US3539798A - Shadowless projection systems - Google Patents

Shadowless projection systems Download PDF

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US3539798A
US3539798A US3539798DA US3539798A US 3539798 A US3539798 A US 3539798A US 3539798D A US3539798D A US 3539798DA US 3539798 A US3539798 A US 3539798A
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lens
light
reflector
beam
shadowless
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Donald M Perry
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DONALD M PERRY
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DONALD M PERRY
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/20Lamp housings

Description

Y R R E P M n SHADOWLESS PROJECTION SYSTEMS Filed July 18, 1967 wv mm DONALD M. PERRY lNl/E/VTUR 8) BUG/(HORN, BLORE, KLAROU/ST a SPAR/(MAN ATTORNEYS 3,539,798 SHADOWLESS PROJECTION SYSTEMS Donald M. Perry, R0. Box 495, Gresham, Oreg. 97030 Filed July 18, 1967, Ser. No. 654,225 Int. Cl. F21v 13/04 US. Cl. 240--41.3 4 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE In FIG. 1, a compensating lens on the cover glass of a flashlight collimates light from the lamp to fill the portion of the beam which otherwise would be a. shadow from the lamp opening in the parabolic reflector of the flashlight. The light from the flashlight travels through a field lens adjacent a transparency and the image of the transparency travels through a projection lens. The compensating lens evens the illumination from one edge of the flashlight beam to the other. In FIG. 2, a compensating lens focused on a light source at one focal point of an elliptical reflector, which has a shadow-creating opening for the light source, focuses the light from the light source through a transparency to the other focal point of the reflector to illuminate the area of the shadow from the opening. A projection lens projects an image of the transparency onto a screen or the like.

DESCRIPTION This invention relates to shadowless projection systems.

In numerous attempts to develop a simple flashlight projector, even illumination of the slide has been achieved by the addition of a diffusing element between the reflector and the slide. Such diffusing elements include ground glass, opal glass, translucent plastic and other translucent materials, ribbed glass, beaded glass and lenticular plates. Any of these materials waste light to a greater or lesser extent and make it impossible to get adequate light from such a low Wattage source. Consequently the picture must be shown on a small screen.

An object of the invention is to provide shadowless projection systems.

Another object of the invention is to provide projection systems having concave mirrors having openings for small light sources and serving to collect and direct the light from the small sources through slides or films which are then imaged by projection lenses on screens.

A further object of the invention is to provide a flashlight projector for use as a teaching aid in underdeveloped countries and areas where no electric current is available. It is also easily portable and self-contained for use where connection to an electric current would be inconvenient.

Another object of this invention is to provide even illumination in projection systems using a small source at the focus of a parabolic reflector or concave reflectors of other conic sections. A model of the present invention gives enough illumination to project successfully the popular 35 mm. color slide on a six-foot beaded glass screen.

The invention provides shadowless projection systems in each of which a concave reflector having an opening for a small light source reflects light with a central shadow to an aperture and a small compensating lens aligned with nited States Patent Patented Nov. 10, 1970 the opening transmits light from the light source to the shadowed portion of the aperture to cause uniform illumination at the aperture. In one specific embodiment of the invention, a flashlight having a parabolic reflector has on its cover glass a plane convex lens collimating light from a lamp mounted in an opening in the reflector and filling an otherwise shadowed area of a field lens adjacent a transparency. A projection lens projects the light from the transparency on a screen. In a shadowless projection system forming an alternate embodiment of the invention, a small compensating lens focused on a light source at a focal point of an elliptical or ellipsoidal reflector focuses light from the light source through a transparency to the other focal point of the ellipse, which coincides with a projection lens, to illuminate an otherwise shadowed portion.

A complete understanding of the invention may be obtained from the following detailed description of shadowless projection systems forming specific embodiments thereof, When read in conjunction with the appended drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a view of a shadowless projection system forming one embodiment of the invention; and

F IG. 2 is a view of a shadowless projection system forming an alternate embodiment of the invention.

Referring now in detail to the drawings, there is shown in FIG. 1 a flashlight slide projector system including a flashlight 10 having a conventional parabolic reflector 12, a conventional light source or lamp 14 and a cover glass 16 carrying a small central convexlano spherical compensating lens 18 cemented to the central portion of the cover glass, and held by a rim 20 of a conventional holding ring 22 of the flashlight. The lens 18 has a spherical surface R18 of a radius such that the focal point of the lens is at filament 24 of the lamp with light from the filament being collimated by the lens. A shim 26 may be provided if necessary to position the lens 18 so that it is focused on the filament at its left side and transmits the light collimated from its right side. The diameter of the lens 18 is such as to just fill the area which would otherwise be shadowed because of the central opening 30 in the reflector 12 through which the lamp extends.

