.
Since valve 14 is urged against the stationary valve plate 18 at surface 19 thereof, sufficient bearing surface must be provided in order to prevent undue wear. Further, valve balancing must be provided to prevent tilting or cocking of the valve from the unbalanced forces on either side of the line of eccentricity. To this end, balancing ports 54 are provided. Each balancing port includes a fluid-receiving groove 56 which received fluid under pressure from valve 14. Assuming that fluid communication with cells which are contracting. At such times as the cells on one side of the line of eccentricity are being pressurized by communication with predetermined valve passages, diametrically opposite passages are not being pressurized by the valve but the valve passages 57 contain fluid under pressure acting upon the valve plate. The balancing port receives this fluid thereby providing relief and prevents cocking or tilting of the valve relative to the valve plate. it has been found that fluid receiving groove 56 which surrounds bearing island 55 adequately balances the valve yet allows adequate bearing surface therebetween. This eliminates the necessity of increasing the diameter of valve and valve plate surfaces 17 and 19, respectively, which confront each other. In the event fluid under pressure enters port l3), the operation is the same as described above except that passages 57 and 58 conduct fluid under reversed conditions.
in isolating high pressure areas-from low pressure areas, certain portions of the motor could be isolated from all fluid flow.
Consequently, except for the provision of a controlled lubrication system, inadequate lubrication and a corresponding decrease in efficiency would result. Positive controlled lubrication is achieved by utilizing metering notch which is located transversely in valve 14 across the valve-seating mechanism confront surface 77 thereof. Notch 100 places a predetermined amount of fluid approximately proportional to the differential pressure existing existing between volume Q8 and the lubrication system in fluid communication between volume 98 and middle groove 86 of valve seating mechanism '70. Metering notch 100 is of a configuration requiring substantial pressure to urge oil therethrough from volume 98 which contains fluid under pressure. This pressure causes the metering notch to carry fluid across inner sealing land 03 into contact with second inner groove 84 and middle groove 86. However, since the second inner groove and middle groove and 86, respectively, are in fluid communication with the lubrication system there is not sufficient pressure to urge fluid from the circulation system through notch 100 past outer sealing land 89 into volume 99 containing fluid under exhaust pressures. Therefore, second inner grcmve 84 and middle groove 86 contain fluid only available for circulation through the lubrication system of the motor. Metering notch continuously provides lubrication fluid in predetermined amounts and at predetermined pressure to the second inner and middle grooves. Second inner and middle grooves are in fluid communication with, and interrupted by, a plurality of openings 93 which, in turn, are in fluid communication with valve passages i0l. There is constant fluid communication between valve passages 101 and groove 86. Lubrication system pressure is slightly greater than exhaust pressure. For example, if the circulation system pressure is at 1,050 p.s.i., the exhaust pressure is at 1,000 p.s.i. Notch 100 will not allow fluid flow between these pressure differentials.
Lubrication fluid flow is through passages 101 around spline connections 62 and 63 of valve drive member 59. Flow continues through opening 21 in valve plate 18 into the spline connections 60 and 61 of star member &8. At this point, the spline connections 60 and 61, as well as 67 and 61 of the main drive member 64, are lubricated. Flow of lubrication system fluid is forwardly of the motor into bore 33 of shaft 35. The spline connections 65 and 66 between main drive member 6 3 and shaft 395 is lubricated by oil which next flows around spacer 68 into lubrication passages E02 and W3 lubricating forward bearings 39. Forward thrust bearing 37 is lubricated by lubrication system flow around bearing 39 at the surface of shaft 35. Lubrication system flow provides for lubrication of bearing 40 and thrust bearing ill. Flow is forward and restricted by close meter fit between the shaft-housing bore 26, the bearing spacer and shaft 35. in this manner, the main portion of lubrication system fluid is made available to the spline connection 65 and 66. Lubrication system flow is then through bearing separator opening 105 into angulated passage lltlb in the shaft housing. Lubrication system flow is through passage 107, 1108 and 109 in the displacement mechanism sealing plate 23, displacement mechanism 22 and valve plate 1%, respectively, into branch 116 in end cap lll. At this point, ball llll is unseated, since it is acted upon only by fluid under exhaust pressure. Consequently, lubrication fluid flows into volume 99 and is exhausted from the motor through port 113. The lubrication fluid cannot unseat ball llfi since it is acted upon by fluid under pressure in volume 98 through passage 122.
