US3564199A - Self-regulating electric fluid-sump heater - Google Patents

Self-regulating electric fluid-sump heater Download PDF

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US3564199A
US3564199A US3564199DA US3564199A US 3564199 A US3564199 A US 3564199A US 3564199D A US3564199D A US 3564199DA US 3564199 A US3564199 A US 3564199A
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sump
temperature
oil
heater
flat
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Robert F Blaha
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Texas Instruments Inc
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Texas Instruments Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C7/00Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material
    • H01C7/02Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient
    • H01C7/022Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient mainly consisting of non-metallic substances
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H9/00Details
    • F24H9/18Arrangement or mounting of grates, burners, or heating elements
    • F24H9/1809Arrangement or mounting of grates, burners, or heating elements for water heaters
    • F24H9/1818Arrangement or mounting of grates, burners, or heating elements for water heaters electric heating means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C7/00Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material
    • H01C7/02Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient
    • H01C7/027Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient consisting of conducting or semi-conducting material dispersed in a non-conductive organic material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • H05B3/141Conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitrous compounds

Abstract

A self-regulating temperature-controlling semiconductive element having a so-called anomalous positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistivity is sandwiched between electrical contacts attached thereto and encapsulated within electrically insulating but thermally conductive material to form an assembly to be placed in heat-exchange relationship with a fluid the temperature of which is to be controlled. In particular, the assembly is immersed in oil within an oil sump of a compressor, internalcombustion engine or the like; or attached to the outside of the casing of such a sump. The anomalous PTC characteristic of the heating element results in maintaining a desired stable and safe fluid temperature. Thus oil may be safely maintained at a temperature to prevent piston clogging mixtures of cold oil and refrigerant such as ''''Freon'''' in the case of a compressor, or to thin cold engine oil for easier starting.

Description

United States Patent [72] Inventor Robert F.Blaha Dedham,Mas. [21] AppLNo. 787,443 [22] Filed Dec. 30, 1968 [45] Patented Feb. 16,1971 [73] Assignee Texas Instruments Incorporated Dallas,Tex.

[54] SELF-REGULATING ELECTRIC FLUID-SUMP HEATER 3 Claims, 8 Drawing Figs. [52] U.S.C1 219/311, 219/205,219/335,219/338,219/505,219/535, 219/536 [51] Int-Cl. 1105b l/02 [50] FieldofSearch 219/311, 205,208,535,536,504,505,338,335,336; 219/301,306 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,754,080 4/1930 Briggsetal. 219/205 1,794,891 3/1931 Gerhardt 219/205 2,418,557 4/1947 Reiser 219/535X 2,448,183 8/1948 Koppel 219/311 2,861,163 11/1958 Asakawa... ,219/504(UX) 1 5 11 90. S9h2 sri9 L/ ..Q

3,148,271 9/1964 Schofer et a1 219/504 3,207,164 9/1965 Fay 219/504X 3,338,476 8/1967 Marcoux 219/301(UX) 3,400,250 9/1968 Buiting et al...... 219/306(UX) 3,400,252 9/1968 l-layakawa et a1 219/504 FOREIGN PATENTS 705,522 3/1965 Canada 219/205 Primary ExaminerA. Bartis Attorneys-l-larold Levine, Edward J. Connors, Jr., John A.

Haug and James P. McAndrews anomalous PTC characteristic of the heating element results in maintaining a desired stable and safe fluid temperature.

Thus oil may be safely maintained at a temperature to prevent piston clogging mixtures of cold oil and refrigerant such as Freon in the case of a compressor, or to thin cold engine oil for easier starting.

PATENTFiD FEB] SIB?! I 3564199 sum 1 or 3 PATENTED F551 6 ism sum 2 or 3 FIG. '5

PATENTIEDIFEBISIBYII j 3.564 199 sawanra I RESISTANCE '(OHMS) 0R POWER (WATTS) TEMPERATURE FIG. 8

- SELF-REGULATING ELECTRIC FLUID-SUM? HEATER BACKGROUND OF INVENTION sor oil sump if the compressor is relatively cold. Here it is damaging to the operation of the compressor. Therefore it is desirable to employ a sump heater to maintain the compressor at a temperature above that of the condenser, so as to prevent such migration.

1 Formerly, constant-resistance heaters were used for heating of fluids such as oil in compressor and engine sumps. These were not self-regulating. This was both uneconomical and sometimes dangerous due to overheating.

