US3543761A - Bladder stimulating method - Google Patents

Bladder stimulating method Download PDF

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Publication number
US3543761A
US3543761A US3543761DA US3543761A US 3543761 A US3543761 A US 3543761A US 3543761D A US3543761D A US 3543761DA US 3543761 A US3543761 A US 3543761A
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Prior art keywords
bladder
electrode
electrodes
leads
stimulating
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William E Bradley
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University of Minnesota
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University of Minnesota
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/36007Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation of urogenital or gastrointestinal organs, e.g. for incontinence control
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode

Description

O I v Umted States Patent 1111 3,543,761

{72] Inventor William E. Bradley [56] References Cited 1 N gf g'm UNITED STATES PATENTS U P 2,590,876 4/1952 Landauer 128/417 [22] Flled 01.1.5, 1967 3,236,240 2/1966 Bradley 128/421 [451 Pawn 3 40s 11s 10/1968 Ha fors 128/418 [73] Assignee The Regents of the University of Minnesota g Minne li Mi t Primary Examiner-William E. Kamm a corporation of Minne ota Auomey- Burd. Braddock & Hart:

[54] BLADDER STIMULATING METHOD A's." An

. apparatus and method for 1mp1antat1on 1n 1 Clam" 5 Drawing Figs the body of an animal to stimulate the bladder without stimu- [52] U.S.Cl 128/421, lating nearby muscles. and the method of so stimulating the 128/418 bladder. The electrode structure of the apparatus includes a [51] lnt.CI A6111 1/18 first plurality of electrodes, each of which is surrounded by [50] Field of Search 128/404- one of a second plurality of electrodes to limit the stimulation to a series of spaced spots.

BLADDER STMULATINGMETIIOD BACKGROUND or THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method for artificially and electrically stimulating the bladder of persons who have lost the ability to voluntarily empty the bladder because of injury or disease;

This invention was made under a grant from the United States Government through the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.-

This apparatus and method ,is an improvement over that described in my US. Pat. No. 3,236,240. It has been discovered that use of the apparatus there disclosed is not always completely satisfactory. That apparatus utilizes spaced apart electrodes to stimulate large areas of the bladder smooth muscle with volitionally generated electrical signals. It has been found that stimulation of such large areas sometimes results in stray electrical signals causing stimulation of nearby muscles in an undesired manner. Specifically, the stimulating signal causes the bladder to attempt to contract as desired but also causes contraction of the external sphincter, thereby inhibiting the evacuation of fluid from the bladder.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to overcome the above described prior art drawback, an improved method has been developed to stimulate a number of separated spots' on the smooth muscle of the bladder with electrode structures that prevent stray signals from stimulating the sphincter or other nearby, muscles in the pelvic floor. The method ofv the present invention utilizes a plurality of spaced first electrodes, connected in parallel, each of which is electrically guarded by a second electrode so that the stimulating signal is confined to small spots between each first electrode and the second electrode which guards it. The

invention is more fully described in the drawing and detailed description which follow.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now'to FIGS. 1, 2 and 2A, a stimulating signal generating means, generally designated 10, is encased in a sterilizable, inert, nonirritating andnontoxic protective and insulating mass 11, preferably .of synthetic resinous material. Substances such as silicone rubber, silastic resins, tetrafluoroethylene polymers, vinyl chloride and the like, are suitable materials for use as the encasing or the encapsulating material. Pure naturalrubber may also be used.

Extending outward from the signalgenerating means is an encapsulated conductive lead structure, generally designated 12. Encapsulated lead structure 12 includes a pair of electrically conductive flexible leads 13 and 14 which are connected between the output of stimulating signal generating means 10 and a pair of'buss bars 15 and 16, respectively. From buss bar 15, a plurality of flexible leads I7 extend to an exposed electrode structure, generally dcsignated 25, with each lead 17 having one end connected to an annular electrode 1 8. From buss bar 16, a plurality of flexible leads extend to exposed electrode structure with each lead 20 having its free end connected to a circular electrode 21, which is positioned inside of one of electrodes I8. The structures carrying leads I7 and 20 are generally designated 19.

