US3517243A - Color display screen employing two layers of phosphors,particles in the inner layer being small with respect to those in the outer layer and discontinuous in coverage - Google Patents

Color display screen employing two layers of phosphors,particles in the inner layer being small with respect to those in the outer layer and discontinuous in coverage Download PDF

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US3517243A
US3517243A US3517243DA US3517243A US 3517243 A US3517243 A US 3517243A US 3517243D A US3517243D A US 3517243DA US 3517243 A US3517243 A US 3517243A
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particles
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J29/00Details of cathode-ray tubes or of electron-beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J31/00
    • H01J29/02Electrodes; Screens; Mounting, supporting, spacing or insulating thereof
    • H01J29/10Screens on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted or stored
    • H01J29/18Luminescent screens
    • H01J29/30Luminescent screens with luminescent material discontinuously arranged, e.g. in dots, in lines
    • H01J29/32Luminescent screens with luminescent material discontinuously arranged, e.g. in dots, in lines with adjacent dots or lines of different luminescent material, e.g. for colour television
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J29/00Details of cathode-ray tubes or of electron-beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J31/00
    • H01J29/02Electrodes; Screens; Mounting, supporting, spacing or insulating thereof
    • H01J29/10Screens on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted or stored
    • H01J29/18Luminescent screens
    • H01J29/26Luminescent screens with superimposed luminescent layers

Description

June 23, 3970 M. E. JONES A 3,517,243

coLoR DISPLAY SCREEN EMPLOYING TWO LAYERS OF PHOSPHORS, PARTICLES IN THE INNER LAYER BEING SMALL'WITH RESPECT TO THOSE IN THE OUTER LAYER AND DISCONTINUOUS IN COVERAGE Original Filed Dec. 2, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 RED GREEN A BLUE ELECTRONIC SWITCH 53\ H'GH L VOLTAGE 51 SWITCH FiG.2.

June 23, 1970 -1E-,- JONES 3,517,243

COLOR DISPLAY SCREEN EMPLOYING TWO LAYERS OF PHOSPHORS, PARTICLES IN THE INNER LAYER BEING SMALL WITH RESPECT TO THOSE IN THE OUTER LAYER AND DISCONTINUOUS IN COVERAGE Original Filed Dec. 2, 1966 2 sheets sheet 2 760 (I) L-J E I @40- 5: ID

ACCELERATING VOLTAGE United States Patent 3,517,243 COLOR DISPLAY SCREEN EMPLOYING TWO LAY- ERS 0F PHOSPHORS, PARTICLES IN THE INNER LAYER BEING SMALL WITH RESPECT TO THOSE IN THE OUTER LAYER AND DISCON- TINUOUS IN COVERAGE Morton E. Jones, Richardson, Tex., assignor to Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Tex., a corporation of Delaware Continuation of application Ser. No. 598,828, Dec. 2, 1966. This application Mar. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 808,010 Int. Cl. H01j 29/26 US. Cl. 313-92 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Disclosed is a color display screen that produces light of different colors in response to impinging electrons of different energies, characterized by having a first layer of phosphors which emits light of a first color when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively high predetermined level, and a discontinuous layer of small particles of a second phosphor overlying the first layer and emitting light of a second color when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively low predetermined level, the particles of the second phosphor being relatively small in relation to the thickness of the first layer and being of a size such that electrons having energies above the relatively high energy level pass through the particles without giving up substantial energy and produce substantially no more light of the second color than is produced by electrons having energies just equal to or below the relatively high level. In this way the electrons having energy above the relatively high level excite the phosphors in the first layer to produce an increasing amount of said first color with increasing electron energies but without producing substantial increases in the amount of the second color which is emitted by the particles of the second phosphor.

This application is a continuation of copending application, Ser. No. 598,828, filed Dec. 2, 1966.

This invention relates to a color display screen and more particularly to such a screen which produces light of different colors in response to impinging electrons of different energies.

