US3541014A - Molybdenum-containing lubricant compositions - Google Patents

Molybdenum-containing lubricant compositions Download PDF

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US3541014A
US3541014A US3541014DA US3541014A US 3541014 A US3541014 A US 3541014A US 3541014D A US3541014D A US 3541014DA US 3541014 A US3541014 A US 3541014A
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mixture
grams
weight
metal
molybdenum
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William M Le Suer
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Lubrizol Corp
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Lubrizol Corp
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    • C08G14/00Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G8/00 - C08G12/00
    • C08G14/02Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G8/00 - C08G12/00 of aldehydes
    • C08G14/04Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G8/00 - C08G12/00 of aldehydes with phenols
    • C08G14/06Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G8/00 - C08G12/00 of aldehydes with phenols and monomers containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
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    • C08G12/00Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with only compounds containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen
    • C08G12/02Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with only compounds containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen of aldehydes
    • C08G12/04Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with only compounds containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen of aldehydes with acyclic or carbocyclic compounds
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    • C10N2250/10Semi-solids or greases

Description

United States Patent O 3,541,014 MOLYBDENUM-CONTAINING LUBRICANT COMPOSITIONS William M. Le Suer, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to The Lubrizol Corporation, Wicklilfe, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio N Drawing. Filed July 12, 1967, Ser. No. 652,671 The portion of the term of the patent subsequent to Feb. 17, 1987, has been disclaimed Int. Cl. Cm 1/10, 1/32 US. Cl. 25249.7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The disclosure sets forth lubricant compositions having improved extreme pressure capabilities and anti-wear properties which are characterized by the presence therein of oil-soluble molybdenum-containing organic complexes. These complexes are produced by contacting molybdenumcontaining anions with oil-soluble overbased, Group II metal containing compositions until a portion of the anions react with Group II rnetal. Lubricating oils, cutting oils, greases, and the like are illustrative of the lubricant compositions disclosed.

This invention relates to improved lubricating compositions. Particularly, the invention relates to lubricating compositions having improved extreme pressure (ER) and antiwear capabilities.

As is well known, many present day lubricating problems involve providing adequate lubrication between moving metal surfaces which are brought into a forceful working relationship. Thus, there is a need for lubricants of sufficient lubricity to provide lubrication between the hearing surfaces of moving metal components where the bear ing surfaces are subjected to large forces at the point of contact. These forces and the accompanying friction result in the generation of heat which elevates the metal temperatures. If the pressure is sufficiently high and the relative motion between surfaces suflicient, very high metal temperatures can result. Thus, in extreme cases, the contacting metal surfaces may actually weld. With less extremes of pressure, the inadequate lubrication between the surfaces is manifested in accelerated wear, scoring, scuffing, etc.

The lubricating compositions of the invention possess improved extreme pressure and antiwear capabilities and are particularly useful in an environment where such properties are necessary or desirable. Lubricating compositions used in such environments include cutting oils, hypoid gear oils, metal drawing compounds, turbine oils, motor oils, automatic transmission fluids, and metal-forming lubricants.

Many diverse additives for enhancing El. and antiwear properties are known in the prior art. Examples of such additives are chlorinated wax, alkyl polysulfides, alkyl phosphites, alkaryl phosphates, metal dithiophosphates, sulfurized sperm oil, sulfurized olefins, and the like. However, the prior art does not disclose molybdenum-containing complexes of the type utilized in the present lubricating compositions to be effective E.P. and anti-wear additives.

In accordance with the foregoing, it is a principal object of this invention to provide improved lubricating compositions.

A further object of the invention is to provide lubricant compositions having extreme pressure and anti-wear capabilities.

Another object is to provide lubricant compositions characterized by the presence therein of novel molybdenum-containing complexes.

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Another object of the invention is to provide a method for imparting extreme pressure properties and anti-wear properties to the lubricant compositions by incorporating into such compositions molybdenum-containing complexes.

These and other objects of the invention are accomplished by providing a lubricating composition characterized by the presence of a major amount of a lubricant such as a lubricating oil or a lubricating grease and a minor amount of an oil-soluble molybdenum-containing complex of the empirical formula R M A E In this formula, R represents an equivalent of an organic oleophilic group, M represents an equivalent of a Group II metal, A represents an equivalent of the anion of an inorganic acid, E is an equivalent of a molybdenum-containing anion. The superscripts x, n, y, and z represent the number of equivalents of R, -M, A, and E, respectively, present in the complez. The ratio of nzx is at least 2:1, It is at least 2, x and z are each at least 1, and n=x+y+z With the proviso that [y can be zero.

The molybdenum-containing complexes corresponding to the above-indicated formula are prepared by contacting a solution of overbased, Group III metal-containing organic complex with molybdenum-containing anions until at least a portion of the molybdenum-containing anions react with Group II metal. Generally, the solution of the overbased organic complex is contacted with a solution containing molybdate anions. As explained in more detail hereinafter, the formation of the molybdenum-containing complex is facilitated by conducting the process in the presence of peptizing agents.

The overbased, Group II metal-containing intermediates are a well-known class of basic metal-containing compositions which have generally been employed as detergents and dispersants in lubricating oil compositions. These overbased intermediates are also referred to in the art as superbased or hyperbased complexes or salts, basic complexes, basic metal complexes, high-metal containing salts and complexes, basic complex salts, and the like.

Overbased materials are characterized by a metal content in excess of that which would be present according to the stoichiometry of the metal "and the particular organic compound said to be overbased. Thus, if an oil-soluble monosulfonic acid,

is neutralized with a basic metal compound, e.g., calcium hydroxide the normal metal salt produced will contain one equivalent of calcium for each equivalent of acid, i.e.,

However, various known procedures are available which produce oil-soluble products containing more than the stoichiometric amount of metal. These oil-soluble products are the overbased materials employed as intermediates to prepare the molybdenum-containing complexes incorporated in the lubricating compositions of the invention.

Applying these known procedures, an oil-soluble sulfonic acid or an alkali or alkaline earth metal salt thereof can be reacted with a Group II metal base and the product will contain an amount of metal in excess of that required to neutralize the acid, for example, 4.5 times as much metal as present in the normal salt, or a metal excess of 3.5 equivalents. The actual stoichiometric excess of metal can vary considerably, for example, from about 0.1 equivalent to about 30 or more equivalents depending on the reactions, the process conditions, and the like. These overbased products useful in preparing the molybdenum-containing complexes will contain at least about 2.0 to about 30 or more equivalents of Group II metal for each equivalent of the material which is overbased.

In the present specification and claims the term overbased is used to designate materials containing a stoichiometric excess of metal and is, therefore, inclusive of those materials which have been referred to in the art as overbased, superbased, hyperbased, etc., as discussed supra.

The terminology metal ratio is used in the prior art and herein to designate the ratio of the total chemical equivalents of the metal in the overbased product to the chemical equivalents of the metal in the product which would be expected to result in the reaction between the organic material to be overbased and the Group II metal base according to the known chemical reactivity and stoichiometry of the two reactants. Thus, in the normal calcium sulfonate discussed above, the metal ratio is one and in the overbased sulfonate, the metal ratio is 4.5.

Generally, these overbased materials are prepared by treating a reaction mixture comprising (a) the organic compound to be overbased, (b) a reaction medium consisting essentiallyof at least one substantially inert, organic solvent for said organic material, (c) a stoichio metric excess of a metal base, and (d) a promoter with an acidic material. The methods for preparing the overbased products and an extremely diverse group of overbased products are well known in the prior art and are disclosed, for example, in the following U.S. patents:

2,616,904; 2,616,905; 2,616,906; 2,616,911; 2,616,924; 2,616,925; 2,617,049; 2,695,910; 2,723,234; 2,723,235; 2,723,236; 2,760,970; 2,767,164; 2,767,209; 2,777,874; 2,798,852; 2,839,470; 2,856,359; 2,856,360; 2,856,361; 2,861,951; 2,883,340; 2,915,517; 2,959,551; 2,968,642; 2,971,014; 2,989,463; 3,001,981; 3,027,325; 3,070,581; 3,108,960; 3,147,232; 3,133,019; 3,146,201; 3,152,991; 3,155,616; 3,170,880; 3,170,881; 3,172,855; 3,194,823; 3,223,630; 3,232,883; 3,242,079; 3,242,080; 3,250,710; 3,256,186; 3,274,135; and 3,312,618. These patents disclose typical overbased products useful in preparing molybdenum-containing complexes and are incorporated herein by reference for their discussion of the processes and materials suitable for preparing such products.

The alkaline earth metal overbased products are preferred for use as starting materials in preparing the molybdenum-containing complexes. Barium overbased products are especially desirable due to the ease with which they are converted to the molybdenum-containing complexes and the excellent results achieved.

Organic compounds which can be overbased are generally oil-soluble compounds characterized by an essentially hydrocarbon portion containing at least about 12 aliphatic carbon atoms or at least about 8 aliphatic carbon atoms and one or more aromatic hydrocarbon rings and a polar portion such as an acid group. The hydrocarbon portion may contain polar substituents so long as the hydrophilic character thereof is not destroyed. The hydrocarbon portion may contain up to 250 or more carbon atoms but generally will contain not more than about 60 carbon atoms. Organic compounds particularly suitable for overbasing are described in more detail below.

Suitable acids include oil-soluble organic acids such as phosphorus acids, thiophosphorus acids, sulfur acids, carboxylic acids, thiocarboxylic acids, and the like, as well as the corresponding alkali and alkaline earth metal salts thereof. Patents 2,616,904; 2,695,910; 2,767,- 164; 2,767,209; 2,777,874; 3,147,232; and 3,274,135 disclose a variety of overbased products which can be prepared from diverse organic acid starting materials. Overbased acids wherein the acid is a phosphorus acid, a thiophosphorus acid, phosphorus acid-sulfur acid com- 4 bination, or sulfur acid prepared from polyolefins are disclosed in 2,883,340; 2,915,517; 3,001,981; 3,108,960; and 3,232,883. Overbased phenates are disclosed in 2,959,- 551 while overbased ketones are found in 2,798,852.