The advantage of the heating element used according to the invention resides in the fact that due to the anomalous PTC resistance characteristic, the temperature of the heating element will not exceed a safe value. This is true even with normal changes in ambient temperature and voltage. Only the power dissipated determines the amount of power that will be consumed by the heating element. An increase in voltage drives the resistance to a higher value and due to the P=V /R relationship, the power will remain relatively constant as will the heater and fluid temperature. An increase in ambient temperature also causes the resistance to increase, and due to the P=V/R relationship, this increase serves to reduce the sistance heaters, the amount of power is determined by the voltage applied. Due to the vlR expression, a voltage increase results in a power and temperature increase, and this temperature rise is added to the existing ambient temperature, whatever it is. Therefore, additional heat is added to a compressor which employs a constant resistance heater during operation even when it is not needed, which is detrimental to the life and safety of the insulation and the oil.

Initially, upon energization, the PTC heater resistance R is low, so that 'it draws a comparatively large current I and generates a comparatively large amount of power due to the well known l /R expression and causes the PTC to heat. When the heating element reaches its anomalous temperature, it self-regulates to produce an amount of heat sufficient to raise the fluid temperature. During low ambient temperature conditions, the heating element resistance remains low (as at R in FIG. 8), even though the heating element is at the anomaly because of the heat sink effect of the cold oil which increases the heat dissipation of the heating element and due to the V'IR relation, a large amount of heat is generated. At high ambient temperatures the PTC heating element dramatically in- I of power without wastage or excess generation, avoids the disadvantages of the prior art mentioned above.

Referring to the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a top view of a fragmentary section of an oil sump illustrating an enclosed immersion-type heater made according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal vertical section as indicated by line 2-2 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 3 is a horizontal cross section, as indicated by line 3-3 of FIG. 2, parts being shown in elevation;

FIG. 4 is a side view showing application of a second form of the invention;

FIG. 5 is a vertical section taken on line 5-5of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a vertical section taken on line 6-6 of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged isometric view of another form of the invention; and

FIG. 8 is a chart illustrating various temperature functions of a heating element having anomalous PTC characteristics.

Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings. .1

Referring to FIGS. 1-3, there is illustrated at numeral 1 an oil sump of a compressor, internal combustion engine or the like. This carries oil 3 which is circulated by suitable means (not shown) to lubricate the machine parts. As known, such oil under certain low ambient temperature conditions becomes thick and sluggish, making starting of the apparatus difficult while causing other difficulties such as above pointed out in connection with compressors employing Freon" or the like as a refrigerant.

At numeral 5 is illustrated a metal heat-conductive housing in the form of a flat lancelike steel wall, terminated by a supporting plate 7 in which is a slot 8. The housing 5 may be introduced through an opening 9 in the sump 1. The plate is welded, brazed or otherwise suitably attached and sealed to the sump 1. An appropriate size of the housing 5 is l X 0.25 x 3.5 inches and a wall thickness of 60 mils. It freely transmits heat. If desired, fins (not shown) may be attached to housing 5 to improve heat transfer between the housing and the oil.

As illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the housing 5 is hollow and contains a heater assembly. This assembly comprises a heater element of semiconductor material in slab form 13, this material being of the type having a PTC anomaly such as illustrated in FIG. 8. The slab 13 is diagrammatically shown. Its dimensions may for example be 1 X 0.75 X 0.l2 5,inches, but any convenient size may be used. When such material is placed in a power circuit, it initially draws a substantial amount of current which rapidly raises its temperature to a certain value without substantial resistance change. As the temperature rises, a temperature T with concomitant resistance R is reached (FIG. 8) beyond which the resistance rapidly increases with only a small increase in temperature (see resistance R at temperature T). This temperature may be for example, but without limitation; 250 F.

Appropriate materials which have the desired anomalous PTC characteristics are, for example lanthanum-doped barium titanate (Ba La TiO doped barium strontium titanate (BaSrTiO doped barium lead titanate (BaPbTiO carbon-black-filled polyethylene or polypropylene polymers, or the like. Soldered or otherwise appropriately conductively attached to the opposite sides of the slab 13 are contact strips 15 which may be composed of Kovaf' or other contact means compatible with heater materials employed. Attached to each contact strip is one wire terminal 17 of a pair of leads 19 which have suitable terminations for attachment to a 240 volt 60 cycle power circuit (for example). The terminations and power circuit are not shown, being conventional.

