US3508727A - Apparatus for saving of the passengers of a crash landing,ditching or diving and in danger to be diving,respectively,airplane - Google Patents

Apparatus for saving of the passengers of a crash landing,ditching or diving and in danger to be diving,respectively,airplane Download PDF

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US3508727A
US3508727A US709560A US3508727DA US3508727A US 3508727 A US3508727 A US 3508727A US 709560 A US709560 A US 709560A US 3508727D A US3508727D A US 3508727DA US 3508727 A US3508727 A US 3508727A
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saving
airplane
saving cell
passengers
diving
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Peter Willems
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Peter Willems
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D25/00Emergency apparatus or devices, not otherwise provided for
    • B64D25/08Ejecting or escaping means
    • B64D25/12Ejectable capsules
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D17/00Parachutes

Description

P. WILLEMS APPARATUS FOR SAVING OF THE PASSENGERS OF A CRASH LANDING, DITGHING OR DIVING AND IN DANGER TO BE DIVING RESPECTIVELY AIRPLANE Filed March 1, 1968 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR PETER WILLEMS ATTORNEY.

P. WILLEMS April 28, 1970 APPARATUS FOR SAVING OF THE PASSENGERS OF A CRASH LANDING, DITCHING OR DIVING AND IN DANGER TO BE DIVING, RESPECTIVELY, AIRPLANE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 1, 1968 FIG. 8.

INVENTOR PETER WILLEMS BY ATTORNEY.

Apnl 28, 1970 P. WILLEMS APPARATUS FOR SAVING OF THE PASSENGERS OF A CRASH LANDING, DITCHING OR DIVING AND IN DANGER TO BE DIVING, RESPECTIVELY, AIRPLANE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 1, 1968 INVENTOR I PETER WILLEMS BY I a W ATTORNEY.

United States Patent Int. Cl. B64d 25/12 U.S. Cl. 244-140 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A method of and apparatus for saving the passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, which comprises the steps of releasing spontaneously a saving cell receiving at least one passenger from parts of the airplane carrying the saving cell, and reducing the speed of the freely falling saving cell by aerodynamic means to a value no more dangerous for a landing and ditching, respectively.

The present invention relates to a method of and apparatus for saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane. I

In spite of the tremendous technical progress in airplane structures, each year thousands of human beings and millions on material values are victims to the numerous airplane crashes, particularly in the commercial traffic operations. This is due to the fact, on the one hand, that in modern airplanes, many people (passengers and crew) are joined together in a small as possible space, so that in case of a catastrophy, the timely evacuation of the passenger space takes place very seldom without any victims. On the other hand, in case of diving airplanes, often a few minutes only are available for the perform ance of the saving measures, whereby the latter can be avoided too easily if one passenger only loses his nerves.

Often, some passengers and the crew, respectively, or even all burn upon contact with the ground of an unsafe airplane, due to the ignition taking place at the time of the impact of the extremely easily evaporating and thus highly explosive airplane fuel. Likewise, also the ditching of an oversea-airplane nearly always connected with the destruction of a part of even of all passengers, if not within shortest time a saving ship or airplanes are available at the point of disaster. Unfortunately, too often the daily newspapers report about such regular tratfic airplanes being overdue at an unknown place by destruction on land or on the sea. The methods known until now and applied, respectively, for the greatest possible safety of saving the passengers of an airplane in an emergency are apparently insuflicient, technically retarded and create in each passenger during each flight the unpleasant feeling to be delivered to the fate nolens volens.

In accordance with official statistics, still many human beings are each year victims of airplane catastrophies.

The inventor of the present invention, who is a pilot himself and the victim of several divings and crash landings, has occupied himself for years to find means and ways, in order to control this catastrophic development which increases in volume from year to year.

It is one object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, with one or a plurality of passengers.