A variety of overbased products prepared from oilsoluble metal-free, non-tautomeric neutral and basic organic polar compounds such as esters, amines, amides, alcohols, ethers, sulfides, sulfoxides, and the like are disclosed, for example in 2,968,642; 2,971,014; and 2,989,463.

The esters are preferably esters of fatty acids having from about 12 to about 30 carbon atoms in the acyl moiety while the alcoholic moiety can be derived from and alcohol of up to 30 carbon atoms. Exemplary alcohols include methanol, ethanol, propanol, sorbitol, pentaerythritol, allyl alchol, dodecanol, cyclohexanol and the like. illustrative esters include methyl stearate, cyclohexyl oleate, soritol mono-oleate, butyl stearate, cyclohexyl oleate, sorbitol mono-oleate, butyl stearate, ethyl laurate, allyl myristrate, ethyl palmitatc, diester of ethylene glycol with stearic acid, tetraester of pentaerythritol with oleic acid. Of the esters, the commercially supplied fatty acid and esters are particularly useful because of their availability and cost. Examples of these commercially available products are sperm oil, tall oil, methyl ester of tall oil, and the behenyl ester of tall oil.

Alcohols useful in overbased products are exemplified by dodecyl alcohol, octadecyl alcohol, sperm alcohol (obtained by the hydrolysis of sperm oil), behenyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, and 0x0 alcohols such as are obtained by the reaction of an olefin having at least 12 carbon atoms with carbon monoxide and hydrogen. They are generally aliphatic alcohols and may contain up to about 30 aliphatic carbon atoms.

Illustrative of the sulfoxides suitable for preparing overbased products are the dialiphatic hydrocarbon sulfoxides of up to about 50 aliphatic carbon atoms such as dodecyl methyl sulfoxide, didodecyl sulfoxide, hexyl octadecyl sulfoxide, dibehenyl sulfoxide, and dioctadecyl sulfoxide. The aliphatic groups each normally will contain up to about 30 aliphatic carbon atoms and the sulfoxide will have a total of at least about 12 aliphatic carbon atoms.

Overbased products can be prepared from primary, secondary, or tertiary aliphatic amines containing at least about 12 aliphatic carbon atoms. Exemplary amines include, for example, dodecylamine, didodecylamine, N- methyl dodecylamine, N-benzyl octadecylamine, dicyclohexylamine, tridecylamine, N- butyl laurylamine, and N,N-dimethyl pentadecylamine. They also include polyamines such as N-octadecyl propylenediamine, N-decylpropylenediamine, tridecyl-substituted diethylenetriamine and octyl-substituted tetraethylenepentamine. The preferred polyamines are N-alkyl-su'bstituted alkylenepolyamines such as the N-alkyl substituted ethylenediamines, trimethylenediamines, tetramethylenediamines, triethylenetetramines, and pentaethylenehexamines. The polyamines may contain one or more N-alkyl substituents. The alkyl group of such N-alkyl-substituted polyamines can contain from about 8 to 40 or more carbon atoms but preferably will have from about 12 to about 30 carbon atoms. Other polyamines having an acyl substituent such as characterizes imidazolines, on one or more of the amino groups are also useful. They are illustrated by the reaction product of one mole of oleic acid with one mole of triethylenetetramine. Still other amines useful herein may be hydroxyalkyl amines, including hydroxyalkyl polyamines, in which the hydroxy alkyl radical has up to about 30 carbon atoms. Normally the hydroxyalkyl group has upto about 6 carbon atoms. Such hydroxyalkyl amines are formed by the reaction of an epoxide such as ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, or epichlorohydrin with dodecyl amine, N-octadecyl trimethylenediamine, or didecylamine.

Condensation products of the above-identified amines with a lower aliphatic aldehyde, i.e., one having less than about six carbon atoms, constitute a preferred class of overbased products suitable as intermediates in synthesizing the molybdenum complexes. Examples of the aldehydes preferred for use herein are formaldehyde (or formaldehyde producing compositions such as paraformaldehyde or aqueous formalin), acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and the like. The condensation products are readily obtained by mixing one mole of the amine with from about 0.5 to about moles of the aldehyde and then heating the mixture at a temperature from about 50 C. to 240 C. or higher. Where the amine or the aldehyde is a solid, the condensation is best carried out in the presence of a diluent such as mineral oil, xylene, benzene, naphtha, chlorobenzene or other substantially inert solvent. The condensation is promoted by the presence in the reaction mixture of a small amount, at least about 0.01% and usually less than by weight of the aldehyde, of a basic catalyst such as an alkali metal hydroxide or an alkaline earth metal hydroxide, e.g., sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, or barium hydroxide. The precise nature of the condensation products is not known. The condensation products prepared from a mixture of from 2 to 4 moles of formaldehyde or a formaldehyde producing compound and about one mole of an N-alkyl alkylenediamine in which the alkyl radical has from about 10 to 30 carbon atoms and the alkylene radical has from 2 to 4 carbon atoms are especially useful in preparing overbased products suitable as intermediates in the preparation of the molybdenum-containing complexes. Barium overbased amine-aldehyde condensation products are preferred.

Another class of materials which can be overbased are the oil-soluble, nitro-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, particularly nitro-substituted polyolefins such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisobutylene, etc. Materials of this type are illustrated in 2,959,551.

The metal compounds used in preparing the overbased products are normally the basic salts of metals in Group II of the Periodic Table. The anionic portion of the salt can be hydroxyl, oxide, carbonate, hydrogen carbonate, nitrate, sulfite, hydrogen sulfite, halide, amide, sulfate, etc. as disclosed in the above-cited patents. The overbased products are preferably prepared from the alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides, and alcoholates. The alkaline earth metal lower alkoxides are the preferred alcoholates.

The promoters, that is, the materials which facilitate the incorporation of the excess metal into the overbased product are also quite diverse and well known in the art as evidenced by the cited patents. A particularly comprehensive discussion of suitable promoters is found in 2,777,874; 2,695,910; and 2,616,904. These include the alcoholic and phenolic promoters which are preferred. The alcoholic promoters include the alkanols of one to about twelve carbon atoms such as methanol, ethanol, arnyl alcohol, octanol, isopropanol, and mixtures of these and the like. Phenolic promoters include a variety of alkylated hydroxy-substituted benzenes and naphthalenes. A particularly useful class of phenols are the monoand dialkylated phenols in which the alkyl substituent contains from about 6 to about 200 carbon atoms. Illustrative phenolic promoters are the heptylphenols, octylphenols, dodecylphenols, nonylphenols, polypropene (M.W. of l50)-substituted phenol, polyisobutene (M.W. of 350)-substituted phenols, cyclohexyl phenol, 'behenyl phenol. Mixtures of the various promoters are also useful. Water is used in combination with the promoters in some instances to increase their effectiveness.

It should be apparent that the overbased products may retain all or a portion of the promoter. That is, if the promoter is not volatile (e.g., an alkyl phenol) or otherwise readily removable from the overbased material, at least some promoter remains in the overbased product. The presence or absence of the promoter in the overbased material used to prepare the molybdenum-containing complexes does not represent a critical aspect of the invention. Obviously, it is within the skill of the art to select a volatile promoter such as a lower alkanol, e.g., methanol, ethanol, etc., so that the promoter can be readily removed prior to forming the disperse system or thereafter.

Suitable acidic materials are also disclosed in the above cited patents, for example, 2,616,904. The overbased products used as starting materials are preferably prepared using inorganic acidic materials such as HCl, S0 S0 CO ,H S, N 0 etc. The overbased products prepared with CO are particularly suitable although those prepared with SO or 50;; are also very useful. Materials capable of producing the acidic reactants in situ may also be used. For example, urea, carbamates, and ammonium carbonates produce CO in situ.

In preparing the overbased products, the compound to be overbased, a substantially inert organic solvent therefor, the metal base, the promoter, and the acidic material are brought together and a chemical reaction ensues. The exact nature of the resulting overbased product is not known. However, it can be adequately described for purposes of the present specification as a single phase homogeneous solution of a Group II metal-containing complex formed from the metal base, the acidic material, and the compound being overbased. Since the overbased products are well-known and as they are used merely as intermediates in the preparation of the molybdenum-containing additives, the exact nature of the products is not criti- 'cal to an understanding of the present invention.

The temperature at which the acidic material is contacted with the remainder of the reaction mass depends to a large measure upon the promoting agent used. With a phenolic promoter, the temperature usually ranges from about C. to 300 C., and preferably from about C. to about 250 C. When an alcohol or mercaptan is used as the promoting agent, the temperature usually will not exceed the reflux temperature of the reaction mixture and preferably will not exceed about 100 C.

A typical preparation of an overbased product would involve mixing a phenolic promoter, a Group II metal base, and the organic compound to be overbased and treating the mixture with carbon dioxide at a temperature of at least about 50 C., preferably from 80 C. to 250 C. The upper temperature limit is determined by the decomposition point of the reaction mixture. The car bonation is preferably carried out in the presence of a fluid diluent, usually an organic solvent in which the organic compound to be overbased and the product is soluble. Solvents commonly useful for this purpose are substantially inert organic solvents such as benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, naphtha, dodecane, xylene, mineral oil, and combinations thereof. For purposes of this invention, mineral oil and combinations of at least 50% by Weight mineral oil and one or more other solvents are preferred. The amount and type of diluent employed should be selected so that the final overbased product comprises from about 10% to about 70% by weight of the solution.

The relative amounts of the compound to be overbased and the metal base are such that at least 1.1 equivalents of the metal base is used per equivalent of the compound to be overbased. There appears to be no upper limit on the amount of the metal base which may be used in the process. For practical reasons, however, the amount of the metal base seldom exceeds 25 equivalents per equivalent of the compound being overbased. A greater amount of the metal compound may be used but there appears to be no particular advantage attending such use. Usually, from about 2 to about 15 equivalents of the metal base is used.