A suitable electrically insulating but thermally conductive material 21 is infilled between the assembly 13, 15, I7 and the walls of the housing 5. This maybe epoxy resin, silicone rubber or the like. Or it may be formed by a rubber or heatshrunk Mylar covering containing the assembly. In the case of the epoxy tiller, the containment of the assembly 13, I5, I7 in the housing 5 is permanent. In the other two cases, the assembly may be removed and replaced through the slot 8 in the plate 7.

In FIGS. 4-6 is shown another form of the invention in which the oil sump for the oil 3 is numbered 23. In this case the sump has no opening for the heater. Bolted exteriorly to the sump is a plastic housing 25 for containing the heater assembly. In this case the semiconductive slab is numbered 27,

being sandwiched between conductive terminals 29 electrisisting of a flat plate 35 from which spring-leaves 37 are struck. The spring 35, 37 presses the assembly-27, 29, 31, 33 against the outside of the sump 23. Appropriate dimensions of the heating member 27 for a 240 volt circuit are for example 3 approximately 1 X 0.75 X 0.125 inches. The plastic housing 25 traps an air layer that resists efficient heat flow from member 27 to the ambient air outside of the housing 25.

In FIG. 7 is shown another form of the invention in which a round sleeve 39 of the semiconductor material having the PTC anomaly is electrically connected to a wire conductor 41. The sleeve 39 has a conductive strip 43 conductively connected to I the outside circumference and extending in the direction of the wire 41. The connected assembly 39, 41, 43 is held in a metal cup 45 with flange 47 for attachment to a sump with the cup 45 extending through an Opening provided therein and into the oil carried within the sump. Flange 47 will be suitably attached,such as by welding, to the sump casing, or by inserting into a mating recessed portion formed in the casing. Appropriate dimensions .for the round heater are approximately but not restricted to 0.75 X 0.3300D X 0.080 ID inches for a 240 volt circuit. Epoxy potting material is shown In view of the above, it will be seen that the heater assembly is carried ina container extendingthrough an opening in a sump and into the contained oil (FIGS- l3 and 7) or ina container which is attached to the sump wall (FIGS. 4-6). In both cases the heat-exchange relationship with the oil is close. This relationship may be made closer, if desired, by simply suspending the heater assembly in the oil but some type of encasement such as described is preferred.

In operation, when the heater is first excited and ambient temperature is low, the heater initially draws substantial power (watts) during initial heating of the cold oil. While ambient temperature is low, the temperature of the heater will not rise above T due to the large heat sink and since the power consumed will be relatively high. As the ambient temperature increases, the heater temperature will increase to T because there is less dissipation of heat from the heater. The temperature increase from T to T corresponds to a resistance increase of R to R and a power decrease of Q to (FIG. 8). Thus the device is especially economical due to the low power consumed when the temperature of the ambient increases so that the heater operates under conditions of continuous temperature regulation in the environs of T. On the other hand, a conventional resistance heater draws power according to line voltage. Since power varies with the'square of line voltage, large variations in power (and heating) will result from normal line voltage variations. This causes wide temperature variations. According to the invention under line voltage changes of as much as l0 percent, the controlled temperature does not vary substantially.

Among the advantages of the invention are the following:

1. The oil is not unnecessarily heated and any resulting breakdown or dangerous flashing is avoided; 2. Electrical insulation requirements for the heater are minimized since it is not required continuously to carry large currents. The heater 'will operate at temperatures not very much above 250 F;

3. Large energy drain from the power circuit is avoided when substantial heating is not required such as under higher ambient temperature conditions. This decreases operating costs;

4. Temperature is controlled without moving parts;

5. Increased safety is obtained. For example, when prior ordinary resistance heaters become detached from the sump while energized, they-have been known to burn themselves up;

6. The heater operates to maintain substantially constant temperature conditions regardless of ambient temperature or expected over-voltage changes as high as 10 perccnL In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.

As various-changes could be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as l]- sembly comprising a flat mass of resistance material having an anomalous positive temperature coefficient of resistance,

electrical contacts conductively attached thereto on opposite sides, line terminals connectedwith said contacts, a rigid 'flat block of thermally conductive electrical insulation encapsulating said assembly of the material, contacts and line terminals adapted to engage an outside surface of the sump in close heat-exchange relationship, and spring means within the housing for pressing the flat encapsulated assembly through said wall aperture against the outside of the sump. 2. A heater according to claim 1 wherein the flat mass of material is approximately centrally located in said insulation.

3. A heater according to claim 1 wherein said flat mass material is selected from the group consisting of carbon-blackfilled polyethylene and polypropylene polymers, doped barium titanate, doped barium strontium titanate and doped barium lead titanate.