Electrical leads 13, 14, 17 and 20 are constructed 'of any flexible good electrical conductor, but are preferably formed of an alloy of about 90 percent platinum and about 10 percent iridium. The leads may be flat or coiled as shown. Exposed electrodes, 18 and 21 may be formed from any inert nontoxic and nonirritating electrically conductive material. Platinum or platinum-iridium alloys are preferred materials but other materials such as tanalum, gold. silver. and alloys of these metals or surgical grade stainless steel may also be used.

Conductive leads 1.3; 14, 17 and 20, buss bars 15 and I6, and portions of electrodes 18 and 21 are encased or encapsulated in inert, nontoxic material 22 which forms a unitary impervious coating with covering 11. Thus, only portions of electrodes 18 and 21 are exposed. Encapsulating material 22 performs the dual function of encapsulating the leads and supporting each of electrodes 18 in guarding relation to one of electrodes 21 so that the current path is confined to a small area between each electrode 2] and the electrode I8 which guards it.

The preferred exposed electrode structure, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, utilizes electrodes 21 having a circular surface which contacts the bladder muscle. Electrodes 18 are constructed so as to have an annular surface contactingthe bladder muscle so as to entirely surround the circular area contacted by electrode 21. However, electrode 21 may contact an area in the shape of any geometrical FIG, and guard ing electrode 18 may take the form of any closed geometrical FIG. which surrounds the area contacted by electrode 21. The diameter of the contact surface of annular guarding electrode 21 is preferably 1 centimeter or less so that several can readily be sutured to a collapsed human bladder. The contact area of electrode 18 is preferably small enough that substantially the entire area within the circle contacted by electrode 21 carries current.

Encapsulating material 22 has a series of holes 23 spaced around each guarded electrode structure. These holes are included for ease in suturing the electrode structures to the bladder wall at spaced apart locations. It has been discovered that fromtwoto eight separate spots, and preferably four, should be stimulated to achieve satisfactory evacuation of the bladder of a human. When four structures are used, they are placed around the neck of the bladder at approximately equal intervals.

' FIG. 3 discloses a block diagram of one electrical circuit which can be used to stimulate separated spots on the bladder or other body organ. Stimulating signal generating means 10 is shown containing a parallel resonant circuit 30 which is responsive to an externally generated, radio frequency, oscillatorysignal. Resonant circuit 30 is connected through a rectifier 31 and filter 32 to a pulse generator or multivibrator 33. The output signal from pulse generator 33 appears across conductiveleads Band 14.

generator 33 which has a pair of output terminals 34 and 35..

Pulse generator 33 is preferably constructed to provide 10- 30-volt peak pulses, with one millisecond pulse width, at the rate of 25 pulses per second into a I00 ohm load. The output signal from pulse generator 33 is A-C coupled to leads l3 and 14.

As shown in FIG. 3, it can be seen that the output of pulse generator 33 appears across electrodes 18 and 21 of each electrode structure. Since each of the electrodes 18 is tied to a common point or buss bar 15, they are all at substantially the same potential and substantially no current flows between the spaced apart electrode structures.

FIG. 4 is a modified bladder stimulator, according to the in vention, wherein parts corresponding to those in FIGS. 1-3 are numbered one hundred greater. In FIG. 4, each electrode structure has separate leads which extend into encasing means 111. In this structure, more lead carrying structures exit from encasing means 111, but buss bars, like and 16 of FIGS. 1 and 2, are not required. Elimination of the buss bars and direct connection of each of the leads to one of the output terminals of the pulse generator reduces cost substantially when platinum-iridium leads are used.

The embodiments described are only representative of many variations that are within the scope of the invention which is intended to be limited only by the scope of the following claims.