3,508,727 Patented Apr. 28, 1970 In view of the fact that the responsibility of the safe transportation and the lives of the passengers, of which one must assume, that they cannot make themselves an expert evaluation and in a moment of greatest danger cannot evaluate how great the danger is, is in the hands of expert crew members, suitably the possibility of an interference by the passengers during the performance of the saving method according to the present invention is taken away.

It remains, however, left to the proper authorities, to include one or a plurality of passengers not belonging to the crew in the performance of the method, for instance, it is conceivable that during the transportation of high statesmen any country can determine one or a plurality of particular employees of thesecurity service for the cooperation in the performance of the method.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, wherein the passengers of the airplane, which is in danger or which is burning, are ejected within seconds from that portion of the airplane, which causes the diving, accelerates and makes its consequences to a catastrophy.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, to bring the passengers thrown out into the space with safety and without danger to life or heavy injuries to the ground or, under circumstances, to the surface of the sea.

It is also still another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the savingof passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, which includes means for a retarded impact of the passengers to be saved on the ground, and under circumstances, on the surface of the sea, that as much as possible no or no heavy injuries of the passengers occur.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplanes, which includes means which in case of landing on the ground, the safety of sudden opening of sufficiently Wide exits from the device serving the performance of the method considering the requirements which are known due to the sudden pressure change. In case of an emergency ditching, the air pressure must be controlled such, that no water can penetrate the inside of the device.

It includes, furthermore, during the saving on the high sea, the possibility of a long and dangerless swimming of the device with the passengers which are in danger of losing their lives on the water, without danger of drowning or of catching a cold leading to illness or even to death, in case of a long waiting period up to the arrival of a saving boat or helicopter.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, wherein the movement of the device carrying the passengers and floating on the sea in the direction of a ship in sight against an island or a shore is included.

It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for the saving of passengers of a crash-landing, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, which includes means for the safety of the passengers from drowning or from suffocating, as well as the safety of nutrition during a longer time period up to the arrival of a ship.

The present invention is further also concerned with the prevention of fright or shock which, knowingly, lead to a sudden or later death.

The present invention also includes the possibility of performing all measures which are conventional with an airplane and permitting the emission of any kind of of signals or SOS calls, release of optical signals as light beacons, rockets and the like, and also acoustical supersonic and other known emergency calls.

In accordance with the present invention, these objects are obtained by a saving method which is characterized by the following steps:

(a) A closed capsule (saving cell) receving the passenger or passengers of the airplane is spontaneously released from the portion of the airplane carrying the capsule by operation of at least one releasing device.

(-b) The speed of the capsule freely falling downwardly after release is reduced by aerodynamic measures to a value not dangerous for an emergency landing and emergency ditching, respectively.

The apparatus serving the performance of the method according to the present invention on an airplane is characterized by the combination of the following characteristics:

(2.) Between the saving cell receiving the passenger or passengers and the parts of the airplane carrying the saving cell are provided with connections having a sufliciently high safety coefiicient, which connections are releasable suddenly and simultaneously by manual operation of at least one of the releasing members.

(b) On the upper side of the saving cell at least one device is secured by means of elastic carrying cords, which device reduces the free-fall speed of the saving cell.

(c) The supplyand control-conduits leading from the saving cell to the parts of the airplane carrying the same are equipped with safety couplings, which, upon release the saving cell, assure without fail the separation and the closure of the mentioned conduits.

With these and other objects in view which will become apparent in the following detailed description, the present invention will be clearly understood in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a. perspective side view of the device for performing the saving method in accordance with the present invention required for the performance of the saving method;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary section through the airplane, as set forth in FIG. 1, the section taken being disposed just in front of the wings;

FIG. 3 is a side elevation of a saving cell of the airplane as set forth in FIG. 1, released from the parts of the airplane carrying the saving cell and being lowered to the ground on parachutes;

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view showing a plurality of superposed parachutes;

FIG. 5 is a sectional view for sudden and simultaneous release of the connections between the saving cell and the parts of the airplane carrying the latter;

FIG. 6 is a variation of the device indicated in FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a circuit diagram of a control circuit and a working circuit for electro-mechanical release of the connections;