Among the several objects of the present invention may be noted the provision of a novel color display screen which produces light in a wide range of different colors in response to impinging electrons of different energies; the provision of a color display system incorporating such a screen which comprises a plurality of different color phosphors, which phosphors are cumulatively energized by electrons of increasing energy; the provision of such a system in which the light output from the first phosphor energized does not increase substantially with increasing electron energies above a predetermined level whereby the contribution of color from said first phosphor may be controlled; the provision of such a screen which is relatively simple to construct and is relatively inexpensive. Other objects and features will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.

Briefly, a color display screen according to this invention is operative to produce light of different colors in 3,517,243 Patented June 23 1970 ice response to impinging electrons of different energies. The screen includes a first layer of a first phosphor which when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively high predetermined level emits light of a first color. This first layer is overlaid with a discontinuous layer of particles of a second phosphor which when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively low preselected level emits light of a second color. The particles of this second phosphor are relatively small in relation to the thickness of the first layer and are scattered over the first layer with gaps between the particles. The particles are of such size that electrons having energies above the relatively high energy level can pass through the particles producing substantially no more light of the second color than is produced by electrons having energies just equal to that relatively high level. Those electrons which have energies above the relatively high energy level and which pass through the gaps strike the first layer and produce light of the first color in amounts which increase with increasing electron energies. Thus, electrons having energies below the relatively high energy level produce light of the second color, and electrons having energies above the relatively high energy level produce light of a color which is a mixture of a limited amount of the first color with an amount of the second color which increases with increasing electron energies.

The invention accordingly comprises the constructions hereinafter described, the scope of the invention being indicated in the following claims.

In the accompanying drawings, in which one of various possible embodiments of the invention is illustrated,

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a color display system employing a kinescope having a screen according to this invention;

FIG. 2 is a view illustrating, in section, various phosphor particles employed in the screen of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 3 is a graph representing the response of the different phosphor particles to impinging electrons of different energies.

Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.

Referring nOW to FIG. 1, there is indicated at 11 an electron display tube such as the kinescope of a color television receiver. Tube 11 has a viewing screen 13 including a transparent glass face plate 15 on the interior surface of which is deposited a light-emitting phosphor screen 17. Phosphor screen 17 includes a first layer 19 which comprises a random mixture of a multiplicity of two kinds of discrete phosphor particles 21 and 23 both of which emit light of relatively short wavelengths when energized. Phosphor particles 21 emit green light when struck by electrons having energies above a first relatively high level or threshold and phosphor particles 23 emit blue light when struck by electrons having energies above a second, also relatively high, threshold or level. The threshold for the blue particles 23 is preferably higher than that of the green particles 21. Particles 21 and 23 may be made differently responsive to electrons of different energies or velocities by providing these particles with surface barrier layers of appropriate thicknesses. In FIGfZ the particles 21 are illustrated as comprising a core particle 25 of a conventional green phosphor such as silver-activated zinc-cadmium sulfide, the ratio of zinc to cadmium being about :20, coated with a relatively thin surface barrier layer 27. Particles 23 are illustrated as comprising a core particle 29 of a conventional blue phosphor such as silver-activated zinc sulfide coated with a relatively thicker surface barrier layer 31. The Overall sizes of particles 21 and 23 are, for example, on the order of about 16 microns.

Barrier layers 27 and 31, may, for example, be provided by depositing silicon dioxide on the surfaces of the particles as disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 459,582, filed May 28, 1965, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,408,223, issued Oct. 29, 1968, or by forming in situ barrier layers by reacting the material of the phosphor particles with a material which forms a nonfluorescing barrier layer on the surface of a particle as disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 561,815, filed June 30, 1966, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,148, issued June 10, 1969. The barrier layers formed by either of these methods cause electrons impinging upon the particles 21 or 23 to lose energy in traversing the barrier layer so that, unless the electron energy exceeds a predetermined level or threshold which depends upon the thickness and nature of the barrier layer, the fluorescent core particle 25 or 29 is not excited. In general, the threshold or level which must be exceeded before the core phosphor particle is excited to emit light may be controlled by varying the thickness of the barrier layer. Particles 21 and 23 may be applied to the interior surface of face plate 15 by flushing on the glass a thin liquid slurry of a homogeneous or random mixture of particles 21 and 23 suspended in a suitable vehicle, followed by pouring off of any excess and evaporation to form a thin dry layer 19 of phosphor particles.