The equivalent weight of a given organic compound which is to be overbased depends upon the number of functional groups in the molecule and the equivalent weight of the metal compound depends upon the valence of the metal and the number of the metal radicals in the molecule. Thus, the equivalent weight of a phenol is determined by the number of hydroxy radicals attached to the aromatic nucleus; the equivalent Weight of a carboxylic acid ester is determined by the number of ester radicals in the molecule; the equivalent weight of an alcohol is determined by the number of hydroxy radicals in the molecule; the equivalent weight of a sulfoxide is determined by the number of sulfoxide radicals in the molecule; the equivalent Weight of an amine is determined by the number of amino radicals in the molecule; and the equivalent weight of the condensation product of an amine and a lower aldehyde is determined by the number of the amino nitrogen radicals in the molecule. For instance, the equivalent weight of sperm oil is its molecular Weight (as determined by, e.g., its saponification equivalent); that of oleyl alcohol is its molecular weight; that of N-alkyl alkylene diamine is one-half its molecular weight; that of distearyl ester of ethylene glycol is onehalf its molecular weight; that of heptylphenol is its molecular weight; that of 2,2'-didecyl-4,4-methylenebisphenol is one-half its molecular weight; that of didodecyl sulfoxide is its molecular Weight; that of the condensation product of N-alkyl tetraethylene pentamine and an aldehyde is one-fifth its molecular Weight; that of an alkali metal hydroxide is its molecular Weight; that of an alkali metal oxide is one-half its molecular weight; and that of an alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide is onehalf its molecular weight.

It will be noted that where the compound to be overbased is a mixture of two or more compounds capable of being overbased (e.g., organic acid and a phenol), the relative equivalent amount of the metal base to this mixture has reference to the total number of equivalents in the mixture. To illustrate, Where the ratio of equivalents of the metal base to a mixture of compounds to be overbased is 2:1 and the mixture comprises a phenol and another compound capable of being overbased a ratio of equivalents of 1:4, respectively, the reaction mixture will comprise one equivalent of a phenol, 4 equivalents of the other compound, and equivalents of a metal base.

When this reaction mixture is contacted with the acidic material, either in the presence of or in the absence of a diluent, it is usually a heterogeneous mixture. As acidification (e.g., carbonation) proceeds, the metal base becomes solubilized in the organic phase and the carbonated product eventually becomes a homogeneous composition which is readily soluble in hydrocarbon solvents such as benzene, xylene or mineral oil. It is not necessary in most instances that all of the metal base present in the process mixture should be so converted in order to produce a soluble homogeneous product. Such a product is often obtained, for example, when as little as 75% of the metal base is carbonated.

The molybdenum-containing anions used in preparing the additives provide molybdenum metal in the final product. Accordingly, the exact composition of these anions is not particularly critical to the present invention and quite diverse molybdenum-containing anions are suitable. For practical reasons, the molybdenum compound from which the anions are derived should be at least partially soluble in at least one of the other components of the reaction mixture. As the reaction mixture usually comprises only organic liquids and as most molybdenum-containing compounds are not soluble in such liquids, a solvent for the molybdenum compound is usually incorporated into the reaction mixture. Preferably, a solution of molybdenum containing anions is introduced into the reaction mixture. Water is usually employed as the solvent for this purpose but other liquid such as dioxane, water-dioxane mixtures, and the like can also be used. After reaction, this additional solvent should be removed unless it is miscible with the lubricant composition in which the product is to be used.

The preferred molybdenum-containing anions are the molybdate anions, particularly normal molybdate, M00 1 and paramolybdate, MO7O246 due to their existence in water-soluble compounds. Other polymolybdate anions such as octaniolybdate are also useful as would be the thioanalogs of these molybdenum-containing anions. Because of their availability and the excellent results obtained through their use, the commercial sources of ammonium molybdates and ammonium paramolybdates are excellent sources of molybdenum anions. These commercial products are designated ammonium molybdate, molybdic acid, and molybdic acid.

In addition to the normal molybdate and polymolybdate anions, the heteropolymolybdate anions can be used in preparing the molybdenum-containing organic complexes. These are the molybdenum-containing anions produced by acidifying solutions of molybdate and one or more other oxyanions or metal ions. A representative heteropolymolybdate would correspond to the formula [X MO O Where X corresponds to P Si, Sn, etc.

The cation of the molybdenum-containing compounds which furnish the anions is not particularly critical except to the extent that it may determine the degree of solubility of the compound in a given solvent. Because of their water solubility, the ammonium, magnesium, thallous, and alkali metal molybdenum anion-containing salts will normally be used. Of these the alkali metal salts are preferred and the ammonium salts are particularly preferred, particularly the commercial sources which are designated by the producers as (NH Mo O and (NH4)2MO207 and the various hydrates thereof such as (NH4)6'MO7024'4H20, etc.

Various molybdenum-containing compounds and their corresponding anions are well known in the art. See for example, F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, pages 782-790, Interscience Publishers, N.Y. 1962.

Having discussed the intermediates from which the molybdenum-containing organic complexes are prepared, it is now possible to more specifically identify the various groups forming the complex. Thus, in the formula R M A E R is an equivalent of the oil-soluble organic compound which is overbased to produce the overbased starting material, e.g., the group if asulfonic acid is overbased. The identity of A depends upon the acidic material used in the overbasing process. For example, if carbon dioxide is used as the acidic material, two equivalents of A correspond to the group Obviously, the actual identity of E depends on the particular molybdenum-containing anions used as intermediates in the process. Thus, two equivalents of E could correspond to the group MoO In preparing the molybdenum complexes, the solution of the overbased Group II metal-containing reactant and the molybdenum-containing anions will be reacted in amounts such that the molar ratio of Group II metal in the overbased reactant to molybdenum in the molybdenum-containing anion will be about 1:0.05 to about 1:10 in the reaction mixture. It is not essential that all the molybdenum anion present actually react and become a part of the complex but the reaction should continue until at least a portion of the molybdenum anions react with Group II metal. The molar ratio of Group II metal to vmolybdenum metal in the molybdenum-containing complex thus produced may vary from about 120.05 to about 1:5 and usually from about 1:0.1 to about 1:3.

Complexes wherein the ratio is about 1:02 to about 1:1.7 have been found to be very useful,

The temperature at which the solution of the overbased product and molybdenum-containing anions are contacted is not a particularly critical factor in the process. However, a temperature of at least about 20 C. should be employed to avoid an unduly slow reaction and to facilitate mixing, especially where mineral oil is used as a solvent for the overbased product. The upper temperature is limited only by the decomposition temperature of the reactants and the products. However, as the molybdenum-containing anions are normally employed in aqueous solutions, it may be desirable not to exceed the boiling point of water (or other molybdenum anion-containing solvent) during the reaction to reduce the water loss. Of course, higher temperatures can be employed conveniently in conjunction with superatmospheric pressure or reflux conditions without water loss. When sufficient molybdenum complex has been formed, water and other low boiling solvents (relative to the boiling point of mineral oil) can be readily removed by increasing the temperature of the reaction mass and/or lowering the pressure. Reaction temperatures of about 20 C. to about 150 C. are typical and a temperature of about 40 C. to about 95 C. usually provides very good results.

As mentioned supra, the reaction is facilitated if conducted in the presence of a peptizing agent. Suitable peptizing agents include the well-known class of diverse materials used as dispersants in various lubricating oils.

The products which function effectively as dispersants in lubricating oils and, hence, also function as peptizing agents in preparing the molybdenum'containing complexes, are extremely diverse in nature. Representative peptizing agents and US. patents illustrating them are the polyglycol substituted polymers disclosed in 2,892,783; polyvinyl alcohols partially esterified with one or more carboxylic acids, 2,951,050; dibenzoates of polyethylene glycols and alkoxyalkylphthalates, 2,956,870; sulfonates of N-substituted propylene diamines, 2,989,387; copolymers of alkylesters of alpha, beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of alpha, beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids and polyhydroxy alcohols, and, optionally, an alpha, beta-unsaturated monocarboxylic acid, 2,993,032 and 3,001,942; reaction products of monoand diamines with the anhydrides of partially esterified thiophosphoric acids and a boron acid or anhydride, 3,031,401; sulfonic acid salts of basic nitrogen-containing vinyl polymers, 3,038,- 857; polymers of alkyl esters of alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids or fatty acid esters of unsaturated alcohols and an imide of maleic anhydride with a polyalkylene polyamine, 3,048,544; the amine addition products of oil-soluble sulfonic acid, 3,058,910; graft copolymers derived from free-radical polymerizable monomers containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and nitrogen-containing comonomers, 3,067,163; the reaction products of hydrolyzed phospho-sulfurized hydrocarbons with amines and boron compounds, 3,089,851; copolymers of alkylacrylates and cyanoalkylacrylates, 3,108,- 967; polyamides of aliphatic fatty acids and polyamines, 3,110,673; amine salts of thiophosphonic acids, 3,143,506; unsaturated esters of boron acids, 3,152,166; oil soluble copolymers of N-vinyl pyrrolidones and various other ethylenically unsaturated monomers, particularly methacrylic acid esters of higher molecular weight alcohols, e.g., lauryl, cetyl, and stearyl alcohols, British specification 822,620; and the like.

The N-alkyl alkylenediamines and the condensation products thereof with lower aliphatic aldehydes are also suitable peptizing agents. These products are described in more detail above in regard to the organic materials which are suitable for overbasing.

However, the preferred class of peptizing agents is the well-known group of dispersants derived from substituted succinic acids. These are the esters, acidic esters, half esters-half amides, acidic amides, amides, irnides, amidines, amine salts, and metal salts of substituted succinic acids wherein the substituent contains at least about 50 aliphatic carbon atoms. The substituent is generally a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon group although it may contain pendant aryl groups or inert polar groups. However, the polar groups should not be present in sufficiently large numbers to alter the substantially hydrocarbon character of the substituent. Exemplary polar groups include halo, keto, ether, aldehyde, nitro, etc. The upper limit on the number of polar groups is about 10% by weight based on the weight of the hydrocarbon portion of the substituent.

