US3562974A - Structural unit - Google Patents

Structural unit Download PDF

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Publication number
US3562974A
US3562974A US3562974DA US3562974A US 3562974 A US3562974 A US 3562974A US 3562974D A US3562974D A US 3562974DA US 3562974 A US3562974 A US 3562974A
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United States
Prior art keywords
trusses
struts
support beams
beams
house
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Expired - Lifetime
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Heinrich Niemeyer
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Wilhelm Schilling
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Priority to DE19681784632 priority Critical patent/DE1784632A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/34Extraordinary structures, e.g. with suspended or cantilever parts supported by masts or tower-like structures enclosing elevators or stairs; Features relating to the elastic stability
    • E04B1/3408Extraordinarily-supported small buildings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/343Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport
    • E04B1/34315Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport characterised by separable parts
    • E04B1/34326Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport characterised by separable parts mainly constituted by longitudinal elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B7/00Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation
    • E04B7/02Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation with plane sloping surfaces, e.g. saddle roofs
    • E04B7/028Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation with plane sloping surfaces, e.g. saddle roofs consisting of structures of pyramidal or conical shape

Abstract

TO PROVIDE A STRUCTURAL UNIT FOR A TRANSPORTABE HOUSE, THREE VERTICAL SUPPORT BEAMS FORMING A TRIANGLE SUPPORT A STABLE STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK WHICH INCLUDES A ROOF STRUCTURE AND A PLURALITY OF SIDE WALL SUPPORTING BEAMS EXTENDING IN VERTICAL PLANES FROM HORIZONTAL STRUTS OF THE ROOF STRUCTURE. THE ROOF STRUCTURE COMPRISES THREE OBLIQUELY EXTENDING MAIN ROOF SUPPORTING TRUSSES SUPPORTED ON THE SUPPORT BEAMS, AND THE STRUTS WHICH EXTEND CIRCUMFERENTIALLY AND HAVE THEIR ENDS INTERCONNECTED. THE STRUTS ARE ADJACENT THE OUTER ENDS OF THE TRUSSES AND EXTEND TRANSVERSELY THERETO.

Description

H. NIEMEYER Feb. 16, 1971 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Aug. 25, 1969 Fig.

lNvfi` WIA/HIC# NTOR (EMEYER By l,

" @ENT Feb. 16, 1971 H. MEMEYER 3,562,974

STRUCTURAL UNIT Filed Aug. 25, 1969 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORI United States Patent O 3,562,974 STRUCTURAL UNIT Heinrich Niemeyer, Tnbingen, Germany, assgnor to Wilhelm Schilling, Weiskirchen, Germany Filed Aug. 25, 1969, Ser. No. 852,540 Claims priority, application Germany, Aug. 29, 1968, P 17 84 632.1 Int. Cl. E04b 1/34; E04h 1/00 U.S. Cl. 52-73 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE To provide a structural unit for a transportable house, three vertical support beams forming a triangle support a stable structural framework which includes a roof structure and a plurality of side wall supporting beams extending in vertical planes from horizontal struts of the roof structure. The roof structure comprises three obliquely extending main roof supporting trusses supported on the support beams, and the struts which extend circumferentially and have their ends interconnected. The struts are adjacent the outer ends of the trusses and extend transversely thereto.

BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a structural unit for a transportable house. The unit comprises three vertical support beams forming a triangle and adapted to be fixed in corresponding foundation sockets at the site of the house, and a stable structural framework supported on the support beams.

Houses mounted on such foundations by means of the support beams off the ground have the advantage of not only eliminating the need for elaborate and expensive foundations for the house but making it possible to prefabricate the unit and to transport the prefabricated unit to any desired site where it may be readily placed in position by means of a crane. Furthermore, the surface prole of the site on which a house is erected on stilt-like support beams does not interfere with the erection of the house. All that is needed are three foundation sockets to receive the support beams.

A problem in devising a satisfactory structural unit for this purpose resides in obtaining proper stability and a stable support for the self-supporting framework of the unit on the support beams. Also important is the placement of the gas, electric, water and sewer lines within the framework in such a manner that they remain hidden and do not disadvantageously affect the architectural appearance of the house.

It is the primary object of this invention to solve these problems and to provide a stable, self-supporting 'structural framework, which may be prefabricated and which may be formed into a statically balanced, securely connected structural unit by xing the framework on the three support beams at the site selected for the house.