US3543761A 1967-10-05 1967-10-05 Bladder stimulating method Expired - Lifetime US3543761A (en)

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Cited By (46)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3738368A (en) * 1970-12-14 1973-06-12 R Avery Implantable electrodes for the stimulation of the sciatic nerve
US3868947A (en) * 1973-10-16 1975-03-04 Us Government Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter
US3967628A (en) * 1974-02-21 1976-07-06 U.S. Philips Corporation Skin electrode
US4010758A (en) * 1975-09-03 1977-03-08 Medtronic, Inc. Bipolar body tissue electrode
US4026304A (en) * 1972-04-12 1977-05-31 Hydro Med Sciences Inc. Bone generating method and device
US4030509A (en) * 1975-09-30 1977-06-21 Mieczyslaw Mirowski Implantable electrodes for accomplishing ventricular defibrillation and pacing and method of electrode implantation and utilization
US4062364A (en) * 1975-01-21 1977-12-13 Kazumi Masaki Electrode for use in low frequency electronic therapy device
US4067342A (en) * 1976-04-06 1978-01-10 Medtronic, Inc. Tape electrode
US4125116A (en) * 1977-02-14 1978-11-14 The Johns Hopkins University Human tissue stimulation electrode structure
US4155353A (en) * 1976-11-18 1979-05-22 Davis William E Electrode and method for laryngeal electromyography
US4219027A (en) * 1979-01-16 1980-08-26 Nasa Subcutaneous electrode structure
US4256115A (en) * 1976-12-20 1981-03-17 American Technology, Inc. Leadless cardiac pacer
US4282886A (en) * 1979-11-13 1981-08-11 Medtronic, Inc. Adhesive bonded positive fixation epicardial lead
WO1982001656A1 (en) * 1980-11-20 1982-05-27 Roy E Mcdonnell Electrical control of body discharges and headaches
US4346715A (en) * 1978-07-12 1982-08-31 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Hyperthermia heating apparatus
US4353372A (en) * 1980-02-11 1982-10-12 Bunker Ramo Corporation Medical cable set and electrode therefor
US4369791A (en) * 1979-10-01 1983-01-25 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable electrode
US4553554A (en) * 1983-09-09 1985-11-19 Lemole Gerald M Electrical lead and method for temporary cardiac pacing
US4566457A (en) * 1982-08-04 1986-01-28 Gunter Stemple Defibrillator circuit and electrodes therefor
GB2163355A (en) * 1984-07-20 1986-02-26 Philippe Paul Henri Simonin A device for aesthetic skin treatment
US4620550A (en) * 1985-04-15 1986-11-04 Schering A.G. Implantable bipolar stimulating electrode
DE3523226A1 (en) * 1985-06-28 1987-01-08 Osypka Peter Defibrillation electrode
US5143090A (en) * 1989-11-02 1992-09-01 Possis Medical, Inc. Cardiac lead
US5203348A (en) * 1990-06-06 1993-04-20 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
US5230337A (en) * 1990-06-06 1993-07-27 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Process for implanting subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
US5281219A (en) * 1990-11-23 1994-01-25 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple stimulation electrodes
US5282843A (en) * 1990-06-12 1994-02-01 Zmd Corporation Electrodes and method for transcutaneous cardiac pacing
US5366496A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-11-22 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Subcutaneous shunted coil electrode
US5409467A (en) * 1992-10-02 1995-04-25 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Antimicrobial catheter
US5431688A (en) * 1990-06-12 1995-07-11 Zmd Corporation Method and apparatus for transcutaneous electrical cardiac pacing
WO1998009679A1 (en) * 1996-09-05 1998-03-12 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Gastro-intestinal electrical pacemaker
US6606523B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2003-08-12 Transneuronix Inc. Gastric stimulator apparatus and method for installing
US20050107834A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-05-19 Freeman Gary A. Multi-path transthoracic defibrillation and cardioversion
US20090093730A1 (en) * 2007-10-05 2009-04-09 Drager Medical Ag & Co. Kg Device for detecting and transmitting electrical pulses
US9101769B2 (en) 2011-01-03 2015-08-11 The Regents Of The University Of California High density epidural stimulation for facilitation of locomotion, posture, voluntary movement, and recovery of autonomic, sexual, vasomotor, and cognitive function after neurological injury
US9393409B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2016-07-19 Neuroenabling Technologies, Inc. Non invasive neuromodulation device for enabling recovery of motor, sensory, autonomic, sexual, vasomotor and cognitive function
US9409011B2 (en) 2011-01-21 2016-08-09 California Institute Of Technology Method of constructing an implantable microelectrode array
US9409023B2 (en) 2011-03-24 2016-08-09 California Institute Of Technology Spinal stimulator systems for restoration of function
US9415218B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2016-08-16 The Regents Of The University Of California Transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation: noninvasive tool for activation of locomotor circuitry
USD766447S1 (en) * 2015-09-10 2016-09-13 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch
USD793566S1 (en) 2015-09-10 2017-08-01 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch
USD801528S1 (en) 2013-11-07 2017-10-31 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Electrocardiography monitor
US9993642B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-06-12 The Regents Of The University Of California Multi-site transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord for facilitation of locomotion
US10092750B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2018-10-09 Neuroenabling Technologies, Inc. Transcutaneous neuromodulation system and methods of using same
USD831833S1 (en) 2013-11-07 2018-10-23 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch
US10137299B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2018-11-27 The Regents Of The University Of California Engaging the cervical spinal cord circuitry to re-enable volitional control of hand function in tetraplegic subjects