The source of the hydrocarbon substituent on the succinic acid moiety of the dispersants includes principally the high molecular weight substantially saturated petroleum fractions and substantially saturated olefin polymers, particularly polymers of monoolefins having from 2 to 30 carbon atoms. The especially useful polymers are the polymers of l-mono-olefins such as ethylene, propene, l-butene, isobutene, l-hexene, l-octene, 2-methyl-1-heptene, 3-cyclohexyl-1-butene, and Z-methyl- S-propyl-l-hexene. Polymers of medial olefins, i.e., olefins in which the olefinic linkage is not at the terminal posi tion, likewise are useful. They are illustrated by Z-butene, 3-butene, and 4-octene.

Also useful are the interpolymers of the olefins such as those illustrated above with other interpolymerizable olefinic substances such as aromatic olefins, cyclic olefins, polyolefins. Such interpolymers include, for example, those prepared by polymerizing isobutene with styrene; isobutene with butadiene; propene with isopropene; ethylene with piperylene; isobutene with chloroprene; isobutene with p-methylstyrene; l-hexene with 1,3-hexadiene; l-octene with l-hexene; l-heptene with l-pentene; 3-methyl-l-butene with l-octene; 3,3-dimethyl-l-pentene with l-hexene; isobutene with styrene and piperylene; etc.

The relative proportions of the mono-olefins to the other monomers in the interpolymers influence the stability and oil-solubility of the final products derived from such interpolymers. Thus, for reasons of oil-solubility and stability and the interpolymers contemplated for use in this invention should be substantially aliphatic and substantially saturated, i.e., they should contain at least about preferably at least about 95%, on a weight basis, of units derived from aliphatic mono-olefins and no more than about 5% of olefinic linkages based on the total number of carbon-to-carbon covalent linkages in the substituent. Preferably, the percentage of olefinic linkages should be less than 2% of the total number of carbonto-carbon covalent linkages.

Specific examples of such interpolymers include the copolymer of 95% of isobutene and 5% of styrene; the terpolymer of 98% of isobutene with 1% of piperylene and 1% of chloroprene; the terpolymer of 95% of isobutene with 2% of l-butene and 3% of l-hexene; the terpolymer of 80% of isobutene with 10% of I-pentene and 10% of l-octene; the copolymer of 80% of l-hexene and 20% of l-heptene; the terpolymer of of isobutene with 2% of cyclohexene and 8% of propene; and the copolymer of 80% of ethylene and 20% of propene. The percentages refer to the percent by weight of total interpolymer weight.

Another source of hydrocarbon substituents are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, e.g., highly refined molecular weight white oils or synthetic alkanes such as are obtained by hydrogenation of the high molecular weight olefin polymers illustrated above or other high molecular weight olefinic substances.

Olefin polymers having molecular Weights from about 750 to about 10,000 are the preferred source of the substituent with those having molecular weights of about 750 to 5000 being especially preferred. Higher molecular weight olefin polymers having molecular weights of from about 10,000 to about 100,000 or more can be used alone or in combination with the lower molecular weight polymers to prepare the substituted succinic acid reactants. Higher molecular weight substituents can impart viscosity index improving properties to the final product of this invention.

The substituted succinic acids are readily available from the reaction of maleic anhydride with a suitable olefin, olefin polymer, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and the like as described hereinabove. The reaction involves merely heating the two reactants at a temperature of about 100 to 200 C. The product of such a reaction is a succinic anhydride having a large hydrocarbon substituent. The hydrocarbon substituent may contain olefinic linkages which may be converted, if desired, to saturated, paraflinic linkages by hydrogenation. The anhydride may be hydrolyzed by treatment with water or steam to the corresponding acid. It will be noted in this regard that the anhydride is equivalent to the acid insofar as its utility in the preparation of the dispersants of this invention. In fact, the anhydride is often more reactive than the acid and is often preferred.

In lieu of the olefins or chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons containing an activating polar substituent, i.e., a substituent which is capable of activating the hydrocarbon molecule in respect to reaction with maleic acid or maleic anhydride, may be used in the above-illustrated reaction for preparing the substituted succinic acids. Such polar substituents are examplified by sulfide, disulfide, nitro, mercaptan, halo, ketoner, or aldehyde radicals. Examples of such polar-substituted hydrocarbons include polypropene sulfide, di-polyisobutene disulfide, nitrated mineral oil, di-polyethylene sulfide, brominated polyethylene, etc. Another useful method for preparing succinic acids and anhydrides involves the reaction of itaconic acid with a high molecular weight olefin or a polar-substituted hydrocarbon at a temperature usually within the range of from about 100-200 C.

The dispersants prepared from the reaction of polyolefin-substituted succinic acid or anhydride and monoor poly-amines, particularly polyalkylene polyamines having up to about amino nitrogens, are especially suitable dispersants. The reaction products generally comprise a mixture of amides, imides, amine salts, amidines, etc. The reaction products of polyisobutene-substituted succinic anhydride and polyethylene polyamines containing up to about 10 amino nitrogens are excellent peptizing agents. The substituted succinic acid or anhydride-amine products are disclosed in 3,018,250; 3,024,195; 3,172,892; 3,216,936; 3,219,666; and 3,272,746. Included within this group of dispersants are those products prepared by posttreating the reaction product of the amine and substituted succinic anhydride with carbon disulfide, a boron compound, an alkyl nitrile, urea, thiourea, guanidine, alkylene oxide, and the like as disclosed in 3,200,107; 3,256,185; 3,087,936; 3,254,025; 3,281,428; 3,278,550; 3,312,619; and British specification 1,053,577.

The metal salts of the foregoing substituted succinic acids are disclosed in US. Pat. 3,271,310. The metal moiety of the salt is preferably a Group I or II metal, aluminum, lead, tin, cobalt, nickel, or zinc.

The esters of the above substituted succinic acid are also very useful peptizing agents. These esters are prepared by reacting acid or anhydride with a monoor polyhydric alcohol or phenol according to standard procedures for preparing esters of carboxylic acids. Typical esters of this type are disclosed in British specification 981,850, US. Pat. 3,311,558, and copending application Ser. No. 567,052 filed July 22, 1966. The preferred esters are the esters of the polyolefin-substituted succinic acids or anhydrides in polyhydric aliphatic alcohols containing 2 to 10 hydroxy groups and up to about 40 aliphatic carbon atoms. Such alcohols include ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, pentaerythritol, polyethylene glycol, diethanol amine, triethanolamine, N,N-di(hydroxyethyl)-eth ylene diamine, and the like. If the alcohol reactant contains reactive amino hydrogens (or if an amine reactant contains reactive hydroxyl groups), it is obvious that a mixture comprising the reaction products of the substituted succinic acid reactant and both the hydroxyl and amino functional groups is possible. Such reaction products can include half-ester, half-amides, imides, and the like. See 3,342,033.

The peptizing agent can be incorporated into the reaction mixture in an amount of about 1% to about 50% by weight based on the Weight of the solution of overbased reactant employed. Normally, from about 3% to about 20% by Weight of the peptizing agent will be employed. Since the presence of these peptizing agents is beneficial in the final products, i.e., the lubricating compositions, the peptizing agent in no Way interferes with the use of the molybdenum-containing complexes in lubricating compositions.

The following examples demonstrate typical preparations of the overbased compounds which are useful as intermediates in preparing molybdenum complexes.

EXAMPLE 1 A mixture of 630 grams (2 equivalents) of a rosin amine (consisting essentially of dehydroabietyl amine) having a nitrogen content of 44% and 245 grams (1.2 equivalents) of heptylphenol having a hydroxyl content of 8.3% is heated to C. and then mixed with 230 grams (3 equivalents) of barium oxide at 90-140 C. The mixture is purged with nitrogen at 140 C. A portion, 600 grams, of the mixture is diluted with 400 grams of mineral oil and filtered. The filtrate is blown with carbon dioxide, diluted with benzene, heated at the reflux temperature, heated to remove benzene, mixed with xylene and filtered. The filtrate, a 20% xylene solution of the product, has a barium sulfate ash content of 25.1%, a nitrogen content of 2%, and a reflux base number of 119. The reflux base number refers to the basicity of the product expressed in terms of milligrams of KOH equivalent to one gram of the composition.

EXAMPLE 2 (a) An amine-aldehyde condensation product is obtained as follows: Formaldehyde (420 grams, 14 moles) is added in small increments to a mixture of N-octadecyl propylenediamine (1392 grams, 4 moles), mineral oil (3000 grams), water (200 grams) and calcium hydroxide (42 grams, condensation catalyst) at the reflux temperature, l05 C. The rate of addition of formaldehyde is such as to avoid excessive foaming. The mixture is heated at reflux temperature for one hour, then slowly heated to 155 C., and blown with nitrogen at 150l55 C. for two hours to remove all volatile components. It is then filtered. The filtrate, 93% of the theoretical yield, is a 65.4% oil solution of the aminealdehyde condensation product having a nitrogen content of 2.4%. A portion (1850 grams, 3.2 equivalents of nitrogen) is mixed with heptylphenol (185 grams, 0.97 equivalent), mineral oil (1485 grams) and 90% pure barium oxide (1060 grams, 12.6 equivalents) and heated to 70 C. Water (500 grams) is added throughout a onehour period while maintaining the temperature at 70- 100 C. The mixture is heated at =-115 C. for 4.75 hours and then heated to 150 C. Thereafter it is carbonated at 150 C. and filtered. The filtrate is 57.8% oil solution of the basic metal composition having a nitrogen content of 0.87% and a barium sulfate ash content of 29.5%.