It is also an object of the invention to arrange the support beams centrally in respect of the structural framework, that the support beams do not or only in a minor fashion interfere with the lay-out of the rooms, and to permit ready and unencumbered placement of the utility supply lines for the house.

The above and other objects are accomplished in accordance with the present invention with a structural framework which includes a roof structure comprising three obliquely extending main roof supporting trusses supported on the vertical support beams or stilts and circumferentially extending horizontal struts having their 3,562,974 Patented Feb. 16, 1971 ICC ends connected to the ends of adjacent struts. The struts are adjacent the outer ends of the trusses and extend transversely thereto. The framework also includes a plurality of side wall supporting beams depending from the struts whereon they are supported independently of the vertical support beams.

In this manner, the structural framework is supported on the support beams, which may be of steel, without the side wall supporting beams being supported thereby. Rather, the support beams extend freely through the central portion of the framework, and the roof structure is supported in a statically balanced manner on the tops of the support beams. Thus, the point of gravity of the house is relatively low in respect of the support, which considerably adds to the stability of a house supported only at three points forming a triangle. Furthermore, one of the three centrally located support beams may be readily used for bringing in the utility lines, and such rooms as bathrooms, the kitchen and other rooms requiring water may be located adjacent the one support beam.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING The above and other objects, advantages and features of this invention will become more apparent by reference to the following detailed description of two now preferred embodiments thereof, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing wherein FIG. l is a schematic perspective top view of a structural unit according to one embodiment and also showing some of the inside of a transportable house built with such a unit;

FIG. 2 is a schematic side view of an installed house with the structural unit of FIG. 1, partly in section; and

FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective top view of a structural unit according to another embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring now to the drawing and first to FIG. l, there is shown a structural unit wherein the connection between the vertical support beams and the roof structure provides great stability. This is accomplished by suitably interrelating the positioning of the roof supporting trusses and bracing elements for the roof structure to each other and to the support points of the trusses on the support beams.

As shown, the structural framework 1 rests on three vertical support beams 2 which form an equilateral triangle. The framework 1 includes the roof structure 3 which comprises three obliquely extending main roof supporting trusses 4 which meet their inner ends at a point in a vertical axis passing through the center of the triangle. The trusses extend outwardly and downwardly from the center under the same angle. The roof structure also comprises eircumferentially extending horizontal struts 7 having their ends connected to the ends of adjacent struts to form a polygon. The struts are adjacent the outer ends of the trusses and extend generally transversely thereto. A plurality of upright side wall supporting beams 8 depend from the struts 7 whereon they are supported independently of the vertical support beams 2, the lower ends of the beams 8 being interconnected by base struts 9. As best seen in FIG. 2, the side wall supporting beams (and the side walls of the house) are inwardly inclined in the embodiment of FIG. l so that the base of the house is smaller than the roof.

In the roof structure, respective ones of the trusses 4 are supported on respective ones of the support beams 2 at points intermediate their ends. The support points have the same distance from the center axis. A brace 18 extends between the outer end of each truss and the associated support beam 2.

In the embodiment of FIG. 1, the struts 7 are connected to associated trusses 4 at their midpoints, and pairs of stitfening braces 5, 6 extend from the midpoints to respective support points of adjacent trusses 4.

This structural framework forms a stable, self-supporting structure which rests on three symmetrically distributed support points on the support beams 2 which extend upwardly through the framework. The weight of the framework 1 and of the house is distributed over the support beams not only through their tops on which the trusses 4 rest and to which the stiitening braces 5, 6 extend but also through their sides which receive the Weight through the horizontal braces 18 which are under compressive stress.

The house is thus suspended from the support beams which support the roof structure and whence the side walls depend, rather than the ba of the house being supported on the beams in the conventional manner. Since the house thus hangs from the roof, its center of gravity is very low in respect of its support. Also, in view of the central location of the support beams 2, the unsupported lengths of the trusses and braces of the framework are relatively short so that structural elements of relatively small gages suice to provide a strong structure, which reduces the costs and the weight.

In the illustrated embodiments, each support beam 2 is of triangular shape, with a long base of the triangular beam extending vertically and facing inwardly towards the center and the two sides meeting at an apex in contact with an associated brace 18. The support beams and their associated braces extend in common planes extending through the center axis. In this manner, the support beams are reinforced at the point where relatively strong bending stresses occur.