On top of this phosphor layer 19 there is deposited a discontinuous layer 32 or scattering of very small particles or aggregates of particles 33, e.g., in the Order of about 0.1 to 1 micron in diameter, of a red light-emitting phosphor. These particles are thus quite small in relation to the thickness of layer 17 or to the size of the particles 21 and 23. Particles 33 emit light of wavelengths which are relatively long as compared with the green and blue light emitted by the particles 21 and 23 respectively. An example of a phosphor which may be ball milled to such small sizes Without losing its fluorescent properties is europium-activated yttrium vanadate (YVO -Eu). Other rare-earth phosphors such as either yttrium oxide or gadolinium oxide both activated with europium, may also be reduced to such fine sizes While retaining their light-emitting qualities. The particular size of the particles 33 is chosen in relation to the thicknesses of the barrier layers 27 and 31, particularly the thinner layer 27, so that electrons having energies high enough to activate either of the particles 25 and 29 will also have suflicient energy to pass through the particles 33. This is not to say that such electrons having passed through a particle 33 will then have suflicient energy to penetrate either of the barrier layers 27 or 31 and to excite the underlying phosphor core particle. Rather, the particles 33 are scattered with substantial gaps 34 therebetween so that large portions of the layer 19 are not masked by the particles 33. The particles 33 may, for example, be settled over the layer 19 from a water or air suspension, or may be deposited by electrophoresis. They may also be applied in a film-forming vehicle as are the particles 21 and 23.

Tube 11 also includes an electron gun 41 for generating a beam 43 of electrons which is moved in a rasterscanning pattern across phosphor screen 17 by any conventional means and circuitry (not shown). Gun 41 includes an electron emissive cathode 45 and a grid 47 for modulating the beam current or number of electrons in beam 43. By means of an electronic gate or switch 49. the beam current is modulated successively during sequential time intervals by electronic signals which represent red, green, and blue color records respectively, e.g., the red, green, blue information signals derived in conventional color television receivers. The switching from one color signal to another may be done on a se- 4 quential frame, dot or line basis, and synchronized by means of a signal applied at a terminal 51.

A high voltage switch 53 is provided to synchronously switch a high voltage applied to screen 17 so that: While the current is being modulated in accordance with the red signal a first, relatively low accelerating voltage is applied between the phosphor screen 17 and cathode 45, e.g., l2 kilovolts; while the beam current is being modulated in accordance with the green signal the accelerating voltage is increased to a second, relatively high level, e.g., 18 kilovolts; and while the beam current is being modulated in accordance with the blue signal the accelerating voltage is increased to a third, even higher level, e.g., 24 kilovolts. Since the electrons which constitute beam 43 have different electron velocities or energies at difierent times, deflection compensation is provided by any suitable conventional means so that the electrons of different velocities are maintained in registry throughout the raster-scanning pattern.

The light output or response of the particles 33, 21, and 23 to excitation by electrons having different energies or velocities is illustrated by the curves 33A, 21A, and 23A in FIG. 3, light output in arbitrary units of brightness being indicated on the ordinate and accelerating voltages expressed in kilovolts being represented on the abscissa. As will be seen from FIG. 3, the particles 33 emit red light when the electron energies exceed a relatively low predetermined level, i.e., 4 kilovolts. The red light output increases sharply with increasing electron energies to about 10 kilovolts, at which points the electrons begin to pass through the particles 33 rather than to transfer increasing amounts of energy to the particles. In practice, the particles 33 are typically not of precisely uniform size, so that the voltage level at which complete penetration is obtained is not completely sharp. Thus, the curve 33A may not fall Off or even become completely level, but rather, as illustrated, may rise slightly with further large increases in accelerating potential. This further increase, however, is not considered substantial in relation to the rate of rise exhibited, for example, in the region between four and eight kilovolts. If the particles are kept to a relatively more uniform size, the response curve may level out at higher electron energies or even fall off to lower levels.