FIG. 8 is a longitudinal section through a parachute designed as a balloon;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a second embodiment of the device for performing the saving method of the present invention;

FIG. 10 is a section through a plane shown in FIG. 9 immediately in front of the wings;

FIG. 11 is an axial section of one embodiment of the safety coupling for a tube conduit;

FIG. 12 is a side elevation of a saving cell of the airplane according to FIG. 9, released from the carrying part of the airplane on two parachutes and a balloon;

FIG. 13 is a section of an embodiment of a keel with falling shaft and sword keel;

FIG. 14 is a longitudinal section of another embodiment of the showing in FIG. 13; and

FIG. 15 is a schematic showing of an electric circuit diagram together with some elements operated thereby.

Referring now to the drawings, and in particular to FIGS. 1-14, merely by example, devices for performing of the saving method according to the present invention are disclosed. The airplane shown in FIG. 1, which is shown as a monoplane, has on the wing roots of the supporting wings I and at the end of the fuselage 2 a plurality of connections 3 built with a sufliciently high safety coefficient, which connections 3 normally connect rigidly the fuselage 2 with the remaining parts of the airplane.

By means of a device described below, the connections 3 are suddenly and simultaneously releasable, so that the portion of the airplane comprising the cockpit 2a, the passenger space 2b and the luggage space 2c, which part of the airplane constitutes here the saving cell, falls out downwardly. As can be ascertained from FIG. 2 of the drawings, in this embodiment, the cross-section of the passenger and luggage space 2b and 2c is enlarged in this embodiment by a cover pail 20!, mounted on the upper side of the passenger space 2b, to form an egg-like cross-section. Between the top pail 2d and the upper side of the passenger space 212 is disposed a hollow space of sickel-shaped cross-section, in which, divided over the length of the fuselage 2, two carefully folded parachutes 4 are provided. The latter are secured by means of elastic carrying cords 5 to the saving cell and by means of a releasing cord 6 of corresponding strength secured to the cover pail 2d. The cover pail 2d is, as will be Set forth below, secured to the upper side of the passenger space 2b such, that it is imultaneously therewith or directly after the release of the connections 3 lifted by the travel wind and, thereby, folds out the parachutes 4, which then open and as shown in FIG. 3, brings the saving cell with the passengers safely to the groundandwater surface, respectively. The suspension of the saving cell on the elastic carrying cords 5 is statically designed such, that the normal position of the passenger or passengers remains as much as possible unchanged. For this purpose, and simultaneously for the safety of a more favorable power distribution, the carrying cords, as indicated at the right parachute in FIG. 3 by pointed lines, is spread out downwardly and secured at different points on the saving cell. It would, however, be also possible, as indicated at the left parachute in FIG. 3 by pointed lines, to provide particular stabilizing lines 40 secured to the carrying ropes 5. The securing of the cover pail 2d can, for instance, take place in accordance with the same system as the connection of the saving cell with the airplane fuselage. Each of the parachutes 4 carrie in its center advantageously an upwardly extending, vertical funnel 7 which exerts the function of a control nozzle. The elastic carrying ropes 5 are prefer ably formed as respective diagonally woven and knitted hoses of heavily carrying spinnings (for instance, nylon, rayon, polyester or the like) which surround a core of highly elastic rubber cord. In order to render possible that the intermittently occurring load can be assumed without damage, if necessary, still additional expansion means are provided, for instance, in form of strong springs (if necessary, with inserted rubber lines), or in form of hydraulic and pneumatic, respectively, damping members responding to pull. In order that the elastic carrying cords 5 are not mingled up prior to the tensioning thereof, suitable corresponding protecting device are provided, for instance, winding drums subjected to pull.