A field lens 40 focuses the parallel light from the reflector 12 and lens 18 into a known projection lens 42 focused on a transparency 44 such as a slide or a film at the aperture or holder of a projector tube 46 mounted on the flashlight. The flashlight head contains the small bulb or lamp 14 positioned at the focal point of the parabolic reflector 12 so that the light emitted in all directions from the bulb filament 24 is directed by the reflector in a parallel beam from the flashlight. However, the central hole 30 in the reflector which admits the bulb produces a dead spot in the reflected light beam. Any light which is emitted forward from the bulb does not reflect from the parabolic reflector and forms a diverging beam, the intensity of which diminished according to the well known inverse square law of light propagation. To fill in the dead spot from the reflector 12 and obtain a uniform beam for illumination of the slide 44, the small lens 18 with a diameter equal to that of the shadow or dead spot, is cemented onto the cover glass 16 at a distance from the bulb filament equal to the focal length of the lens 18 so that the light emitted forms a parallel beam after passing 3 through the lens 18. This produces the necessary beam of parallel light to fill in the shadow from the hole 30 in the reflector. When the flux densities striking the lens 18 and the reflector 12 are equal, the resulting beams will be of the same intensity.

It is a well understood property of a parabolic reflector to form a parallel beam of light when a small light source is placed at its geometrical focal point. However, the focal lengths of zones of a parabolic reflector vary with the height of the zone. A ray reflected on the axis has a focal length equal to the geometrical focus. As the height from the axis increases, the focal length for that zone increases. This change in focal lengths at different zones is coma, the aberration which limits the useful field of a telescope having a parabolic mirror. The focal length of any ray is the distance from the geometrical focal point of the parabola to the point of reflection on the parabola of that ray. The light is diminishing by the inverse square law from the source to the reflector. Therefore, the outer parts of the reflector receive less light and hence reflect less light than the inner zones. The best balance for even intensity across the beam is produced when the small lens 18 gives a beam of the same intensity as an intermediate zone of the reflector. This then requires the focal length of the small lens to equal that of an intermediate zone of the reflector 12.

The amount of spherical aberration produced by the lens depends upon which way the light passes through it. The lens would normally be mounted with the plane side toward the bulb if the bulb had uniformly spherical ends. However, undesirable refractions produced by a projecting tip 50 of the prefocused bulb or lamp 14 introduce apparent negative spherical aberration which the high positive spherical aberration produced by mounting the lens as shown will tend to compensate.

In the conventional slide projector an image of the light source is focused by the condensing lens system at or near the position of the projection lens. The rays of light from all portions of the slide then funnel through the projection lens and give even illumination to the whole picture.

In the present invention a parallel beam of light would leave the reflector 12. The portion of this beam that passed through the corners of the slide 44 would be partly obstructed by the edge of the projection lens 42, thus giving poor illumination to the corners of the picture. The field lens 40 focuses this parallel beam to or near the projection lens, thereby equalizing the corner illumination as in the conventional system. The projection lens may be a lens of any of the standard projection lens types, or the simple achromatic lens shown. Also, any desirable focal length may be used by picking the focal length of the field lens to suit.

In one constructed embodiment of the projection system of FIG. 1, the radius of the surface R18 was 9.5 mm., the axial thickness of the lens 18 was 2.7 mm., the diameter of the lens 18 was 13 mm., the index of refraction for the sodium D line was 1.52 and the Abbe dispersion coefficient was about 59.0. For the field lens 40, its front surface R40 had a radius of 100 mm., its rear surface was plano, its axial thickness was 6 mm., its index of refraction for the sodium D line was 1.52, its Abbe dispersion coefficient was about 59.0, and it was spaced about one-half of an inch from the transparency 44, the lens 18 being spaced about 3.5 inches from the transparency 44. The geometrical focus of the reflector was about 6.33 mm. The objective lens 42 was a conventional, known projection lens adjustable axially to focus the image on the screen and having a focal length slightly shorter than that of the field lens 40.