At a relatively high predetermined level of accelerating voltage, i.e., 12 kilovolts, the electrons which pass through the gaps between the particles 33 begin to penetrate the barrier layer 27 on the green phosphor particles, and these particles 27 then emit green light in amounts which increase with increasing electron energies. Similarly, at a still higher energy level or threshold, i.e., 16 kilovolts, these electrons which do not strike a particle 33 begin to penetrate the relatively thick barrier layer 31 of the particle 23, and this particle also begins to emit blue light in amounts which increase with increasing electron energies. Preferably, the rate of rise of the light output of the blue phosphor particles 23 is greater than that of the green phosphor particles 21, so that at some relatively high accelerating potential, e.g., 24 kilovolts, the blue light output substantially equals the green light output.

As noted previously, the particles 33 are scattered and thus there are substantial gaps 34 therebetween through which the green and blue phosphors may be energized independently of the electrons which strike the red particles. Accordingly, the energy or voltage threshold exhibited by the green or blue phosphor particles is a function substantially only of their respective barrier layer.

Screen 17 comprises all three type of phosphor particles and, as may be seen from FIG. 3, these different phosphors are energized cumulatively with increasing electron energies. Thus, screen 17 emits red light at the relatively low accelerating voltage level; a mixture of red and green light at the intermediate accelerating voltage level; and a mixture of red, green and blue light at the highest accelerating voltage level. The mixture of red and green is, in etfect, a warm achromatic light while the mixture of red, green and blue is essentially a cool achromatic light. Thus the red record is displayed in red light, the green record is displayed in warm achromatic light, and the blue record is displayed in cool achromatic light. As is explained in greater detail in copending application Ser. No. 450,705, filed Apr. 26, 1965, (now abandoned) such a display presents a color reproduction which is pleasing in color balance and subjectively appears to include hues of greater saturation than are actually present in the colorimetric sense. Since the red phosphor particles do not emit light in amounts which increase substantially above a predetermined level, the display is not dominated by red light emitted from the red phosphor which comes on first and the display subjectively includes the cool COlOrs such as blue and green, even though these colors are actually displayed in relatively unsaturated light.

While a three-color system has been disclosed, it is to be understood that a two-color screen may be provided by including only a single phosphor in the underlying layer 19. This single phosphor preferably then emits cyan light and thus, when both it and the red phosphor are energized at relatively high electron energies, a substantially neutral color is obtained.

In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.

As various changes could be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. A color display screen which produces light of different colors in response to impinging electrons having different energies, said screen comprising:

a first layer of particles of a first phosphor which when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively high predetermined level emits light of a first color; and

a discontinuous layer of particles of a second phosphor overlying said first layer, said second phoshpor particles emitting light of a second color when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively low predetermined level, each of the second phosphor particles being relatively small in relation to the thickness of each of said first phosphor particles and being scattered over said first layer with gaps therebetween, said particles being of a maximum size such that only electrons having energies above said relatively high predetermined energy level which strike said particles of said second phosphor will pass therethrough to produce substantially no more light of said second color than is produced by electrons having energies just equal to said relatively high level, whereby electrons having energies below said relatively high energy level produces light only of said second color and electrons having energies above said relatively high energy level produce light of a color which is a mixture of said first color which increases with increasing electron energies with a substantially constant amount of said second color.