(b) A product similar to that of (a) but with a lower mineral oil content is made by mixing 1000 parts (by weight) of N-octadecyl propylenediamine, 490 parts of mineral oil, 32 parts calcium oxide, and 143 parts water at about 44 C. and slowly heated to about 102 C. under reflux conditions over a one-hour period. While maintaining the mixture at l00105 C., 303 parts of paraformaldehyde are added over three hours. Mixing is continued 13 for another hour under the same conditions and then the mass is heated to about 150 C. over two and one-half hours. Two hundred seventy eight parts of distillate were removed and the residue filtered.

In a separate reaction vessel, a mixture of 197 parts (by weight) mineral oil and 119 parts of heptylphenol is heated to 93-99" C. While maintaining this temperature, 465 parts of barium hydroxide monohydrate is added over a four-hour period. The temperature is then raised to about 150 C. and 149 parts of the above amineformaldehyde product is introduced over a one-half hour period. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the mixture via submerged line at 15 parts per hour for 7 hours during which the temperature is maintained at about 150 C. An additional 100 parts of mineral oil is added and this reaction mixture is blown with nitrogen for two hours during which the temperature is regulated at about 150 C. This reduces the water content of the mixture to about 0.3%. Forty parts of a commercial filter aid is added and the mixture filtered. The filtrate is an oil solution of barium overbased amine-formaldehyde condensate containing about 36% by weight mineral oil and having a barium content of 30.8%.

EXAMPLE 3 A mixture of 423 grams (1 equivalent) of sperm oil, 123 grams (0.602 equivalent) of heptylphenol, 1214 grams of mineral oil and 452 grams of water is treated at 70 C. with 612 grams (8 equivalents) of barium oxide. The mixture is stirred at the reflux temperature for one hour and then heated to 150 C. while carbon dioxide is bubbled into the mixture beneath its surface. The carbonated product is filtered and the filtrate has a sulfate ash content of 35%.

EXAMPLE 4 A partially acylated polyamine reactant is prepared as follows. A mixture (565 parts by weight) of an alkylene amine mixture consisting of triethylene tetramine and diethylenetriamine in weight ratio of 3:1 is added at 20- 80 C. to a mixture of equivalent amounts of a naphthenic acid having an acid number of 180 (1270 parts) and oleic acid (1110 parts). The total quantity of the two acids is such as to provide one equivalent for each two equivalents of the amine mixture. The reaction is exothermic. The mixture is blown with nitrogen while it is being heated to 240 C. over 4.5 hours and thereafter heated at this temperature for 2 hours. Water is collected as the distillate. To the above residue ethylene oxide (140 parts) is added at l70l80 C. over a two-hour period while nitrogen is bubbled through the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture is then blown with nitrogen for 15 minutes and diluted with 940 parts of xylene to a solution containing 25% of xylene. The resulting solution has a nitrogen content of 5.4% and a base number of 82 at pH of 4, the latter being indicative of free amino groups. A portion of the above xylene solution (789 grams, 3 equivalents of nitrogen) is heated to 150 C./2 mm. Hg to distill oif xylene and is then mixed with heptylphenol (having a hydroxyl content of 8.3%; 367 grams, 1.8 equivalents). To this mixture there is added 345 grams (4.5 equivalents) of barium oxide in small increments at 90111 C. The mixture is heated at 90-120 C. for 2.5 hours and blown with carbon dioxide for 1.75 hours. It is diluted with 130 grams of xylene, heated at 150 C. for 3.5 hours, and then diluted with an additional 20% of its weight of xylene and filtered. The filtrate has a barium sulfate ash content of 33.2%, a nitrogen content of 3.52%, and a reflux base number of 134.

EXAMPLE 5 A sulfoxide is prepared by treating a polyisobutylene of 750 average molecular weight with 47.5 percent of its weight of SOC1 for 4.5 hours at 200220 C. A mixture of 787 grams (1.0 equivalent) of this sulfoxide, 124

grams (0.6 equivalent) of diisobutyl phenol, 550 grams of mineral oil and 200 grams of water is heated to 70 C. and then treated with 306 grams (4.0 equivalents) of barium oxide. This mixture is heated at reflux temperature for one hour and then treated at C. with carbon dioxide until the mixture is substantially neutral. The resulting mixture is filtered to yield a clear oil-soluble liquid having a barium sulfate ash content of 22.8%.

EXAMPLE 6 To a mixture of 268 grams (1.0 equivalent) of oleyl alcohol, 675 grams of mineral oil, 124 grams (0.6 equivalent) of diisobutyl phenol, and 146 grams of water, at 70 C. there is added 308 grams (4.0 equivalents) of barium oxide. This mixture is heated at reflux temperature for one hour, then at 150 C. while a stream of carbon dioxide is bubbled through the mixture until it is substantially neutral. The thus acidified mixture is filtered and the clear brown oil-soluble filtrate found to have a barium sulfate ash content of 29.8%.

EXAMPLE 7 To a mixture of 500 grams (1.0 equivalent of polyisobutylphenoxy-ethanol, 124 grams (0.6 equivalent) of heptyl phenol, 848 grams of mineral oil and grams of water there is added at 70 C., 306 grams (4.0 equivalents) of barium oxide. This mixture is heated at reflux temperature for an hour at 150 C. while bubbling carbon dioxide beneath the surface for three hours. The carbonated mixture is filtered to yield a liquid product having a barium sulfate ash content of 23.8%.

EXAMPLE 8 To a mixture of 174 grams (1. 0 equivalent) of N-octadecyl p-ropylenediarnine, 124 grams (0.6 equivalent) of diisobutylphenol, 766 grams of mineral oil, and 146 grams of water there is added 306 grams (4.0 equivalents) of barium oxide and the whole is refluxed for an hour. Water is removed by raising the temperature to 150 C. whereupon carbon dioxide is bubbled through the mixture at this temperature until it is substantially neutral. The mixture is filtered to yield a clear oil-soluble liquid having a barium sulfate ash content of 28.9%.

EXAMPLE 10 To a mixture of 516 grams (2.0 equivalents) of an N-octadecyl propylene diamine-ethylene oxide condensation product, 1776 grams of mineral oil and 360 grams of water there is added 756 grams (9.9 equivalents) of barium oxide. After refluxing this mixture for one hour the temperature is raised to 150 C. and carbon dioxide is bubbled through the mixture until it is substantially neutral. Filtration yields a liquid product having a barium sulfate ash content of 29.6%.

EXAMPLE 11 To a mixture of 408 grams (2 equivalents) of heptylphenol having a hydroxy content of 8.3% and 264 grams of xylene, there is added 383 grams (5 equivalents) of barium oxide in small increments at 85-100" C. and 6 grams of water. The resulting mixture is carbonated at 100-130 C. and then filtered. The filtrate is heated to 100 C. and subsequently diluted with xylene to a 25 xylene solution. This solution is found to have a barium 15 sulfate ash content of 41% and a reflux base number of 137.

EXAMPLE 12 A 65.4% oil solution of the amine aldehyde condensation product of Example 2(a) (1400 grams, 2.4 equivalents), heptylphenol (140 grams, 0.73 equivalent), and barium oxide (368 grams, 4.78 equivalents) is heated to 70 C. and 250 grams of water added over a one-hour period while maintaining a temperature of 70-100 C. The mixture is heated at the reflux temperature of 110- 115 C. for four hours and then at 150155 C. for 0.5 hour. It is then blown with carbon dioxide at 140150 C. and filtered. The filtrate is a 47% oil solution of the desired product and has a sulfate ash content of 27.8%, a nitrogen content of 1.65%, and a reflux base number of 78.

EXAMPLE 13 The procedure of Example 12 is repeated except that the amount of barium oxide used is 1091 grams (14.2 equivalents) and that mineral oil, 1041 grams, is added to the reaction mixture before carbonation. The product is a 50% oil solution and has a barium sulfate ash content of 36.1%, a nitrogen content of 0.83%, and a reflux base number of 168.

EXAMPLE 14 A mixture of polyisobutene (molecular Weight of 300)- substituted phenol having a hydroxy content of 3.76% (200 grams, 0.44 equivalent) and heptylphenol having a hydroxy content of 8.3% (200 grams, 0.98 equivalent), and xylene (200 grams) is heated to 80 C. whereupon barium oxide (218 grams, 2.84 equivalents) is added to the mixture in small increments at 80104 C. Thereafter, grams of water is added and the resulting mixture is carbonated and nitrogen blown at 148 C. for 2.3 hours. After filtering, the filtrate is heated to 165 12 mm. Hg and the residue is diluted with xylene solution. The xylene solution is found to have a barium sulfate ash content of 36.7% and a reflux base number of 171.

EXAMPLE 15 A mixture of 65.4% mineral oil solution of the aminealdehyde condensation product of Example 2 (1400 grams, 2.4 equivalents), heptylphenol (281 grams, 1.46 equivalents), mineral oil (1636 grams), barium oxide (893 grams, 11.6 equivalents) is heated to 70 C. Water (500 grams) is added in one hour at 70-110 C. The mixture is heated at reflux temperature (110115 C.) for 4 hours, dried by heating it to 150 C. and then at 145 -1'50 C. for 0.5 hour. It is blown with carbon dioxide at 145 l50 C. until it is substantially neutral to phenolphthalein and then filtered. The filtrate is a 58% oil solution of the product and has a barium sulfate ash content of 27.3% and a reflux base number of 126.

EXAMPLE 16 A mixture of 520 parts (by weight) of a mineral oil, 480 parts of a sodium petroleum sulfonate (molecular Weight of 480), and 84 parts of water is heated at 100 C. for 4 hours. The mixture is then heated with 86 parts of a 76% aqueous solution of calcium chloride and 72 parts of lime (90% purity) at 100 C. for 2 hours, dehydrated by heating to a water content of less than 0.5%, cooled to 50 C., mixed with 130 parts of methyl alcohol, and then blown with carbon dioxide at 50 C. until substantially neutral. The mixture is then heated to 150 C. to distill off methyl alcohol and water and the resulting oil solution of the basic calcium sulfonate filtered. The filtrate is found to have a calcium sulfate ash content of 16% and a metal ratio of 2.5. A mixture of 1305 grams of the above carbonated calcium sulfonate, 930 grams of mineral oil, 220 grams of methyl alcohol, 72 grams of isobutyl alcohol, and 38 grams of amyl alcohol is prepared, heated to C., and subjected to the following operating cycle four times: mixing with 143 grams of calcium hydroxide and treating the mixture with carbon dioxide until it has a 'base number of 32-39. The resulting produce is then heated to 155 C. during a period of 9 hours to remove the alcohols and then filterd through a siliceous filter-aid at this temperature. The filtrate has a calcium sulfate ash content of 39.5%, and a metal ratio of 12.2.