EMBODIMENT OF FIG. 2

The shadowless projection system shown in FIG. 2 forming an alternate embodiment of the invention is similar to the projection system but has a light or condenser system 60 which focuses its light upon a film or transparency 61 at an aperture or film gate 62, whereas the flashlight 10 produces an afocal beam. The light system 60 includes an elliptical reflector having a pair of carbon electrodes 64 and 66 extending through holes 68 and 70 in the reflector and forming an arc of light at one focal point of the elliptical reflector. A small compensating plano-convex lens 72 is axially positioned so as to fill the otherwise shadowed portion of the light from the electrodes with one focal point being the arc and the other focal point of the lens 72 being in a known projection lens 74, which can be focused and which images the transparency on a screen (not shown). The lens 72 is piano-convex and may have an index of refraction for the sodiom D line of 1.52, and an Abbe dispersion coeflicient of about 59.0 The lens system 60 is ideal for frame sizes larger than the usual 35 mm. film.

The above projection systems provide high, even intensity, shadowless illumination with light sources of low power, and are compact, easily carried and inexpensive.

It is to be understood that the above-described arrangements are simply illustrative of the application of the principles of the invention. Numerous other arrangements may be readily devised by those skilled in the art which will embody the principle of the invention and fall within the spirit and scope thereof.

What is claimed is:

1. In a shadowless optical system,

a concave mirror having a central hole and a focal point,

a light source extending through the hole for creating light at the focal point to form a beam with a shadow from the hole,

and a lens mounted forwardly of the mirror to receive light directly from the source for forming a central beam of a diameter equal to that of the shadow, thus eliminating it and giving a total beam of relatively uniform cross-sectional intensity,

the mirror being parabolic,

the lens having a diameter equal to that of the shadow and having a focal length intermediate the axial and marginal focal lengths of the parabolic mirror and positioned forwardly of the mirror so its focal point coincides with the light source.

2. In a shadowless optical system,

a concave mirror having a central hole and a focal point,

a light source extending through the hole for creating light at the focal point to form a beam with a shadow from the hole,

and a lens mounted forwardly of the mirror to receive light directly from the source for forming a central beam of a diameter equal to that of the shadow, thus eliminating it and giving a total beam of relatively uniform cross-sectional intensity,

the mirror being elliptical to form a convergent beam,

the lens having a diameter equal to that of the shadow and a focal length equal to the focal length of an intermediate zone of the mirror for focusing a convergent beam of light at the same distance as the beam from the mirror is focused.

3. The shadowless optical system of claim 2 wherein the mirror and the lens both focus at a second focal point of the elliptical mirror.

4. In a shadowless optical system,

a concave mirror having a central hole and a focal point,

a light source extending through the hole for creating light at the focal point to form a beam with a shadow from the hole,

and a lens mounted forwardly of the mirror to receive light directly from the source for forming a central beam of a diameter equal to that of the shadow, thus eliminating it and giving a total beam of relatively uniform cross-sectional intensity,

the mirror being parabolic,

5 the lens being focused on the focal point of the mirror, the lens having a focal length equal to the focal length of an intermediate zone of the parabolic mirror and being mounted forwardly of the mirror with the focal point of the lens coincident with the light source.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,338,078 12/1943 Wood 240l0.6

2,478,336 8/1949 Stein et a1. 353-43 2,764,058 9/1956 Ellis 35343 Ott 2404l.3 X Keith 2404l.3 X Ohl 2404l.3 X Cullman 2404l.3 Nicholl 2404l.3

US. Cl; XR.