In order that also on saving cells of a greater weight, but of a comparatively small length, the required number of parachutes can be secured for the suificient reduction of the falling speed, without relative interference, advantageously parachute batteries in accordance with FIG. 4 are applied, whereby all parachutes 4 are superposed relative to each other, which all attack on a main carrying cord a. The latter ends on a ring of the uppermost parachute. To the uppermost parachute follows suitably a towing line 5b from a small parachute 4a of noninflammable or difficult inflammable material, which carries one or a plurality of lighting sets 39 ignited by a pull ignition, through which the optical location of the safety cell by other vehicles in the air, on the ground and on the sea, particularly at night, is made possible and is simplified, respectively. a

The connections 3 already mentioned before can be lockings of any type for instance, in form of bolts or hooks, which are mounted in forked members and which are removable or which can be run out or swing out mechanically, pneumatically, hydraulically or electromagnetically. The bolts can also be hollow bolts and may be filled with an explosion load, which can be electrically ignited for a sudden release of the connection. Referring to FIG. 5, an embodiment is disclosed with two connection such, that bolts and 11 are mounted in forked members 8 and 9, which bolts 10 and 11 are formed at one end as gear racks and can simultaneously run out by an electro-motorically driven pinion 12 from the forked members 8 and 9. The structural material of the bolts 10 and 11 must be a very high rigid one, for instance, hard metal (as titan, wolframe or the like), in order to prevent a cut-in of edges into the surface of the bolts 10 and 11.

A second embodiment, in which more than two bolts 10a are simultaneously run out, is disclosed partly in FIG. 6 of the drawings. Instead of the gear racks, also screw spindles with one or a plurality of electromotorically driven spindle nuts can be used, whereby by means of synchronization of the motors driving the spindle nuts, by corresponding selection of the thread pitch and by mutual adjustment of the screw spindles, the data of the releasing process is variable within certain limits and is settable with greatest precision, for instance, of one hundredth of a second exact. For safety reasons, two or more motors are applied for the drive, so that upon inoperativeness of one motor, the release of the saving cell is assured.

An embodiment of a control device for releasing of the previously mentioned connections 3 is shown in FIG. 7. As can be ascertained from the circuit diagram presented therein, the circuit comprises a battery 13 (or a power net connection) to which battery 13 a pressure knob 14 is provided for the member leading the saving action (for instance, the flight captain), a pressure knob 15 for the pilot and a pressure knob 16 for the co-pilot, Which pressure knobs are disposed in series relative to each other. In this control circuit is disposed the device designed in forming of a switching relay 17 for starting of the electro-motor 18 driving the pinions 12 (FIGS. 5 and 6) running out the bolts 10 and 11 as well as under circumstances, additional parallel switched motors. In the shown embodiment, the motor circuit is switched to the circuit of the battery 13 (or the net) by means of the contact points 19 and 20 and 21, respectively. It could also, however, be fed by an independent current source. Furthermore, instead of the electro-motor 18, an electro-magnetic or hydraulic device releasing the connections 3 can be provided, the control of which takes place by the control circuit with the pressure knobs 14, 15 and 16 and the switching relay 17. The switching relay 17 is operated only then by the control current of the battery 14 (and of the net, respectively) when all three pressure knobs 14, 15 and 16 are simultaneously operated. For the safety of the leading position of the flight captain, parallel to the switch relay 17 and the pres sure knobs 15 and 16 is disposed an insertable circuit by operation of the pressure knob 14, in which current circuit the electro-magnets 15a and 16a are arranged. These have anchors formed as locking members 15b and 1617, which in the operative state release the spring covers 150 and 160 of the housings 15b and 16b, in which the pressure knobs 15 and 16 are provided. As long as the flight captain has not pressed the pressure knob 14, the pilot and the co-pilot cannot reach, nor operate, the pressure knob 15 and 1-6, respectively, coordinated thereto. As soon as all three pressure knobs 14, 15 and 16 are pressed simultaneously, the switching relay 17 starts the electro-motor 18, which causes the release of the connections 3. In order not to release the safety cell by non-intended pressing of the knobs 14, 15 and 16, a control lamp 41 is inserted in series with the pressure knob 14 which control lamp 41 lights up as soon as the flight captain operates the pressure knob 14 coordinated thereto.