EXAMPLE 17 A basic metal salt is prepared by the procedure described in Example 16 except that the slightly basic calcium sulfonate having a metal ratio of 2.5 is replaced with a mixture of that calcium sulfonate (280 parts by weight) and tall oil acids (970 parts by weight, having an equivalent weight of 340) and that the total amount of calcium hydroxide used is 930 parts by weight. The resulting highly basic metal salt of the process has a calcium sulfate ash content of 48%, a metal ratio of 7.7, and an oil content of 31%.

EXAMPLE 18 A highly basic metal salt is prepared by the procedure of Example 17 except that the slightly basic calcium sulfonate starting material having a metal ratio of 2.5 is replaced with tall oil acids (1250 parts by weight, having an equivalent Weight of 340) and the total amount of calcium hydroxide used is 772 parts by weight. The resulting highly basic metal salt has a metal ratio of 5.2, a calcium sulfate ash content of 41%, and an oil content of 33%.

The following examples illustrate specific embodiments of the present invention.

EXAMPLE I An aqueous mixture of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate, (NH4)6M07024'4H20, is prepared by mixing 411 grams thereof with 300 grams of water and maintaining the temperature of the mixture at about 60 C. Four -gram portions of this mixture are added to 457 grams of the barium overbased amine aldehyde condensate of Example 2(b) over a 3.5 hour period while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mass at about 95 C. This results in a molar ratio of barium to molybdenum of 3:1. During the addition of the aqueous mixture, ammonia and carbon dioxide are evolved. Thereafter, the reaction mass is dried by heating to C. while blowing with nitrogen and filtered yielding 550 grams of an oil solution of the desired molybdenum-containing complex. Analysis of the product establishes that about 65% of the molybdenum employed in the reaction is retained in the molybdenum-containing complex thus produced.

EXAMPLE II (A) A mixture of 44 parts (all parts refer to parts by weight) of the product of Example 2(b), 10 parts mineral oil, and 24 parts of the reaction product of polyisobutene (molecular weight 750)-substituted succinic anhydride with a commercial mixture of polyethylene polyamines having an average composition corresponding to that of tetraethylene pentamine (reacted in a ratio of equivalents of 1:1 according to the procedure of US. patent 3,172,892, e.g., Example 12 thereof) is prepared and heated to about 75 C. over a 1.5 hour period. The weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased material is 5:95. To this solution there is added 520 parts of an aqueous ammonium molybdate solution previously prepared by mixing 265 parts by weight of water and 265 parts by weight of a commercial ammonium molybdate (ammonium dimolybdate sold by the Climax Molybdenum Company having a composition corresponding to the formula (NHQ Mo o containing about 56.5% by weight molybdenum) over a 1.5 hour period while maintaining a temperature at about 7080 C. resulting in a molar ratio of barium to molybdenum of 1:153. The resulting reaction mass is heated under reflux conditions at about 150 C. for about 8.8 hours. Subsequently, the mixture is blown with nitrogen at about parts per hour while maintaining the temperature at about 150 C. for an additional 1.3 hours. The nitrogen blowing is thereafter ceased, the mixture is maintained at about 150 C. for an additional hour and the entire reaction mass is filtered. The filtrate contains the desired molybdenum-containing complex and is characterized by having 19.67% by weight molybdenum and 21.81% by weight barium.

(B) To a mixture of 2,285 grams of the overbased product of Example 2(b) and 125 grams of the peptizing agent referred to in II(A) above, there is added slowly over three hours 2600 grams of an aqueous solution of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate (prepared by mixing 1300 grams of the molybdate and 1300 grams of water) while maintaining a temperature slightly above 70 C. The weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased product is 5:95 and the barium to molybdenum molar ratio of 121.47. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water are evolved during the ensuing reaction. Thereafter, nitrogen is bubbled through the reaction mass to remove water and gases during which time the product is heated to 170 for four hours. Then a commercial filter aid is added and the mass is filtered. The filtrate weighs 2,710 grams and contains 20.2% by weight molybdenum, 21.6% by weight barium, and 25.3% by weight oil.

(C) The procedure of II(B) is repeated except that the weight ratio of peptizing agent to the product of 2(b) is 25:75 and 457 grams of the product of 2(b) are reacted with 354 grams of the molybdate solution giving a molar ratio of bariumzmolybdenum in the reaction mass of 111. After filtration, 500 grams of filtrate containing the desired molybdenum-containing complex are obtained. The filtrate comprises 23.4% by weight mineral oil, 13.3% by weight molybdenum, and 19.3% by weight barium.

(D) To a mixture of 24 grams of water, 457 grams of the product of 2(b), and 25 grams of the peptizing agent of II(A) preheated to 90 C., there is added 102 grams of the commercial ammonium molybdate powder described in Example II(A). The mixture is maintained at this temperature for several hours with constant agitation of the mass. After drying at 170 C. and filtering, a filtrate is obtained weighing 485 grams and comprising 9.4% by weight molybdenum. The barium to molyb denum molar ratio in the reaction mass is 120.6 and the weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased product is 5:95.

(E) The procedure of (D) is followed with the exception that 51 grams of the ammonium molybdate of Example II(A) is utilized. Thus the reaction mixture contains a molar ratio of bairum to molybdenum of 1:0.3. The filtrate contains 26.4% by weight barium and 5.5% by weight molybdenum.

EXAMPLE III (A) A mixture of 1000 parts by weight of polyisobutene having a molecular weight of about 1000 and 90 parts by weight of phosphorus pentasulfide is heated to about 260 C. over five hours and thereafter maintained at that temperature for an additional five hours in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The reaction mass is then cooled to 150 C. and blown with steam for 5 hours. The resulting phosphosulfurized-hydrolyzed material has a phosphorus content of 2.35% by weight and a sulfur content of 2.75% by weight.

A suspension of 311 parts by weight of barium hydroxide in 485 parts of mineral oil is heated to 140-150 C. and 300 parts of the phosphosulfurized-hydrolyzed product prepared above is added over a one-hour period. To the resulting mixture there is added over a one-half hour period 153 parts of heptylphenol. The resulting mixture is then blown with carbon dioxide for 2.3 hours while maintaining a temperature of 150-155 C. Subsequently, 181 parts of barium hydroxide are added to the mass over a 30-minute period and the carbonation is resumed. An additional 181 parts of barium hydroxide is added at the end of 2 hours and carbonation is continued for an additional two and one-half hours. Thereafter, 274 parts of mineral oil are added and the resulting solution is dried by blowing nitrogen therethrough while maintaining the temperature of the mass at 150 C. After filtration, mineral oil is added to dilute the solution to a barium sulfate ash concentrate of 38.5%. The product thus obtained is a phosphorus content of 0.35%, a sulfur content of 0.38%, a reflux base number of 168, and a metal ratio of 14.2.

A mixture of 1226 grams of the product produced above and 1226 grams of the peptizing agent described in II(A) is formed and heated to about C. To this mixture there is added an aqueous ammonium paramolybdate solution (prepared by mixing 353 grams of the ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate of Example I and 353 grams of water). The molybdate solution is added over about a 40-minute period. The resulting mixture is maintained at about C. for 4 hours. Thereafter, the reaction mixture is heated to about 170 C. for 3 hours and filtered. The filtrate weighs 2,416 grams and comprises 42.1% by weight mineral oil, 10.4% by weight barium, 6.39% by weight molybdenum, and 0.17% by weight phosphorus.

(B) A substituted succinic acid ester of pentaerythritol is prepared by reacting polyisobutenyl (molecular weight about 750)-substituted succinic anhydride and pentaerythritol in a molar ratio of 1:1 at a temperature of about 190-200 C. while blowing the reaction mass with nitrogen gas at the rate of about 10 parts by weight per hour. Three hundred forty-two parts by weight mineral oil is used as the reaction medium. Thereafter, an additional 113 parts by weight of mineral oil is added and the entire mass is filtered. The ester contained in the filtrate is an excellent peptizing agent.

Following the procedure of III(A), 1839 grams of the phosphosulfurized-hydrolyzed product of (A), 460 grams of the oil-solution of the substituted succinic acid ester of pentaerythritol as produced above, and 1058 grams of an ammonium molybdate solution (produced by mixing 529 grams of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate and 529 grams of water) are reacted. The reaction mixture thus produced contains a weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased material of 20:80 and a molar ratio of barium to molybdenum of 1:1. After filtration, 1448 grams of an oil solution of the desired molybdenumcontaining complex is obtained as the filtrate. The filtrate contains 4.8% by weight barium and 3.19% by weight molybdenum.

EXAMPLE IV (A) To a mixture of 1820 grams of the product of Example 2(b) and 96 grams of the peptizing agent described in Example III(B), there is added 2120 grams of ammonium molybdate solution prepared by mixing 1060 grams each of water and ammonium parabolybdate tetrahydrate. The molybdate solution is added over a one-hour period while maintaining the temperature at about 7585 C. Thereafter, the reaction mixture is dried by heating to about 170 C. while blowing with nitrogen for 3.5 hours to remove water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The reaction product is filtered at a temperature of 150 C. The filtrate contains 21.53% by weight barium and 20.5% by weight molybdenum. The ratio of peptizing agent to overbased material in the reaction mixture is 5 and the molar ratio of barium to molybdenum is 1:1.5.