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Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3622776A (en) * 1970-08-17 1971-11-23 Guy Loyd Wyrick Auction light
US3707626A (en) * 1970-04-10 1972-12-26 Robert John Delchen Optical reflector
US4836782A (en) * 1983-05-06 1989-06-06 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Method for providing direct cool beam incident light on dental target
US5144540A (en) * 1991-12-16 1992-09-01 Hayes Lance E Decorative outdoor light fixture
US5170196A (en) * 1990-12-03 1992-12-08 Sony Corporation Portable projector
US5218481A (en) * 1990-03-05 1993-06-08 Laroy Optical Limited Optical inspection apparatus
US5233375A (en) * 1991-07-29 1993-08-03 Williams Charles A Logo projector
US5321449A (en) * 1992-09-25 1994-06-14 Mario Coccoli Projecting flashlight
WO1999037948A1 (en) * 1998-01-26 1999-07-29 Bison Sportslights Inc. Improved flashlight
US6193388B1 (en) 1998-01-26 2001-02-27 Bison Sportslights, Inc. Tubular barrel-shaped flashlight having rotatable switching assembly and focusing and defocusing capability
US6588917B1 (en) 1998-06-18 2003-07-08 Christopher Lee Halasz Flashlight
WO2005057080A3 (en) * 2003-12-08 2005-08-25 Coleman Co Eliptical reflector and curved lens system for a portable light
US20060023452A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-02 Kuo-Yen Lai Scanning illumination module
US20060034075A1 (en) * 2004-08-12 2006-02-16 Alessio David J Flashlight
US20060044532A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-02 Black Frederick S Jr Image projector display device
US20060262524A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-23 Kah Carl L Jr Cassegrain optical configuration to expand high intensity LED flashlight to larger diameter lower intensity beam
US20080316733A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2008-12-25 Spartano David A Lighting device having adjustable spot beam
US20090161348A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2009-06-25 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Lighting Device Having Forward Directed Heat Sink Assembly
EP2187261A1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-05-19 M. Matthieu Burlot Enclosure for the projection of images attachable to lighting source and corresponding device
US20100128229A1 (en) * 2008-11-25 2010-05-27 Laboris Richard Dejesus Weather-tight Video Projector with Unattended Operation
US20110007496A1 (en) * 2003-01-14 2011-01-13 Tseng-Lu Chien Led or laser project light has more than 1 functions
US20120140463A1 (en) * 2010-12-07 2012-06-07 Kinzer David J Led profile luminaire
US20130033871A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2013-02-07 Beat-Sonic Co., Ltd. Led lamp
US20140029265A1 (en) * 2010-03-24 2014-01-30 Jacksen International, Ltd. Fade out optical light masking projector system
US20150131057A1 (en) * 2013-08-30 2015-05-14 American Tack & Hardware Co., Inc. Animated projection system
US9157586B1 (en) 2012-07-02 2015-10-13 Edward Vose Babcock, IV Light filtering system
US20150308787A1 (en) * 2014-04-25 2015-10-29 Ncstar, Inc. Scope with Head Lighting Arrangement

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US1260439A (en) * 1917-07-17 1918-03-26 Otho M Otte Automobile-lamp.
US1750319A (en) * 1926-10-16 1930-03-11 Welsbach Traffic Signal Compan Signal device
US2273447A (en) * 1939-09-07 1942-02-17 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Unidirective energy radiating system
US2282167A (en) * 1937-08-21 1942-05-05 George M Cressaty Flashlight
US2338078A (en) * 1940-07-11 1943-12-28 Blake Mfg Corp Flashlight
US2478336A (en) * 1945-10-27 1949-08-09 Hollywood Comic Flash Inc Flashlight film and picture projecting device
US2764058A (en) * 1952-11-01 1956-09-25 American Optical Corp Portable combined photographic slide viewing and projecting device
US3395272A (en) * 1966-08-15 1968-07-30 Thomas H. Nieholl Apparatus for controlling light rays

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1260439A (en) * 1917-07-17 1918-03-26 Otho M Otte Automobile-lamp.
US1750319A (en) * 1926-10-16 1930-03-11 Welsbach Traffic Signal Compan Signal device
US2282167A (en) * 1937-08-21 1942-05-05 George M Cressaty Flashlight
US2273447A (en) * 1939-09-07 1942-02-17 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Unidirective energy radiating system
US2338078A (en) * 1940-07-11 1943-12-28 Blake Mfg Corp Flashlight
US2478336A (en) * 1945-10-27 1949-08-09 Hollywood Comic Flash Inc Flashlight film and picture projecting device
US2764058A (en) * 1952-11-01 1956-09-25 American Optical Corp Portable combined photographic slide viewing and projecting device
US3395272A (en) * 1966-08-15 1968-07-30 Thomas H. Nieholl Apparatus for controlling light rays

Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3707626A (en) * 1970-04-10 1972-12-26 Robert John Delchen Optical reflector
US3622776A (en) * 1970-08-17 1971-11-23 Guy Loyd Wyrick Auction light
US4836782A (en) * 1983-05-06 1989-06-06 Dentsply Research & Development Corp. Method for providing direct cool beam incident light on dental target
US5218481A (en) * 1990-03-05 1993-06-08 Laroy Optical Limited Optical inspection apparatus
US5170196A (en) * 1990-12-03 1992-12-08 Sony Corporation Portable projector
US5233375A (en) * 1991-07-29 1993-08-03 Williams Charles A Logo projector
US5144540A (en) * 1991-12-16 1992-09-01 Hayes Lance E Decorative outdoor light fixture
US5321449A (en) * 1992-09-25 1994-06-14 Mario Coccoli Projecting flashlight
US7001041B2 (en) * 1998-01-26 2006-02-21 Mag Instrument, Inc. Flashlight
US6193388B1 (en) 1998-01-26 2001-02-27 Bison Sportslights, Inc. Tubular barrel-shaped flashlight having rotatable switching assembly and focusing and defocusing capability
US6354715B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2002-03-12 Bison Sportslights, Inc. Flashlight
WO1999037948A1 (en) * 1998-01-26 1999-07-29 Bison Sportslights Inc. Improved flashlight
US20040246710A1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2004-12-09 Halasz Stephen Joseph Flashlight
USRE40171E1 (en) 1998-01-26 2008-03-25 Mag Instrument, Inc. Tubular barrel-shaped flashlight having rotatable switching assembly and focusing and defocusing capability
US8147090B2 (en) 1998-01-26 2012-04-03 Mag Instrument, Inc. Flashlight
US6588917B1 (en) 1998-06-18 2003-07-08 Christopher Lee Halasz Flashlight
US20110007496A1 (en) * 2003-01-14 2011-01-13 Tseng-Lu Chien Led or laser project light has more than 1 functions
US20070258235A1 (en) * 2003-12-08 2007-11-08 The Coleman Company, Inc. Elliptical Reflector and Curved Lens System for a Portable Light
WO2005057080A3 (en) * 2003-12-08 2005-08-25 Coleman Co Eliptical reflector and curved lens system for a portable light
EP1692430A2 (en) * 2003-12-08 2006-08-23 The Coleman Company, Inc. Eliptical reflector and curved lens system for a portable light
EP1692430A4 (en) * 2003-12-08 2008-05-21 Coleman Co Eliptical reflector and curved lens system for a portable light
US20060023452A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-02 Kuo-Yen Lai Scanning illumination module
US20060034075A1 (en) * 2004-08-12 2006-02-16 Alessio David J Flashlight
US7066622B2 (en) * 2004-08-12 2006-06-27 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Flashlight
US7717570B2 (en) 2004-08-26 2010-05-18 Edison Nation, Llc Image projector display device
US20060044532A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2006-03-02 Black Frederick S Jr Image projector display device
US7478912B2 (en) 2004-08-26 2009-01-20 Edison Nation, Llc Image projector display device
US7267444B2 (en) * 2004-08-26 2007-09-11 Be Seen! Solutions, Llc Image projector display device
US20090185143A1 (en) * 2004-08-26 2009-07-23 Black Jr Frederick Stanley Image projector display device
US7566141B2 (en) * 2005-05-20 2009-07-28 K-Rain Manufacturing Corporation Cassegrain optical configuration to expand high intensity LED flashlight to larger diameter lower intensity beam
US20090257230A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2009-10-15 Kah Jr Carl L C Cassegrain optical configuration to expand high intensity led flashlight to larger diameter lower intensity beam
US20060262524A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-23 Kah Carl L Jr Cassegrain optical configuration to expand high intensity LED flashlight to larger diameter lower intensity beam
US20090161348A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2009-06-25 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Lighting Device Having Forward Directed Heat Sink Assembly
US7918578B2 (en) 2007-06-20 2011-04-05 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Lighting device having forward directed heat sink assembly
US20080316733A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2008-12-25 Spartano David A Lighting device having adjustable spot beam
FR2938666A1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-05-21 Matthieu Burlot An image projection housing couplable to a body of lighting and corresponding device
EP2187261A1 (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-05-19 M. Matthieu Burlot Enclosure for the projection of images attachable to lighting source and corresponding device
US20100128229A1 (en) * 2008-11-25 2010-05-27 Laboris Richard Dejesus Weather-tight Video Projector with Unattended Operation
US20140029265A1 (en) * 2010-03-24 2014-01-30 Jacksen International, Ltd. Fade out optical light masking projector system
US20120140463A1 (en) * 2010-12-07 2012-06-07 Kinzer David J Led profile luminaire
US20130033871A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2013-02-07 Beat-Sonic Co., Ltd. Led lamp
US8684557B2 (en) * 2011-08-01 2014-04-01 Beat-Sonic Co., Ltd. LED lamp
US9157586B1 (en) 2012-07-02 2015-10-13 Edward Vose Babcock, IV Light filtering system
US9291886B2 (en) * 2013-08-30 2016-03-22 American Tack & Hardware Co., Inc. Animated projection system
US20150131057A1 (en) * 2013-08-30 2015-05-14 American Tack & Hardware Co., Inc. Animated projection system
US20150308787A1 (en) * 2014-04-25 2015-10-29 Ncstar, Inc. Scope with Head Lighting Arrangement
US9291427B2 (en) * 2014-04-25 2016-03-22 Ncstar, Inc. Scope with head lighting arrangement

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