Cited By (58)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3738368A (en) * 1970-12-14 1973-06-12 R Avery Implantable electrodes for the stimulation of the sciatic nerve
US4026304A (en) * 1972-04-12 1977-05-31 Hydro Med Sciences Inc. Bone generating method and device
US3868947A (en) * 1973-10-16 1975-03-04 Us Government Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter
US3967628A (en) * 1974-02-21 1976-07-06 U.S. Philips Corporation Skin electrode
US4062364A (en) * 1975-01-21 1977-12-13 Kazumi Masaki Electrode for use in low frequency electronic therapy device
US4010758A (en) * 1975-09-03 1977-03-08 Medtronic, Inc. Bipolar body tissue electrode
US4030509A (en) * 1975-09-30 1977-06-21 Mieczyslaw Mirowski Implantable electrodes for accomplishing ventricular defibrillation and pacing and method of electrode implantation and utilization
US4067342A (en) * 1976-04-06 1978-01-10 Medtronic, Inc. Tape electrode
US4155353A (en) * 1976-11-18 1979-05-22 Davis William E Electrode and method for laryngeal electromyography
US4256115A (en) * 1976-12-20 1981-03-17 American Technology, Inc. Leadless cardiac pacer
US4125116A (en) * 1977-02-14 1978-11-14 The Johns Hopkins University Human tissue stimulation electrode structure
US4346715A (en) * 1978-07-12 1982-08-31 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Hyperthermia heating apparatus
US4219027A (en) * 1979-01-16 1980-08-26 Nasa Subcutaneous electrode structure
US4369791A (en) * 1979-10-01 1983-01-25 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable electrode
US4282886A (en) * 1979-11-13 1981-08-11 Medtronic, Inc. Adhesive bonded positive fixation epicardial lead
US4353372A (en) * 1980-02-11 1982-10-12 Bunker Ramo Corporation Medical cable set and electrode therefor
WO1982001656A1 (en) * 1980-11-20 1982-05-27 Roy E Mcdonnell Electrical control of body discharges and headaches
US4537195A (en) * 1980-11-20 1985-08-27 Mcdonnell Roy E Electrical control of body discharges and headaches
US4566457A (en) * 1982-08-04 1986-01-28 Gunter Stemple Defibrillator circuit and electrodes therefor
US4553554A (en) * 1983-09-09 1985-11-19 Lemole Gerald M Electrical lead and method for temporary cardiac pacing
GB2163355A (en) * 1984-07-20 1986-02-26 Philippe Paul Henri Simonin A device for aesthetic skin treatment
US4620550A (en) * 1985-04-15 1986-11-04 Schering A.G. Implantable bipolar stimulating electrode
DE3523226A1 (en) * 1985-06-28 1987-01-08 Osypka Peter Defibrillation electrode
US5143090A (en) * 1989-11-02 1992-09-01 Possis Medical, Inc. Cardiac lead
US5603732A (en) * 1990-06-06 1997-02-18 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
US5230337A (en) * 1990-06-06 1993-07-27 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Process for implanting subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
US5203348A (en) * 1990-06-06 1993-04-20 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
US5342407A (en) * 1990-06-06 1994-08-30 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Body implantable defibrillation system
US5282843A (en) * 1990-06-12 1994-02-01 Zmd Corporation Electrodes and method for transcutaneous cardiac pacing
US5431688A (en) * 1990-06-12 1995-07-11 Zmd Corporation Method and apparatus for transcutaneous electrical cardiac pacing
US5281219A (en) * 1990-11-23 1994-01-25 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple stimulation electrodes
US5409467A (en) * 1992-10-02 1995-04-25 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Antimicrobial catheter
US5366496A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-11-22 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Subcutaneous shunted coil electrode
WO1995017923A1 (en) * 1993-12-28 1995-07-06 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Antimicrobial medical devices
WO1998009679A1 (en) * 1996-09-05 1998-03-12 The Governors Of The University Of Alberta Gastro-intestinal electrical pacemaker