(B) A peptizing agent is prepared according to U.S. patent 3,200,107 (e.g., Example 9 thereof, etc.) by reacting polyisobutene(molecular weight 1000)-substituted succinic anhydride (1.5 equivalents) with about 3 equivalents of a commercial mixture of polyethylene polyamines having an average composition of tetraethylene pentamine by heating the mixture to about C. over a 6-hour period and thereafter blowing it with nitrogen for an additional 5 hours. Thereafter, 1.5 equivalents of carbon disulfide is added over a one-hour period while 19 maintaining the temperature in the range of about 140- 150 C. The resulting mixture is heated an additional hour and then blown with nitrogen for 3 hours and filtered. (See Example 9 of 3,200,107.)

To a reaction mixture of 1820 grams of the product of Example 2(b) and 320 grams of a 40% by weight oil solution of the above described peptizing agent there is added 708 grams of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate dissolved in an equal amount of water while maintaining a temperature of about 82 C. This temperature is maintained for about hours. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is heated to about 107 C., nitrogen gas is bubbled through the reaction mixture. Thereafter the mixture is filtered. The filtrate contains 21.5% barium and 15.35% molybdenum. The Weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased organic compound in the reaction mixture is :85 and the molar ratio of barium to molybdenum is 1:1.

(C) A peptizing agent is prepared as in Example II(A) with the exception that 2 equivalents of the amine mixture are reacted with each equivalent of the substituted succinic acid anhydride.

Following the procedure of Example 1V(A), 1820 grams of the product of Example 2(b), 96 grams of a 41% oil solution of the above described peptizing agent, and 2120 grams of an aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate (prepared by mixing 1060 grams each of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate and water) are reacted to produce a molybdenum-containing complex. The resulting filtrate contains 21.08% barium and 20.99% molybdenum. The Weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased organic starting material is 5:95 and the molar ratio of barium to molybdenum is 121.5.

EXAMPLE V An amine aldehyde condensation product is prepared according to Example 2(b) by reacting a mineral oil solution of N-octadecyl propylene diamine with formaldehyde in the presence of calcium hydroxide as the condensation catalyst. The resulting amine-formaldehyde condensation product is an effective peptizing agent.

A mixture comprising 674 grams of a calcium overbased petrosulfonic acid having a metal ratio of 12.2 and 225 grams of the oil solution of the amine-aldehyde condensation product identified above is heated to about 100 C. Thereafter, an ammonium molybdate solution (prepared by dissolving 354 grams of ammonium paramolybdate tetrahydrate in 354 grams of water) is added to the mixture over a period of one hour while maintaining the reaction mixture at between 80 and 95 C. This reaction mixture is characterized by a ratio of peptizing agent to overbased petrosulfonate of 25:75 and a molar ratio of calcium to molybdenum of 1:1. The reaction mixture was maintained at a temperature of about 95 C. for about four hours and thereafter heated slowly to 170 C. while bubbling nitrogen through the reaction mass. These conditions were maintained for about four hours and the reaction mass subsequently filtered. The oil solution of the molybdenum-containing complexes thus produced is characterized by a calcium content of 2.47% by weight and a molybdenum content of 5. 81% by weight.

EXAMPLE VI A mixture of 1371 grams of the product of 2(b) and 344 grams of the peptizing agent of Example II(A) is warmed to 65 C., producing a Weight ratio of peptizing agent to overbased material of :80. To this mixture there is added 730 grams of powdered sodium molybdate dihydrate (Na MoO '2H O) and 347 grams of water resulting in a molar ratio of barium to molybdenum of 1:1. This mixture is held at 100110 C. for 8.5 hours, subsequently dried under a vacuum at 150 C., and filtered. The filtrate contains 23.3% by weight barium and 1.0% by weight molybdenum.

The foregoing examples demonstrate one of the reasons that ammonium molybdates are particularly useful in preparing the molybdenum-containing complexes, particularly where the overbased material is a carbonated product. During the reaction between the overbased starting material and the molybdenum-containing anions, carbonate is displaced by the molybdenum-containing anions and ammonia and carbon dioxide are evolved. The evolution of these byproducts as gases facilitates the preparation of the desired complexes. If the cation of the molybdenum-containing reactant is one which forms an oilinsoluble product, a haze or precipitate can form which should be filtered from the reaction product. As noted above, the peptizing agents assist in minimizing or eliminating hazes, etc.

It will be understood that the above examples are merely illustrative of the preparation of the molybdenum-containing complexes used as additives in the compositions of the present invention. By applying the above techniques to other overbased materials and/or other molybdenumcontaining reactants as described hereinbefore, a wide variety of molybdenum-containing complexes can be prepared.

The molybdenum-containing complexes of the invention can be employed in lubricating oils and greases in various amounts to improve the extreme pressure an anti-wear properties of the lubricants. Usually, they will be employed in amounts such that the molybdenum will comprise from about 0.001% to about 15% by weight of the final lubricating composition. Preferably, however, the molybdenum-containing additives of the invention are utilized in amounts that will produce a molybdenum content of about 0.05% to about 5% by Weight in the final lubricating composition. Due to the basic metal content of the complexes, it should be obvious to those skilled in the art that the complexes also function as detergents in lubricating oils in the same manner as the overbased intermediates from which they are prepared.

It has been determined that the extreme pressure capabilities and anti-wear properties of the present molybdenum-containing complexes are especially effective in combination with one or more known, conventional -E.P. or anti-wear additives such as chlorinated paraffin wax, benzylpolysulfides, alkylpolysulfides, sulfur chloridetreated olefins, sulfur chloride-treated fatty oils, sulfurized sperm oil, sulfurized mineral oils, sulfurized fatty oils, zinc diorganodithiophosphates, lead naphthenates, zinc or lead dialkyldithiocarbonates, etc. These conventional additives are generally characterized by one or more sulfur, halogen, phosphorus, carboxyl, or carboxylate salt substituents and are well known to those skilled in the art as amply illustrated by C. V. Smalheer and R. K. Smith, Lubricant Additives, (particularly pages -911) published by The Lezius-Hiles Co., Cleveland (1967), and C. W. Georgi, Motor Oils And Engine Lubrication, (particularly pages 209-217), published by Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York (1950), and the references cited therein. In many instances, these combinations appear to co-act synergistically.

The molybdenum-containing complexes of this invention will ordinarily be used in combination with other lubricant additives usually found in lubricating oils and greases. Such additives include, for example, detergents of the ash-containing type, ashless detergents or dispersants, viscosity index improving agents, pour point depressants, rust inhibiting agents, anti-foam agents, and oxidation and corrosion inhibitors and the like.These other additives are discussed in detail in the patents and publications discussed above.

The ash-containing detergents are exemplified by oilsoluble neutral and basic salts of alkali or alkaline earth metal with sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids or organic phosphorus acids characterized by at least one direct carbon-to-phosphorus linkage (such as those prepared by the treatment of an olefin polymer, e.g., polyisobutene having a molecular weight of 1000, with a phosphorizing agent such as phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus heptasulfide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride and sulfur, white phosphorus and a sulfur halide, or phosphorothioic chloride). The most commonly used salts of such acids are those of sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and barium. The basic salts of such compounds are those wherein the number of equivalents of metal is present in a stoichiometrically larger amount than the number of equivalents of organic radicals. The commonly employed methods for preparing the basic salts involves heating a mineral oil solution of an acid with a stoichiometric excess of a metal neutralizing agent such as the metal oxide, hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate, or sulfide at a temperature above 50 C. and filtering the resulting mass as explained hereinbefore With regard to the preparation of the overbased materials suitable for preparing the molybdenum-containing complexes.

The ashless detergents useful in lubricating oil compositions have been described in detail hereinbefore in regard to the peptizing agents useful in preparing the molybdenum-containing complexes.

Examples of oxidation-inhibitors, corrosion-inhibitors, and other extreme pressure agents include benzyldisulfide bis-(chlorobenzyl)disulfide, dibutyltetrasulfide, sulfurized methyl ester of oleic acid, sulfurized alkylphenol, sulfurized dipentene, sulfurized terpene, sulfurized Diels- Alder adducts such as the adduct of butadiene and butylacrylate, phosphosulfurized hydrocarbons such as the reaction product of a phosphorus sulfide with terpentine or methyloleate, phosphorus esters including principally dihydrocarbon and trihydrocarbon phosphites such as dibutylphosphite, diheptylphosphite, dicyclohexylphosphite, pentylphenylphosphite, diphentylphenylphosphite, tridecylphosphite, distearylphosphite, dimethylnaphthylphosphite, polypropylene(molecular weight 500)-substituted phenylphosphite, diisobutyl-substituted phenylphosphite, metal thiocarbonates such as zinc dioctyl-dithiocarbonates and barium heptylphenyl dithiocarbonate, Group II metal phosphorodithioates such as zinc dicyclohexylphosphorodithioates, zinc dioctylphosphorodithioate, barium di (heptylphenyl)-phosphorodidthioate, cadmium, dinonylphosphorodithioate, zinc salts of phosphorodithioic acids produced by the reaction of phosphorus pentasulfide with an equimolar mixture of isopropyl alcohol and n-hexyl alcohol, and the lead phosphorodithioate salts corresponding to the foregoing metal phosphorodithioates.

As is Well known, the amount of each additive to be employed in a given composition can vary Widely. Thus, depending on the particular use of the lubricating composition and the type of additive under consideration, the additives Will be employed in amounts ranging from about 0.001% to about 20% by weight of the lubricating composition. Thus, in an internal combustion engine crankcase lubricating oil, the amount of detergent and/r dispersant may vary from about 0.1% to about by weight. The conventional E.P. agents and anti-wear additives (oiliness, lubricity, and film strength additives as they are sometimes called) can be employed in amounts of from about 0.01% to about 10% or more by Weight depending on the nature of the additive and the environment in which the lubricant must function.