2. A screen as set forth in claim 1 wherein said particles are in the order of about 0.1 to 1.0 micron in diameter.

3. A screen as set forth in claim 1 wherein said second phosphor emits red light and said first phosphor emits light of a relatively short wavelength.

4. A color display screen which produces light of different colors in response to impinging electrons having different energies, said screen comprising:

a first layer of particles of a first phosphor which when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively high predetermined level emits light of relatively short wavelengths; and

a discontinuous layer of particles of a second phosphor overlying said first layer, said second phosphor particles emitting light of relatively long wavelengths when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively low predetermined level, the particles of said second phosphor being relatively small in relation to the thickness of the particles of said first layer and being scattered over said first layer with gaps therebetween, said particles being in the order of about 0.1 to 1.0 micron in size so that only electrons having energies above said relatively high predetermined energy level which strike said particles of said second phosphor will pass therethrough to produce substantially no more light of said relatively long wavelengths than is produced by electrons having energies just equal to said relatively high level, whereby electrons having energies below said relatively high energy level produce light only of said relatively long wavelengths and electrons having ener-gies above said relatively high energy level produce light of a color which is a mixture of said short wavelength light which increases with increasing electron energies with a substantially constant amount of said long wavelength light.

5. A color display screen which produces light of different colors in response to impinging electrons having different energies, said screen comprising:

(a) a first layer of first particles of a first phosphor of silver activated zinc-cadmium sulfide, the ratio of zinc to cadmium being about :20, coated with a thin surface barrier layer comprising silica, said first particles having diameters on the order of about 16 microns and emitting light of a relatively short wavelength when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively high predetermined level, dependent upon thickness of said barrier layer; and

(b) a discontinuous layer of second particles of a second phosphor overlying said first layer, said second phosphor particles emitting light of relatively long wavelengths when energized by electrons having energies above a relatively low predetermined level, said second particles having diameters on the order of about 0.1 to 1.0 micron so that electrons having energies above said relatively high energy level which strike said particles pass therethrough and produce substantially no more light of said relatively long wavelengths than is produced by electrons having energies just equal to or below said relatively high level, said second particles consisting essentially of either europium-activated yttrium vanadate, europium-activated yttrium oxide or europium-activated gadolinium oxide,

whereby upon bombardment of said screen by electrons having energies below said relatively high energy level, red light is emitted, upon bombardment by electrons having energies above said relatively high energy level, green light is emitted in amounts which increase with increasing electron energies, but the intensity of red light is not substantially increased by the additional bombardment of the electrons having energies above said relatively high energy level; and a light of a color which is a mixture of a limited amount of red light and an amount of said green light which increases with increasing electron energies.

6. The color display screen of claim 5 wherein said first layer also includes a blue light emitting phosphor of silveractivated zinc sulfide coated with a relatively thicker barrier layer comprising silicon dioxide whereby upon bombardment by electrons having energies above a third and relatively higher energy level, blue light is emitted for a more nearly complete color spectrum depicted on said screen, without substantially increasing the red light emitted.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,243,625 3/1966 Levine et a1. 313-92 3,290,434 12/1966 Cooper et a1 31392 X FOREIGN PATENTS 615,812 1/1949 Great Britain.

Matzen 31392 X RAYMOND F. HOSSFELD, Primary Examiner 23;? 5 g V. LAFRANCHI, Assistant Examiner Koller et a1 313-92 Donahue 313-92 10 Cl.