The safety cell released from the airplane after simultaneous pressing of the pressure knobs 14, 15 and 16, the safety cell is in the shown embodiment one portion of the airplane fuselage, falls out downwardly. By a device in operative connection with the control current circuit and the working current circuit, respectively, according to FIG. 7, or with the released wings I in operative connection, for instance, a pulling line, the throw-off of the cover pail 2d is caused, which, for instance in accordance with the same system can be secured to the saving cell, as the latter to the parts of the airplane carrying the latter. The cover pail 2d lifted upwardly by the travel wind tears off through the unfolding line 6 of the parachutes 4, whereupon the latter open up.

This system constitutes a simple example. It is to be understood, that the system can be extended to double, in case of simple airplanes, even to one person, or in large airplanes to a plurality of persons, whereby also one or a plurality of passengers can be called upon for the performance of the saving procedure.

In case of large overseas planes with flight weights of more than ten tons, the fall speed of the saving cell cannot be reduced anymore to the required minimum value, by means of parachutes. For this reason, in such cases instead of the resistance creation by the parachutes or additionally other aerodynamical measures in particular those which lead to a lift producing means. For instance, the parachutes can be formed as balloons filled with a supporting gas. In such parachute, for instance, formed according to FIG. 8, are the pointedly formed edges 22 in which the eyes for the elastic carrying ropes 5 are arranged, vulcanized together or glued together by means of a preferably after-hardening glue, for instance, polyester or epoxy resin. It is to be understood that any other suitable embodiment can be used. For filling the balloonlike parachutes with a supporting gas, which is preferably made of non-burnable helium, a centrically arranged filling hose 23 is provided, which is made preferably rubberizing to gas-tight textile material made of natural or synthetic threads, for instance, parachute silk, and leads to one or a plurality of pressure gas bottles provided in the saving cell. For increase of the resistance against mechanical influences, the filling hose can be increased by means of an inserted wire spiral. How the filling of the balloonlike parachutes takes place with the carrying gas will be explained below in connection with the description of the carrying balloon, the filling of which with the carrying gas takes place in the same manner. The path of the carrying gas during the filling of the balloon-like parachute is indicated in dotted arrows in FIG. 8, while the full arrows show how a part of air accumulated below the parachute reaches by means of openings 24 into the shaft 7 operating as a nozzle.

A still stronger upward force than the just described balloon-like parachutes are produced by actual balloons, as they are described in combination with the following embodiment of an overseas airplane in accordance with the present invention.

The airplane disclosed in FIG. 9 comprises, as the crosssection according to FIG. 10 indicates, two parts, namely a hollow carrying body 25 open at the bottom and consisting of a longitudinal carrier (back) with wings, fuel tanks and the motor carrying portion and railroad car-like saving cell 26 and inserted into the carrying body 25 from below and suspended in the latter by means of the connections 3. The saving cell 26 is in known manner designed as an over-pressure cabin and, according to the present invention, its lower side is equipped with a keel 27. The space surrounded by the saving cell 26 is divided such that the passenger space is disposed on the top, in the center is the luggage space and below is a keel space receiving the pressure gas bottles 28. From the bottle valves 29 lead gas conduits into a gas tube 30 vertically passing the luggage space and passenger space, through which gas tube 30 the carrying gas can flow by means of a gas-tight hose (not shown in FIG. 9) of natural or synthetic textile into a carefully prepared balloon cover 31.

The latter is disposed in the space surrounded by the cover of the saving cell 26 and the cover of the carrying body 25 and having sickle-shaped cross-section. In the same space are disposed also carefully folded parachutes 4, which in a manner already described above are secured by means of elastic carrying cords on the saving cell and by means of unfolding cords (for tearing open the parachutes) on the cover of the carrying body 25. Over the entire length of the saving cell 26 can, depending upon its weight, be provided a plurality of folded parachutes 4 and/or folded balloons 31. The balloons can be formed for the obtaining of a lift volume as body expanding upwardly with circular, oval, rectangular or square crosssection, depending upon the formation of the space for receiving the same, whereby the balloon covers prior to the filling are folded in similar manner as a lampion prior to tearing the same apart. By this arrangement, the possibility is achieved to provide over a comparatively small surface a plurality of balloons floating next to each other. The wire spiral, which fortifies the filling hose, can favor in such balloon the maintenance of the form, which balloon extends perpendicularly upwardly over the ejected saving cell. For this reason, preferably it is inserted with the diameter of the balloon cover between a double wall.