An illustrative lubricating composition for use in the crankcase of an internal combustion engine would be an SAE mineral lubricating oil containing 2% (by Weight) of a dispersant produced by reacting a polyisobutenyl (M.W.750)-substituted succinic anhydride with a polyethylene polyamine mixture in an equivalent ratio of anhydride to amine of 1:1, 0.07% of phosphorus as zinc dioctylphosphorodithioate, 2% of a barium detergent pre pared by neutralizing the hydrolyzed product of phosr phosulfurized polypropylene, 3% of a carbonated, barium overbased mahogany acid (metal ratio, 6), 3% of the copolymer of decyl-methacrylate and diethylaminoethylacrylate reacted in a weight ratio of 95:5, 2% of the product of Example II(a), 1% of sulfurized sperm oil, 0.03% of an anti-foam agent, 0.02% of a pour point depressant, and 3% of a viscosity index improver. Another example is an SAE mineral oil composition containing 3% by Weight of the same substituted succinic anhydride-polyethylene polyamine reaction product, 0.1% phosphorus as zinc di-(isobutylphenyl)phosphorodithioate, 10% of chlorinated pariffin Wax having a chlorine content of (by weight), 2% of dibutyltetrasulfide, 2% of sulfurized dipentene, and 1.5% of the product of Example II(b). Other compositions are readily available by adding the molybdenum-complexes to presently available lubricating oils and grease or substituting the complexes for all or part of the BF. and anti-Wear additives which may be present in such compositions.

While the foregoing generally describes the use of the additives in terms of improving mineral lubricating oils and mineral oil based lubricating greases, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to such mineral oil based lubricating compositions. Other lubricating oils, natural as well as synthetic, can be used as the base of the lubricating oil and grease compositions contemplated by the present invention. Such natural and synthetic bases include hydrocarbon oils derived from polymerization of olefins and synthetic oils produced from alkylene oxides such as polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide polymers or the esters and ethers thereof. The synthetic ester oils such as those produced from polycarboxylic acids and alcohols, including glycols and polyglycols, are also contemplated as being within the scope of the present invention. Exemplary of these oils are dibutyl adipate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-sebacate, dilauryl azelate, etc.

The effectiveness of the molybdenum-containing complexes of the invention is demonstrated by the results obtained when compositions containing varying amounts of the products are subjected to Timken OK Load test. Data compiled from such tests are tabulated hereinbelow. All percentages given in the table refer to percent by Weight of a total composition.

IABLE I Molybdenum complex Commer- Timkeu Lubri- Lubricial E.P. Prepared BazMo molar OK load eating eating addiaccording ratio in test oil grease tive to Example Amount, reaction results, percent percent percent No. percent mixture pounds 3 II(a) 1 1:1. 47 :65 3 II(a) 2 1:1. 47 :75 3 I 1.42 1:1.2 65:65 3 I 2. 84 1:1. 2 75:85 3 II(a) 1 1:1.47 65:65 3 II(a) 2 1:1.47 :80

1 Commercial S.A.E. mineral lubricating oil.

Commereial lithium-base grease.

Commercial E.P. agent in form of oil solution of (a) lead and (b) zine salts of diorgano phosphoroditlnolc acids and (c) the reaction product of a 2:1 molar ratio isobutene and sulfur monochloride (S 012).

From Table I, it is readily seen that by increasing the amount of the molybdenum-containing complex as indicated, the load-carrying or extreme pressure capability of compositions A and C are increased over while these capabilities of the grease composition of E are increased over These composiitons also demonstrate that the molybdenum-containing complexes function effectively in combination with other E.P. agents both in greases and lubricating oils.

Similarly, by employing standard engine tests, e.g., the 1964 Oldsmobile Valve Tip Wear Test, it has been established that the molybdenum-containing complexes reduce the wear (valve tip scuff, etc.) in operating internal combustion engines when employed as lubricating oil additives in amounts usual for such additives, e.g., about 2% by weight. There is, obviously, a relationship between the ability of an additive to increase the load-carrying properties of a metal and the ability to reduce Wear, i.e. lessen friction.

Many other obvious variations of this invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art. These variations, insofar as covered by the appended claims, are within the contemplated scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A lubricating composition comprising a major proportion of a lubricating oil and minor proportion of an oilsoluble, molybdenum-containing composition sufficient to improve the extreme pressure properties of said lubricating composition, said molybdenum-containing composition having been produced by contacting (1) a solution of an oil-soluble, carbonated, basic Group II metal-containing organic complex of a condensation product of N-alkyl-substituted alkylene polyamine containing 8 to 40 carbon atoms in the N-alkyl groups with a lower aliphatic aldehyde containing less than 6 carbon atoms, said complex being characterized by a metal ratio of at least 2, with (2) molybdenum-containing anions derived from ammonium, magnesium, thallous, and alkali metal molybdates at a temperature of at least 20 C. for a period of time suflicient for at least a portion of the molybdenum-containing anions to react with the Group II metal of said complex and to release carbonate from said complex, the molar ratio of Group II metal to molybdenum being from about 120.05 to 1:5.

2. A lubricating composition according to claim 1 wherein the molybdenum-containing anions are present as aqueous solutions of ammonium molybdate of ammonium paramolybdate and the Group II metal is an alkaline earth metal.

3. A lubricating composition according to claim 2 wherein the N-alkyl-substituted alkylene polyamine has from about 12 to about 30 carbon atoms in the N-alkyl groups and the molar ratio of alkaline earth metal to molybdenum is about 1:0.1 to about 1:3.

4. A lubricating composition according to claim 2 wherein the N-alkyl-substituted alkylene polyamine is an N-alkyl-alkylenediamine having from about 10 to about 30 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the alkylene radical.

5. A lubricating composition according to claim 4 wherein the molar ratio of alkaline earth metal to molybdenum is from about 120.1 to about 1:3.

6. A lubricating composition according to claim 5 wherein the aldehyde is formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, aqueous formalein, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, or butylaldehyde.

7. A lubricating composition according to claim 6 wherein the molar ratio of alkaline earth metal to molybdenum is about 1:02 to about 1:1.7.

8. A lubricating composition according to claim 2 wherein said condensation product is produced by the process comprising carbonating a mixture comprising (A) mineral oil,

(B) one equivalent of a phenolic composition consisting of a mixture of alkylated phenol having from about 6 to about 200 aliphatic carbon atoms and an oil-soluble condensation product of formaldehyde and an N-alkyl-alkylenediamine having from about 12 to about 30 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and from 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the alkylene radical wherein the ratio of equivalents of the alkylated phenol to the condensation product is within the range of from about 0.1:1 to 10:1; and

(C) from about 2 to about 15 equivalents of barium hydroxide.

9. A lubricating composition according to claim 6 wherein the molybdenum-containing composition is prepared by contacting a mineral oil solution of a carbonated, basic, barium-containing organic complex with an aqueous solution of molybdate or paramolybdate anions at a temperature within the range of about 20 C. to about C. for a period of time sufiicient for at least a portion of the carbonate to be displaced, and subse quently removing substantially all water from the reaction mixture, said organic complex being the product produced by carbonating a mixture comprising (A) mineral oil,

(B) one equivalent of a phenolic composition consisting essentially of a mixture of 1) a promoter selected from the class consisting of monoand dialkylated phenols having 6 to about 200 aliphatic carbon atoms and (2) the condensation product of about 3 moles of formaldehyde and about one mole of N-dodecyl trimethylenediamine, wherein the ratio of equivalents of the heptylphenol to the condensation product is within the range of from about 0.5:1 to about 5:1; and

(C) from about 2 to about 10 equivalents of barium hydroxide.

10. A lubricating composition according to claim 9 wherein the aqueous solution containing molybdate anions is an aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate.

11. A lubricating composition according to claim 10 wherein the aqueous solution of molybdate anions is an aqueous solution of ammonium paramolybdate.

12. A lubricating composition according to claim 11 wherein the promoter is selected from the class consisting of heptylphenols, octylphenols, and nonylphenols.

13. A lubricating composition according to claim 1 wherein molybdate ions are contacted with the organic complex in the presence of a peptizing agent selected from the class consisting of oil-soluble esters, amides, imides, amidines, amine salts, and metal salts of substituted succinic acids wherein the substituents contain at least about 50 aliphatic carbon atoms.

14. A lubricating composition according to claim 13 wherein the succinic acids are polyolefin-substituted succinic acids.

15. A lubricating composition according to claim 1 wherein molybdate anions are contacted with the organic complex in the presence of a peptizing agent selected from the class consisting of (a) N-alkylalkylenediamines wherein the alkyl group contains from about 12 to about 30 carbon atoms and the alkylene groups contain from 2 to 4 carbon atoms and (b) the oil-soluble condensation products of said N-alkylalkylenediamines with formaldehyde, with the proviso that when the carbonated, basic, Group II metal-containing organic complex is a complex of an lN-al kylalkylenediamine or condensation product thereof with formaldehyde, the peptizing agent is an excess of (a) or (b) over that required to form said comp ex.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,795,550 6/1957 Harle et al. 25249.7 2,795,552 6/1957 Abbott et a1. 25249.7 3,047,500 7/ 1 962 Matson 25242.7 3,050,538 8/1962 Hugel et al. 25242.7 X 3,184,410 5/1965 Bretherick 25242.7

(Other references on following page) UNITED 25 26 STATES PATENTS PATRICK P. GARVIN, Primary Examiner yphers et a1. 25249.7 X W. H. CANNON, Assistant Examiner Elliott et a1 252-49.7 X Farmer et a1. 25242.7 X US. Cl. X.R. Price 25233 5 Dorer 25218 X 251 18, 25, 33.4, 34.7, 37.2, 40.7, 42.7, 46.4

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WO2001046352A1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2001-06-28 The Lubrizol Corporation Lubricants with the combination of a molybdenum compound, a phosphorus compounds and dispersants
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US7329772B2 (en) 2004-04-29 2008-02-12 Crompton Corporation Method for the preparation of a hydroxyalkyl hindered phenolic antioxidant

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