Additional stiffening braces 17 extend between adjacent support points of the trusses 4. It will be noted that the stiffening braces 5, 6 and 17 increase the stiffness of the roof structure without unduly increasing its weight. They define therebetween subdivided, smaller roof areas which may be readily covered by roong material of relatively small areas.

The horizontal struts 7 form a hexagon in the illustrated embodiments which cornes relatively close to a circle which, as is known, constitutes the largest area for a given circumference, thus providing maximum living space in the house.

It will be noted from FIG. 1 that the room iloors 10, 11, 12 as well as the room walls 13, 14, 15 may be positioned totally independently from the static requirements of the framework so that the house may be laid out without concern to such requirements. For instance, the iloors may rise stepwise from the first to the second floor of the house, as illustrated, to make a staircase unnecessary, or escalators 16 may be provided, if desired.

While the statics of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 3 are substantially identical, the form of the structural framework 1 is substantialy that of a tent coming to a point while the embodiment of FIG. 3 shows a framework 1' which comes closer to that of a hemisphere which, as is known, provides maximum space or volume within its contines.

The base of both frameworks is a hexagon formed by the circumferentially extending struts 7, 9 and 7', 9. But while the trusses 4 meet in a point on the center axis and the roof structure is stabilized by horizontal braces 17 extending between adjacent support points of the trusses below the apex of the roof structure, the trusses 4 extend only to such support points, with the horizontal braces 17 forming a ilat triangular top of the roof structure.

As appears particularly on the right half of FIG. 2, dished three-dimensional roof surfaces are formed between adjacent trusses and/ or braces of the roof structure, and roofing materials of such structure may be relatively light and yet will have the same stability and load-carrying capacity as roofings of heavier gage.

In the embodiment of FIG. 3, the outer ends of the trusses 4 are connected to alternate corners of the hexagon formed by the horizontal struts 7' and respective trusses are supported on respective support beams 2, as in the embodiment of FIG. l. Pairs of stiffening braces 5', 6 extend between the corners of the hexagon between the alternate corners and respective support points of adjacent trusses 4 on the support beams 2.

In contrast to the embodiment of FIG. l, where the base struts 9 are parallel to the struts 7, the six horizontally extending base struts 9', which extend in the planes of the associated side wall supporting beams 8a, 8b, form a hexagon of the same size as the hexagon formed by the struts 7' but the hexagons are angularly displaced by 30 in respect of each other. The side Wall supporting beams 8a, l8b extend obliquely between the corners of the hexagons.

The embodiment of FIG. 3 provides living space of the same size at a reduced use of building materials without in any way reducing the stability of the structure.

What is claimed is:

1. A structural unit for a transportable house, comprising (l) three vertical support beams forming a triangle;

and

(2) a stable structural framework supported on the support beams, the framework including (a) a root` structure comprising three obliquely extending main roof supporting trusses having inner and outer ends, the trusses being supported on the vertical support beams, the support beams extending upwardly through the framework, and circumferentially extending horizontal struts having their ends connected to the ends of adjacent struts, the struts being adjacent the outer ends of the trusses and extending transversely thereto, and

(b) a plurality of side wall supporting beams depending from the struts whereon they are supported independently of the vertical support beams.

2. The structural unit of claim 1, further comprising bracing elements mounted between adjacent ones of the trusses.

3. The structural unit of claim 1, wherein the three vertical support beams form an equilateral triangle having a center, the three main roof supporting trusses meet with their inner ends at a point in a vertical axis passing through the center and extend outwardly and downwardly therefrom under the same angle, respective ones of the trusses are supported on respective ones of the support beams at points, the support points having the same distance from said axis, and a brace extends between the outer end of each truss and the associated one of the support beams.

4. The structural unit of claim 3, wherein each support beam is of triangular shape, with a long base of the triangular beam extending vertically and facing inwardly towards the center and the two sides meeting at an apex in contact with an associated ones of the braces, the support beams and their associated braces extending in common radial planes extending through said axis.

5. The structural unit of claim 3, the struts being connected to associated ones of the trusses at their midpoints, and further comprising pairs of stiifening braces extending from said midpoints to respective ones of the support points of adjacent ones of the trusses.