Claims (3)

1. A fluid-sump heater comprising a hollow, flat housing having an apertured wall, flange means for attaching the housing to the side of a fluid sump, with said wall adjacent the outside of said sump a flat heater assembly therein, said heater assembly comprising a flat mass of resistance material having an anomalous positive temperature coefficient of resistance, electrical contacts conductively attached thereto on opposite sides, line terminals connected with said contacts, a rigid flat block of thermally conductive electrical insulation encapsulating said assembly of the material, contacts and line terminals adapted to engage an outside surface of the sump in close heat-exchange relationship, and spring means within the housing for pressing the flat encapsulated assembly through said wall aperture against the outside of the sump.
2. A heater according to claim 1 wherein the flat mass of material is approximately centrally located in said insulation.
3. A heater according to claim 1 wherein said flat mass material is selected from the group consisting of carbon-black-filled polyethylene and polypropylene polymers, doped barium titanate, doped barium strontium titanate and doped barium lead titanate.
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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3662149A (en) * 1969-09-16 1972-05-09 Braun Pebra Gmbh Heated lock for motorcars
US3689736A (en) * 1971-01-25 1972-09-05 Texas Instruments Inc Electrically heated device employing conductive-crystalline polymers
US3842241A (en) * 1973-02-09 1974-10-15 Biozonics Corp Electrically heated aquarium tank
US3940591A (en) * 1974-07-01 1976-02-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Self-regulating electric heater
US3948438A (en) * 1974-07-17 1976-04-06 Lennox Industries Inc. Thermostat system
FR2307430A1 (en) * 1975-04-07 1976-11-05 Philips Nv Element heater self-regulating
US4053725A (en) * 1976-04-07 1977-10-11 Kramer Daniel E Pressure switch for outdoor refrigeration systems
US4083196A (en) * 1975-11-28 1978-04-11 Danfoss A/S Compressor refrigeration plant
US4083336A (en) * 1971-08-10 1978-04-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Condition responsive control device
DE2746342A1 (en) * 1976-10-18 1978-04-27 Rosemount Inc Illegal probe for air values ​​and process for its manufacture
FR2417234A1 (en) * 1978-02-14 1979-09-07 Siemens Ag immersion
EP0009136A2 (en) * 1978-09-15 1980-04-02 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Oil preheating device
FR2443124A1 (en) * 1978-12-01 1980-06-27 Raychem Corp circuit protection devices comprising PTC elements
DE2948592A1 (en) * 1979-12-03 1981-06-11 Eichenauer Fa Fritz electrical resistance
US4352008A (en) * 1979-01-26 1982-09-28 Firma Fritz Eichenauer Electric heating device for heating the interior of a switch cabinet
DE3226955C1 (en) * 1982-07-19 1984-03-29 Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De Electrical component web adhesive band applicator - uses foil structure with PTC resistance to heat adhesive on band pressed by roller
US4506138A (en) * 1983-05-05 1985-03-19 Future Tech, Inc. Magnetically attachable electric preheater for automobile engines
US4529866A (en) * 1983-03-11 1985-07-16 Raychem Corporation Method and apparatus for electrically heating diesel fuel
US4591692A (en) * 1983-10-03 1986-05-27 Wightman Lawrance W Battery warmer
EP0187320A1 (en) * 1984-12-18 1986-07-16 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Self-regulating heating article having electrodes directly connected to a PTC layer
US4603244A (en) * 1984-07-19 1986-07-29 Genz Marlin J Fuel filter jacket
US4675503A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-06-23 Ilkka Toivio Electric resistor element
USRE32643E (en) * 1983-05-05 1988-04-12 Winland Electronics, Inc. Magnetically attachable electric preheater for automobile engines
US4822980A (en) * 1987-05-04 1989-04-18 Gte Products Corporation PTC heater device
US4861966A (en) * 1985-10-15 1989-08-29 Raychem Corporation Method and apparatus for electrically heating diesel fuel utilizing a PTC polymer heating element
FR2668210A1 (en) * 1990-10-18 1992-04-24 Tecumseh Products Co Method for mounting a device for heating a compressor casing
US5194717A (en) * 1990-10-18 1993-03-16 Tecumseh Products Company Bracket for mounting a crankcase heater
US5204509A (en) * 1991-05-31 1993-04-20 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Self regulating heated switch assembly
US6274077B1 (en) * 1997-06-10 2001-08-14 Daewon Paptin Foam Co., Ltd. Manufacturing method for a buffer and heat-insulating material made of a foamed cellulose substance
US6396033B1 (en) * 2001-05-11 2002-05-28 Fast Heat, Inc. Sump heater for air conditioning compressor
US20040234388A1 (en) * 2003-05-19 2004-11-25 Chumley Eugene Karl Crankcase heater mounting for a compressor
US7034259B1 (en) 2004-12-30 2006-04-25 Tom Richards, Inc. Self-regulating heater assembly and method of manufacturing same
US20060210243A1 (en) * 2005-03-17 2006-09-21 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Information recording medium and apparatus for recording information to or reproducing information from the same
US7113696B1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-09-26 Mitchell Altman System and method for generating steam for a steam bath
EP1799015A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2007-06-20 DBK David + Baader GmbH Heating device for a personal care apparatus and method of manufacturing the same
US7308193B2 (en) * 2006-02-28 2007-12-11 Richard Halsall Non-metallic heating element for use in a fluid heater
US20150233603A1 (en) * 2014-02-17 2015-08-20 Hubert W. Jenkins Heat transfer unit
US20170227113A1 (en) * 2016-02-04 2017-08-10 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Transmission fluid conditioning for electrified vehicles