in the event it is desired to change the direction of rotation of the motor shaft, the fluid under pressure enters port 13 into volume 99 and, therefore, metering notch 100 allows the fluid under pressure to flow past outer sealing land 89 into second outer groove 88 and middle groove 86. Metering notch 1% cannot carry fluid from middle groove so into volume 9d which contains fluid under exhaust since the pressure difference will not allow fluid flow therethrough. Circulation for the lubrication system is as described above except that circulation fluid flow from passage 109 in valve plate 18 is into branch M7 in end cap ll, unseating ball 118 from seat 118a, allowing fluid flow into bore 120 which is in fluid communication with passage 122. Passage 122 is in fluid communication with volume 98, the volume containing fluid under exhaust which is at a slightly lower pressure than the lubrication fluid. it should be noted that fluid under pressure in volume 99 is conveyed through passage 115 into bore 112 preventing ball ill from being unseated from seat lllla thereby forcing fluid flow into branch M7.
in the event it is desired to place fluid operated motors of the type described herein in series operation, inlet and outlet ports i2 and 13 are at substantial pressure. Therefore, the case drain is utilized by simply removing drain plug H6 and connecting the outlet to a reservoir. The lubrication fluid flow is the same as described hereinabove except that the return passages, providing an outlet for the lubrication fluid, are not utilized. Valve M and valve seating ring 70 are each hydraulically balanced and biased as described hereinabove in the series operation.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that l have provided a new and novel fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type having simple and inexpensive construction and operation and including provision, in a highly sophisticated motor utilizing high-tolerance manufacturing techniques, for proper valve balancing and seating as well as controlled lubrication throughout the working parts of the motor. Provision has been made for efficiently seating the valve against the valve plate allowing the valve to rotate without leakage between the pres sure and exhaust ports at the valve plate. Further, controlled lubrication has been provided through a metering notch allowing fluid under pressure to circulate through the lubrication system in one direction without decreasing the efficiency of the motor and without sacrificing the reversibility feature of the motor. New and novel resilient sealing between the high and low pressure containing volumes of the motor has been provided so that there is efficient separation of fluid at all times. Proper bearing surface has been provided for the valve relative to the valve plate whereby the valve is supported utilizing a minimum diameter valve and valve plate.
lclaim:
l. A reversible fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type comprising:
a generally cylindrically shaped housing;
'a valve-housing portion connected to said cylindrically shaped housing, said valve-housing portion including fluid inlet and outlet ports;
an output shaft mounted in said housing for rotation about a longitudinal axis;
a displacement mechanism having expanding and contracting cells responsive to motor operating fluid;
a main drive member connecting said displacement mechanism with said output shaft whereby movement generated in said displacement mechanism in response to motor-operating fluid is transmitted to said output shaft;
a valve mounted in said valve-housing portion for rotation about its longitudinal axis, said valve having a plurality of fluid-conducting passages, alternate of the passages being in fluid communication with inlet fluid and other alternate passages being in fluid communication with outlet fluid, said valve positioned in said valve-housing portion separating inlet fluid from outlet fluid, said valve having a valve-seating mechanism confronting surface and an opposed valve plate confronting surface transverse to the longitudinal axis thereof;
a valve plate positioned between said displacement mechanism and said valve, said valve plate having a plurality of fluid-conducting passages therein in fluid communication with valve passages and displacement mechanism cells, the passages adapted to conduct operating fluid to and from displacement mechanism cells in a predetermined sequence, said valve plate having a transverse valve-confronting surface in tight sealing engagement with the valve plate confronting surface of said valve;
a valve drive member connecting said valve with said displacement mechanism providing synchronous rotation therewith;
a valve-seating mechanism, having a transverse valve-confronting surface, mounted in said valve-housing portion for axial movement therein and with the valve-confronting surface adjacent the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface of said valve, said valve-seating mechanism biased urging the valve-confronting surface thereof in tight sealing cngageme nt with the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface, said valve-seating mechanism separating inlet operating fluid from outlet operating fluid at the valve-confronting surface thereof, the valve-confronting surface including;
an annular inner groove in fluid communication with operating fluid;
an annular outer groove in fluid communication with operating fluid; and
a middle bearing land separating and sealing the inner groove from the outer groove and separating and sealing inlet fluid from outlet fluid whereby inlet operating fluid in communication with one of said inner and outer grooves, which fluid is under pressure and positioned between said valve seating mechanism and said valve, urges said valve in sealing engagement with said valve plate.
2. The fluid-operated motor of claim 1 wherein said valveseating mechanism lands and grooves are substantially circular and concentric.
3. The fluid-operated motor of claim 2 wherein said valveseating mechanism valve-confronting surface includes;
an inner bearing land adjacent said inner groove;
an inner sealing land adjacent said inner groove and sandwiching said inner groove between said inner bearing land and said inner sealing land;
a second inner groove adjacent said inner sealing land and sandwiched between said inner sealing land and said middle bearing land;
a second outer groove adjacent said middle bearing land;
an outer sealing land adjacent said second outer groove,
sandwiching said second outer groove between said middle bearing land and said outer sealing land; and
an outer bearing land adjacent said outer groove and sandwiching said outer groove between said outer sealing land and said outer bearing land.