US6449511B1 (en) 1996-09-05 2002-09-10 University Technologies International Inc. Gastrointestinal electrical stimulator having a variable electrical stimulus
US6243607B1 (en) 1996-09-05 2001-06-05 University Technologies International Inc. Gastro-intestinal electrical pacemaker
US6606523B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2003-08-12 Transneuronix Inc. Gastric stimulator apparatus and method for installing
US10022550B2 (en) 2003-11-13 2018-07-17 Zoll Medical Corporation Multi-path transthoracic defibrillation and cardioversion
US20050107834A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-05-19 Freeman Gary A. Multi-path transthoracic defibrillation and cardioversion
US9174061B2 (en) 2003-11-13 2015-11-03 Zoll Medical Corporation Multi-path transthoracic defibrillation and cardioversion
US20090093730A1 (en) * 2007-10-05 2009-04-09 Drager Medical Ag & Co. Kg Device for detecting and transmitting electrical pulses
US8112140B2 (en) * 2007-10-05 2012-02-07 Dräger Medical GmbH Device for detecting and transmitting electrical pulses
US9907958B2 (en) 2011-01-03 2018-03-06 The Regents Of The University Of California High density epidural stimulation for facilitation of locomotion, posture, voluntary movement, and recovery of autonomic, sexual, vasomotor, and cognitive function after neurological injury
US9101769B2 (en) 2011-01-03 2015-08-11 The Regents Of The University Of California High density epidural stimulation for facilitation of locomotion, posture, voluntary movement, and recovery of autonomic, sexual, vasomotor, and cognitive function after neurological injury
US9409011B2 (en) 2011-01-21 2016-08-09 California Institute Of Technology Method of constructing an implantable microelectrode array
US9931508B2 (en) 2011-03-24 2018-04-03 California Institute Of Technology Neurostimulator devices using a machine learning method implementing a gaussian process optimization
US9409023B2 (en) 2011-03-24 2016-08-09 California Institute Of Technology Spinal stimulator systems for restoration of function
US10092750B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2018-10-09 Neuroenabling Technologies, Inc. Transcutaneous neuromodulation system and methods of using same
US10124166B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2018-11-13 Neuroenabling Technologies, Inc. Non invasive neuromodulation device for enabling recovery of motor, sensory, autonomic, sexual, vasomotor and cognitive function
US9415218B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2016-08-16 The Regents Of The University Of California Transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation: noninvasive tool for activation of locomotor circuitry
US9393409B2 (en) 2011-11-11 2016-07-19 Neuroenabling Technologies, Inc. Non invasive neuromodulation device for enabling recovery of motor, sensory, autonomic, sexual, vasomotor and cognitive function
US9993642B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-06-12 The Regents Of The University Of California Multi-site transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord for facilitation of locomotion
US10137299B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2018-11-27 The Regents Of The University Of California Engaging the cervical spinal cord circuitry to re-enable volitional control of hand function in tetraplegic subjects
USD801528S1 (en) 2013-11-07 2017-10-31 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Electrocardiography monitor
USD831833S1 (en) 2013-11-07 2018-10-23 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch
USD793566S1 (en) 2015-09-10 2017-08-01 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch
USD766447S1 (en) * 2015-09-10 2016-09-13 Bardy Diagnostics, Inc. Extended wear electrode patch

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