1785 .4 Thorington et a1. 313116 X

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3622826A (en) * 1969-11-28 1971-11-23 Rca Corp Phosphor screen comprising two kinds of particles, each having phosphor core and phosphor coating
US3721849A (en) * 1971-01-07 1973-03-20 Gte Sylvania Inc Dual persistence screen for a cathode ray tube
US3875449A (en) * 1969-10-02 1975-04-01 U S Radium Corp Coated phosphors
US3939377A (en) * 1974-09-13 1976-02-17 Sperry Rand Corporation Penetration phosphors and display devices
US4099088A (en) * 1972-12-29 1978-07-04 Raytheon Company Display system with rapid color switching
US4242371A (en) * 1976-06-25 1980-12-30 Thomson-Csf High-luminance color screen for cathode-ray tubes and the method for manufacturing the same
FR2626732A1 (en) * 1988-01-29 1989-08-04 Ferranti Int Signal A display-color monochrome
US4906892A (en) * 1987-11-13 1990-03-06 Thomson-Csf High luminance color screen for cathode ray tube and method for making a screen of this type
US5166577A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-11-24 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Projection cathode-ray tube with interference film

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US337229A (en) * 1886-03-02 Chaeles babey
US2155465A (en) * 1937-01-12 1939-04-25 Firm Fernseh Ag Fluorescent screen for cathode ray tubes
GB615812A (en) * 1946-08-09 1949-01-12 Gen Electric Improvements in and relating to cathode ray luminescent screens
US2590018A (en) * 1950-10-24 1952-03-18 Gen Electric Production of colored images
US2785331A (en) * 1953-08-24 1957-03-12 Rca Corp Art of making color-phosphor screens
US2806969A (en) * 1954-06-29 1957-09-17 Gen Electric High brightness light source
US3243625A (en) * 1964-05-28 1966-03-29 Gen Telephone & Elect Cathodoluminescent screens including vanadates of yttrium, gadolinium or lutetium activated with europium or samarium
US3290434A (en) * 1963-07-24 1966-12-06 Polaroid Corp Color television receiver including display means comprising two uniformly distributed luminescent materials
US3371153A (en) * 1965-04-30 1968-02-27 Texas Instruments Inc Color display system utilizing red and cyan light

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US337229A (en) * 1886-03-02 Chaeles babey
US2155465A (en) * 1937-01-12 1939-04-25 Firm Fernseh Ag Fluorescent screen for cathode ray tubes
GB615812A (en) * 1946-08-09 1949-01-12 Gen Electric Improvements in and relating to cathode ray luminescent screens
US2590018A (en) * 1950-10-24 1952-03-18 Gen Electric Production of colored images
US2785331A (en) * 1953-08-24 1957-03-12 Rca Corp Art of making color-phosphor screens
US2806969A (en) * 1954-06-29 1957-09-17 Gen Electric High brightness light source
US3290434A (en) * 1963-07-24 1966-12-06 Polaroid Corp Color television receiver including display means comprising two uniformly distributed luminescent materials
US3243625A (en) * 1964-05-28 1966-03-29 Gen Telephone & Elect Cathodoluminescent screens including vanadates of yttrium, gadolinium or lutetium activated with europium or samarium
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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3875449A (en) * 1969-10-02 1975-04-01 U S Radium Corp Coated phosphors
US3622826A (en) * 1969-11-28 1971-11-23 Rca Corp Phosphor screen comprising two kinds of particles, each having phosphor core and phosphor coating
US3721849A (en) * 1971-01-07 1973-03-20 Gte Sylvania Inc Dual persistence screen for a cathode ray tube
US4099088A (en) * 1972-12-29 1978-07-04 Raytheon Company Display system with rapid color switching
US3939377A (en) * 1974-09-13 1976-02-17 Sperry Rand Corporation Penetration phosphors and display devices
US4242371A (en) * 1976-06-25 1980-12-30 Thomson-Csf High-luminance color screen for cathode-ray tubes and the method for manufacturing the same
US4906892A (en) * 1987-11-13 1990-03-06 Thomson-Csf High luminance color screen for cathode ray tube and method for making a screen of this type
FR2626732A1 (en) * 1988-01-29 1989-08-04 Ferranti Int Signal A display-color monochrome
US5091718A (en) * 1988-01-29 1992-02-25 Beatty Paul H J Color-monochrome visual display device
US5166577A (en) * 1990-05-29 1992-11-24 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Projection cathode-ray tube with interference film

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