4. The fluid-operated motor of claim 3 including:
a substantially circular inner sealing ring therefrom between with said inner bearing land and positioned radially inwardly concentric said valve-seating mechanism and said valve housing; and
a substantially circular outer sealing ring positioned radially outwardly from said outer bearing land between said valve-seating mechanism and said valve housing, said inner and outer sealing rin'gs adapted to separate inlet and outlet operating fluid.
5. The fluid-operated motor of claim 4 wherein said inner and outer rings are resilient and provide sealing of inlet and outlet operating fluid during axial movement of said valve seating mechanism.
6. The fluid-operated motor of claim l wherein said valve plate includes a plurality of valve-balancing ports spaced between the fluid-conducting passage thereof, each of said valve-balancing ports including bearing surfaces therein having an operating fluid-receiving groove therearound.
7. The fluid-operated motor of claim 1 wherein:
said cylindrically shaped housing includes a motor lubrication system adapted to provide lubrication fluid to said motor including a plurality of fluid-conducting passages in fluid communication with the motor portions in communication with lubricating fluid and with the outlet port thereof;
said valve includes a plurality of lubrication fluid-conducting passages in fluid communication with the lubrication system passages in said housing;
said valve-seating mechanism valve confronting surface thereof includes a middle groove positioned in said middle bearing land, the groove in fluid communication with the plurality of lubrication fluid conducting passages in said valve whereby fluid under pressure is conducted from said middle groove through said motor for lubrication thereof and then conducted outwardly from said motor through the lubrication system, passages thereof to the outlet port thereof; and
a fluid-metering notch providing fluid conducting means from the fluid inlet port of said motor to the middle groove of said valve-seating mechanism valve-confronting surface.
8. The fluid-operated motor of claim 7 including:
a first lubrication fluid conducting passage in fluid communication with said inlet port disposed in the valve housing portion thereof;
a second lubrication fluid conducting passage in fluid communication with said outlet port disposed in the valvehousing portion thereof, each of which first and second lubrication fluid conducting passages are in fluid communication with the lubrication system fluid conducting passage in said housing; and
a pressure-responsive check valve interposed in each of said first and second lubrication fluid conducting passages whereby fluid from the lubrication system fluid conducting passages of said housing flows therefrom through the outlet port of said motor and whereby inlet fluid flows from the inlet port of said motor though said valve.
E12 ULIITZD STATES FATE??? OFEE'E'CE M (Jemima-1T3 CGRZZECTEON Patent No. 3 572, 983 Dated March 30, 1971 Inventor(s) Hugh L. McDermott It is certified that error appears in the above-identified paten and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
In the drawing, Sheet 1, Figure l, the reference numeral 98 should be applied to the fluid containing volume defined between the fluid port opening 12 and the valve member 14 and the reference numeral 99 should be applied to the fluid containing volume between the fluill port opening 13 and the valve member 14. Column 1, line 29, "wearing" should read bearing- Column 5, line 44, after "and and before "when surfaces 9S"insert sea1s-; line 71, "bore 24" should roadie-opening 24 and. bore 43; line 75, "bearings 39 should read -bearing 39--. Column 7, line 18, "100" should read -l00O-; line 47, "100" should read --l050-. Column 8, line 69, "bearings 39'f should read -bearing 39-.
Signed and sealed this 12th day of October, 1971.
(SEAL) Attest:
' ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Acting Commissioner of Patent EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. Attesting Officer

Claims (8)

1. A reversible fluid-operated motor of the radial valve type comprising: a generally cylindrically shaped housing; a valve-housing portion connected to said cylindrically shaped housing, said valve-housing portion including fluid inlet and outlet ports; an output shaft mounted in said housing for rotation about a longitudinal axis; a displacement mechanism having expanding and contracting cells responsive to motor operating fluid; a main drive member connecting said displacement mechanism with said output shaft whereby movement generated in said displacement mechanism in response to motor-operating fluid is transmitted to said output shaft; a valve mounted in said valve-housing portion for rotation about its longitudinal axis, said valve having a plurality of fluidconducting passages, alternate of the passages being in fluid communication with inlet fluid and other alternate passages being in fluid communication with outlet fluid, said valve positioned in said valve-housing portion separating inlet fluid from outlet fluid, said valve having a valve-seating mechanism confronting surface and an opposed valve plate confronting surface transverse to the longitudinal axis thereof; a valve plate positioned between said displacement mechanism and said valve, said valve plate having a plurality of fluidconducting passages therein in fluid communication with valve passages and displacement mechanism cells, the passages adapted to conduct operating fluid to and from displacement mechanism cells in a predetermined sequence, said valve plaTe having a transverse valve-confronting surface in tight sealing engagement with the valve plate confronting surface of said valve; a valve drive member connecting said valve with said displacement mechanism providing synchronous rotation therewith; a valve-seating mechanism, having a transverse valve-confronting surface, mounted in said valve-housing portion for axial movement therein and with the valve-confronting surface adjacent the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface of said valve, said valve-seating mechanism biased urging the valve-confronting surface thereof in tight sealing engagement with the valve-seating mechanism confronting surface, said valve-seating mechanism separating inlet operating fluid from outlet operating fluid at the valve-confronting surface thereof, the valve-confronting surface including; an annular inner groove in fluid communication with operating fluid; an annular outer groove in fluid communication with operating fluid; and a middle bearing land separating and sealing the inner groove from the outer groove and separating and sealing inlet fluid from outlet fluid whereby inlet operating fluid in communication with one of said inner and outer grooves, which fluid is under pressure and positioned between said valve seating mechanism and said valve, urges said valve in sealing engagement with said valve plate.