The cockpit (FIG. 9) projecting upwardly through an opening in the vicinity of the bend of the carrying body 25 makes possible for the flight captain during the floatig of the saving cell after an emergency ditching for a good view and even then when the largest part of the saving cell is disposed below the water surface. The surface available for the flight captain and the pilot for the view from the cockpit can, without of course interference with the safety of the control of the aircraft be divided by spokes into individual smaller surfaces or slots. The saving cell 26 is equipped in the manner of a U-boat with all necessary devices and auxiliary means, including telescope, so that it is in the position to perform a longer voyage, if necessary even under water. The cover of the cockpit is designed such, that it can be opened and be ejected so that the flight captain during setting of the saving cell can abandon the same as the first one and take, if necessary measures, outside of the latter.

In order to avoid that during the non-sealing of the saving cell standing under pressure above atmospheric pressure biological damages of the occupants occur, for instance, the bursting of the lungs or other circulatory vessels, the saving cell must be equipped with safety devices known from U-boats for obtaining an eventual pressure equalization.

With consideration of the above-stated example, now the practical performance of the saving method, designed in accordance with the present invention will now be described:

As soon as a danger occurs, for instance burning of two motors, which makes the safety measures acute, the members of the crew, for instance, the captain, the pilot and the co-pilot (which can be substituted for instance also by the chief steward) which are charged with the performance of the safety measures, must be clear who are charged with the performance of the safety measures, about the question whether the safety measures have to be instituted immediately or not. If this question is answered positively unanimous, the chief steward causes that in the passenger space a lighted plate lights up with the inscription SOS or a similar writing pointing to the danger situation. Simultaneously, the captain describes over the loudspeaker system at first in a few short, precise, easily understood and calming words the basic process of the not bound, rather in view of the position of the aircraft intended and completely controlled slow descent to the ground surface and water surface, respectively, and reminds the passengers in short words to the individual points of an instruction sheet (safety measures in emergency). This instruction sheet printed on a very tearfast paper in a wide red frame and printed in easily legible script in several languages, is pasted to the menu at the back of the seat disposed in front of the passenger. It can be, however, suspended by means of a swing hook on a ring at the upper end of a window disposed next to the passengers of one row, that each passenger already prior to starting of the flight can read the safety instructions and raise questions to the stewards or stewards for more implicit information, whereby the total crew must be trained correspondingly, particularly in psychological direction.

After the introductory Words of the captain, he orders the passengers to fasten the seat belts and during the further performance of the safety measures, to maintain strict silience and discipline. Thereafter, the inspection of the corresponding fastening of the safety belts takes place.

This complex measures constitutes one of the most important in the total saving action in accordance with the present invention and can be assigned only to such crew members for performance, which are particularly suitable therefor psychologically.