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Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3662149A (en) * 1969-09-16 1972-05-09 Braun Pebra Gmbh Heated lock for motorcars
US3689736A (en) * 1971-01-25 1972-09-05 Texas Instruments Inc Electrically heated device employing conductive-crystalline polymers
US4083336A (en) * 1971-08-10 1978-04-11 Texas Instruments Incorporated Condition responsive control device
US3842241A (en) * 1973-02-09 1974-10-15 Biozonics Corp Electrically heated aquarium tank
US3940591A (en) * 1974-07-01 1976-02-24 Texas Instruments Incorporated Self-regulating electric heater
US3948438A (en) * 1974-07-17 1976-04-06 Lennox Industries Inc. Thermostat system
FR2307430A1 (en) * 1975-04-07 1976-11-05 Philips Nv Element heater self-regulating
US4083196A (en) * 1975-11-28 1978-04-11 Danfoss A/S Compressor refrigeration plant
US4053725A (en) * 1976-04-07 1977-10-11 Kramer Daniel E Pressure switch for outdoor refrigeration systems
JPH0134318Y2 (en) * 1976-10-18 1989-10-18
DE2746342A1 (en) * 1976-10-18 1978-04-27 Rosemount Inc Illegal probe for air values ​​and process for its manufacture
JPS6217092U (en) * 1976-10-18 1987-01-31
FR2417234A1 (en) * 1978-02-14 1979-09-07 Siemens Ag immersion
EP0009136A2 (en) * 1978-09-15 1980-04-02 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Oil preheating device
US4371778A (en) * 1978-09-15 1983-02-01 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electric heating device employing PTC heating element for preheating of heating oil
EP0009136A3 (en) * 1978-09-15 1980-04-16 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Berlin Und Munchen Oil preheating device
FR2443124A1 (en) * 1978-12-01 1980-06-27 Raychem Corp circuit protection devices comprising PTC elements
US4352008A (en) * 1979-01-26 1982-09-28 Firma Fritz Eichenauer Electric heating device for heating the interior of a switch cabinet
DE2948592A1 (en) * 1979-12-03 1981-06-11 Eichenauer Fa Fritz electrical resistance
DE3226955C1 (en) * 1982-07-19 1984-03-29 Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De Electrical component web adhesive band applicator - uses foil structure with PTC resistance to heat adhesive on band pressed by roller
US4529866A (en) * 1983-03-11 1985-07-16 Raychem Corporation Method and apparatus for electrically heating diesel fuel
US4506138A (en) * 1983-05-05 1985-03-19 Future Tech, Inc. Magnetically attachable electric preheater for automobile engines
USRE32643E (en) * 1983-05-05 1988-04-12 Winland Electronics, Inc. Magnetically attachable electric preheater for automobile engines
US4591692A (en) * 1983-10-03 1986-05-27 Wightman Lawrance W Battery warmer
US4603244A (en) * 1984-07-19 1986-07-29 Genz Marlin J Fuel filter jacket
US4675503A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-06-23 Ilkka Toivio Electric resistor element
US4783587A (en) * 1984-12-18 1988-11-08 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Self-regulating heating article having electrodes directly connected to a PTC layer
EP0187320A1 (en) * 1984-12-18 1986-07-16 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Self-regulating heating article having electrodes directly connected to a PTC layer
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