6. The structural unit of claim 3, further comprising additional stiffening braces extending between respective ones of adjacent support points of said trusses.

7. The structural unit of claim 1, wherein said horizontal struts form a hexagon.

8. The structural unit of claim 7, the outer ends of the trusses being connected to alternate corners of the hexagon and respective ones of the trusses being supported on respective ones of `the support beams, and further comprising pairs of stiffening braces extending between the corners of the hexagon between the alternate corners and respective support points of adjacent ones of the trusses on the support beams.

9. The structural unit of claim 8, further comprising six horizontally extending base struts in the planes of associated ones of the side wall supporting beams, the base struts forming a hexagon of the same size as the hexagon formed by the first-named horizontal struts, the hexagons being angularly displaced by 30 in respect of each other, the side Wall supporting bearns extending between the corners of the hexagons.

6 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,017,893 1/1962 Greenbie 52-82 3,214,872 11/1965 Vogelgesang 52-236 3,255,990 6/1966 Williams 52-73 3,395,407 8/ 1968 Teschner 52-73 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner U.S. C1. X.R.

US3562974D 1968-08-29 1969-08-25 Structural unit Expired - Lifetime US3562974A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19681784632 DE1784632A1 (en) 1968-08-29 1968-08-29 Kits to build a transportable house

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JP (1) JPS4949407B1 (en)
CH (1) CH505957A (en)
DE (1) DE1784632A1 (en)
ES (1) ES172983Y (en)
FR (1) FR2017188A1 (en)
GB (1) GB1266167A (en)
NL (1) NL6913190A (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3755973A (en) * 1971-09-14 1973-09-04 T Rader Modular building system
US3972163A (en) * 1974-10-11 1976-08-03 Coperthwaite William S Concentric building
US4648217A (en) * 1983-03-03 1987-03-10 Watson Vincent O Expansion roof
US5203131A (en) * 1989-03-07 1993-04-20 Alifabs Limited Structures
US20060053701A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-16 Loesch Ivan L Unfolding modular building system
US20080010940A1 (en) * 2006-07-11 2008-01-17 Yijing Sun Building-above-land for protecting vegetation and environment
US20100275526A1 (en) * 2006-07-11 2010-11-04 Yijing Sun Building-above-land for protection of vegetation and environment
US9797123B2 (en) * 2012-12-24 2017-10-24 Purepods Limited Dwelling
US9896834B1 (en) 2013-11-13 2018-02-20 Jeanette Hyams Tree house elevated in a simulated tree, and method of making
RU2659102C1 (en) * 2017-10-03 2018-06-28 Сергей Валентинович Вихарев Spherical detachable residential module

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2124270A (en) * 1982-07-09 1984-02-15 Christopher Ernest Crawford Building with hyperbolic paraboloidal roof
AT14319U1 (en) * 2013-06-20 2015-08-15 Wunsch Haus Gmbh & Cokg Spatial structure

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3755973A (en) * 1971-09-14 1973-09-04 T Rader Modular building system
US3972163A (en) * 1974-10-11 1976-08-03 Coperthwaite William S Concentric building
US4648217A (en) * 1983-03-03 1987-03-10 Watson Vincent O Expansion roof
US5203131A (en) * 1989-03-07 1993-04-20 Alifabs Limited Structures
US20060053701A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-16 Loesch Ivan L Unfolding modular building system
US20080010940A1 (en) * 2006-07-11 2008-01-17 Yijing Sun Building-above-land for protecting vegetation and environment
US20100275526A1 (en) * 2006-07-11 2010-11-04 Yijing Sun Building-above-land for protection of vegetation and environment
US9797123B2 (en) * 2012-12-24 2017-10-24 Purepods Limited Dwelling
US9896834B1 (en) 2013-11-13 2018-02-20 Jeanette Hyams Tree house elevated in a simulated tree, and method of making
RU2659102C1 (en) * 2017-10-03 2018-06-28 Сергей Валентинович Вихарев Spherical detachable residential module

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ES172983U (en) 1972-02-16
DE1784632A1 (en) 1971-11-18
NL6913190A (en) 1970-03-03
ES172983Y (en) 1972-09-01
GB1266167A (en) 1972-03-08
CH505957A (en) 1971-04-15
JPS4949407B1 (en) 1974-12-27
FR2017188A1 (en) 1970-05-22

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