Now, the captain pushes the button 14 coordinated to him (FIG. 7). By this arrangement, the electro-magnets 15a and 16a receive current from the battery 13 (or the net) and pull the anchors 15b and 161) formed as locking members. The anchors 15b and 16b release the spring covers and of the housings 15d and 16d, so that now the push buttons 15 and 16, specially spaced apart from each other and disposed in the housings 15d and 16d and assigned to the pilot and the co-pilot are accessible. As soon as the pilot pushes the push button 15 coordinated to him and the co-pilot the corresponding push button 16, the switching relay 17 responds and closes the Working circuit of the electro-motor 18. The latter starts and releases, for instance, in the manner shown in FIG. 5, the connections 3 (FIG. 10) between the carrying body 25 and the saving cell 26 momentarily and simultaneously. Due to the escape of the saving cell 26, the parachutes 4 are opened up by means of the unfolding cords, which unfold thereby and which brake the falling speed of the saving cell 26. In order that during the escape of the saving cell 26 from the latter, the feeding and control-conduits on the provided places can be separated from the parts of the aircraft carrying the same without danger or damages and safety couplings are provided therefor. These consist in the electrical conduits of the known manifold couplings separable by pull, while for the tube conduits, tearing couplings can be used, one of which is shown by example in FIG. 11. On the provided separating point x, the tube conduit is interrupted, so that there the two tubes 32 and 33 abut each other obtusely with their end faces. Over the two tube ends a preferably synthetic, fuel-resistant (non-soluble), not glueable and not after-polymerizable high pressure hose 34 is slit. On the inner side of this hose 34, inwardly projecting peripheral ribs 35 are provided within the range of both ends, which peripheral ribs 35 snap into corresponding peripheral grooves of the tubes 32 and 33, if the latter are pressed together by hand or by means of a device after the introduction into the high pressure hose 34. The tearing coupling is measured corresponding to its tear and shear resistance such, that it yields upon removal of the hose 34 from the tube ends by the widening of the hose forced thereon upon exit from the grooves or in an extreme case, the ribs 35 are torn 011', if necessary, on the inner hose walls. For reason of sealing advantageously the tube ends can be equipped outwardly or the hoses at the inner wall with waves. For reason of safety, the tubes are secured on a base during their mounting when their ends abut each other exactly, in this joint position by corresponding resistance members or tube clamps, as long as the operation runs without any disturbance. If the tearing apart of the two tube ends within the high pressure hose becomes necessary by starting operation of the safety device, the smooth tube surfaces slide, following the occurring high pulling force, at least out of the hose 34. In order to prevent a braking of this process of removal at least one tube of the hose 34, the pipe clamp is expanded axially over the general conventional and the inner edge is gripped at an acute angle conically at the ends of the pipe clamps or members. By this arrangement, a cutting of an edge relative with instance, rectangular sharp cross-section into the hose 34 is prevented. A separating of the two tube ends is prevented in normal operation basically already by proper roughness of the members as well as, if necessary, of the two tube ends, or also the base, which can be, for instance, a lead or the wall of the body. The safety couplings include an automatic losing valve provided at the tube and coordinated to the saving cell 26, which closing valve closes, after the separation of the connection, the tube end remaining on the saving cell 26 with safety automatically, for instance, against the surrounding atmosphere of, above all, against the space surrounding the tube and with a possible pressure difference, thus also against pressure below atmospheric pressure, so that the pressure prevailing inside (under circumstances also a pressure below atmospheric pressure prevailing within an apparatus) cannot be balanced. An advantageous and safety solution of the problem of such double function, depending upon the requirement, is a valve body provided within two springs effective with corresponding tension, which valve body has the shape of a ball or any other suitable form and depending upon requirements, closes towards the one or the other side. Advantageously, by the safety of the leak-free closure by the automatic closing device, as material for the movable valve body, an absolutely oxidation-free metal and metal alloy, respectively, as for instance Cr-Nisteel or pure nickel, and as material for the seat disposed in each end position of both sides of the valve body in the form of a non-variable ring, preferably a like-wise fuel-resistant (not soluble), not glueable and not after-polymerizable synthetic material. The saving cell 26 is equipped with a fully automatically operable emergency device, to which the feeding and control conduits, can be switched, under circumstances, automatically, if the latter are separated.