2. The fluid-operated motor of claim 1 wherein said valve-seating mechanism lands and grooves are substantially circular and concentric.
3. The fluid-operated motor of claim 2 wherein said valve-seating mechanism valve-confronting surface includes; an inner bearing land adjacent said inner groove; an inner sealing land adjacent said inner groove and sandwiching said inner groove between said inner bearing land and said inner sealing land; a second inner groove adjacent said inner sealing land and sandwiched between said inner sealing land and said middle bearing land; a second outer groove adjacent said middle bearing land; an outer sealing land adjacent said second outer groove, sandwiching said second outer groove between said middle bearing land and said outer sealing land; and an outer bearing land adjacent said outer groove and sandwiching said outer groove between said outer sealing land and said outer bearing land.
4. The fluid-operated motor of claim 3 including: a substantially circular inner sealing ring therefrom between with said inner bearing land and positioned radially inwardly concentric said valve-seating mechanism and said valve housing; and a substantially circular outer sealing ring positioned radially outwardly from said outer bearing land between said valve-seating mechanism and said valve housing, said inner and outer sealing rings adapted to separate inlet and outlet operating fluid.
5. The fluid-operated motor of claim 4 wherein said inner and outer rings are resilient and provide sealing of inlet and outlet operating fluid during axial movement of said valve seating mechanism.
6. The fluid-operated motor of claim 1 wherein said valve plate includes a plurality of valve-balancing ports spaced between the fluid-conducting passage thereof, each of said valve-balancing ports including bearing surfaces therein having an operating fluid-receiving groove therearound.
7. The fluid-operated motor of claim 1 wherein: said cylindrically shaped housing includes a motor lubrication system adapted to provide lubrication fluid to said motor including a plurality of fluid-conducting passages in fluid communication with the motor portions in communication with lubricating fluid and with the outlet port thereof; said valve includes a plurality of lubrication fluid-conducting passages in fluid communication with the lubrication system passages in said housing; said valve-seating mechanism valve confronting surface thereof includes a middle groove positioned in said middle bearing land, the groove in fluid communication with the pLurality of lubrication fluid conducting passages in said valve whereby fluid under pressure is conducted from said middle groove through said motor for lubrication thereof and then conducted outwardly from said motor through the lubrication system passages thereof to the outlet port thereof; and a fluid-metering notch providing fluid conducting means from the fluid inlet port of said motor to the middle groove of said valve-seating mechanism valve-confronting surface.
8. The fluid-operated motor of claim 7 including: a first lubrication fluid conducting passage in fluid communication with said inlet port disposed in the valve housing portion thereof; a second lubrication fluid conducting passage in fluid communication with said outlet port disposed in the valve-housing portion thereof, each of which first and second lubrication fluid conducting passages are in fluid communication with the lubrication system fluid conducting passage in said housing; and a pressure-responsive check valve interposed in each of said first and second lubrication fluid conducting passages whereby fluid from the lubrication system fluid conducting passages of said housing flows therefrom through the outlet port of said motor and whereby inlet fluid flows from the inlet port of said motor though said valve.
US3572983D 1969-11-07 1969-11-07 Fluid-operated motor Expired - Lifetime US3572983A (en)

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US5165880A (en) * 1990-09-10 1992-11-24 White Hydraulics, Inc. Gerotor device with biased orbiting valve and drain connection through wobblestick
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB1294932A (en) 1972-11-01
DK146573B (en) 1983-11-07
JPS4933298B1 (en) 1974-09-06
DE2018061A1 (en) 1971-05-27
DE7013840U (en) 1970-09-10
SE361337B (en) 1973-10-29
DE2018061B2 (en) 1973-01-11
DK146573C (en) 1984-04-24
FR2071649A5 (en) 1971-09-17
ES377474A1 (en) 1972-08-16

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