During and directly after the release of the connections 3 (FIG. the valves 29 are quickly opened on the pressure gas bottles by means of a working circuit switched by a control current circuit according to FIG. 7. This opening can, however, also forcibly be performed by other means, for instance by tear strings secured on the one hand on the carrying body 25 and on the other hand on a valve 29 each. By the carrying gas flowing from the pressure gas bottles 28 over the valves 29 and the gas tube 30 into the balloon cover 31, the latter is filled within a few seconds and by the lift created thereby, the falling speed of the saving cell 26 removed from the aircraft, already reduced by the parachutes 4, is still further reduced, so that the saving cell 26 carrying the passengers eventually arrives smoothly on the ground and, in case the flight disturbance has taken place over the sea, arrives on the water surface (see FIG. 12). It is to be understood that a plurality of balloons 31 can be provided operating on the saving cell 26. The number and distribution of the balloons 31 and/ or of the parachutes 4 depends upon the size and the weight of the saving cell 26. In case of an emergency landing over the sea, passengers and crew cannot abandon the saving cell 26, if not by accident a vessel or ship in the immediate neighborhood. For this reason, signals must be given at first, which call the attention of air and water vehicles disposed in the neighborhood of the place of the saving cell 26 to the latter driving in water. Simultaneously, signals, in particular light signals, indicate the location of the saving cell 26. In addition to light signals SOS, which can be beamed out by means of a normal aircraft signal device or of a sender fed from the emergency current device, also optical signals can be given. For this purpose, the saving cell 26 has a telescope tube movable upwardly for firing of magnesium light balls. Also, an acetylene cannon can be provided, with the help of which water-tight CA-carbide filled cartridges can be shot.

The ignition takes place already during the shooting, while the (IA-carbide explodes upon impinging upon the water, and thereby produces a dispersed red lighting fire, which is visible over a long distance. Finally, also acoustical signals can be given, for instance, by means of a siren, Or in fog, by means of a fog horn. At the moment in which by means of a bearing device disposed in the saving cell 26, and in particular in the cockpit, which bearing device is, if necessary, fed with current by means of an emergency current device, a ship passing at larger or smaller distance or a sending station located at the coast in the vicinity and at an isle, respectively, is a ship screw operable by an electro-motor is moved out from the saving cell 26 and is put into operation. The electro-motor is likewise driven from the emergency current device. For control of the saving cell 26 moving forwardly now under its own power, the ship screw 42, under circumstances, with electro-motor, is swingably arranged or a particular control radar is provided which can be operated from the cockpit. It would, however, also be possible to provide two ship screws, disposed adjacent each other, whereby the number of revolutions of each screw is endlessly controllable independently from the number of revolutions of the other screw. In this manner by setting of different numbers of revolutions, the saving cell 26 can be controlled without resorting to a rudder. Suitably, each of the ship screws is surrounded by a frame on which cutting edges cooperate in a shearing manner with the surrounding screw in order to cut through the growths (tangs, algae, etc.) winding about the screw. Instead of ship screws, also equivalent devices can be used, for instance, tube pumps (Venturi nozzles). The saving cell 26 contains, furthermore, an oxygen bottle, or, advantageously, two thereof, in order to secure the oxygen necessary for the breathing of the passengers after the release at greater heights with the maintenance of the pressure above atmospheric pressure inside of the saving cell 26. Furthermore, it is advisable also (particularly in large aircrafts) the insertion of an O -producing device arranged for this special case, which even beyond the time of emptying of the oxygen bottles delivers the oxygen required for the breathing. Finally, in the saving cell 26 is provided a sufiicient storage of food in form of cans for several days, in addition, a drink water storage, as well as medicaments, particularly tablets against seasickness (which are suitably glued to the menu) furthermore, fortifying vitamins, tracer elements, calming and geriatric means, particularly the latter for older passengers. It is to be understood, that the aircraft crew, in particular the chief steward, must be trained for assuming medical assistance (by fast operating calming means).

For the stabilization of the spacial position of the safety cell 26 during its falling movement, a sliding weight can be provided in the keel space, which sliding weight can be displaced parallel to the longitudinal axis of the saving cell 26 by remote control from the cockpit or by some automatic means. Preferably, the already mentioned oxygen bottle or bottles or another steel bottle can be designed and serve as displaceable sliding weight. Since in case of a heavier sea, the keel 27 of the saving cell 26 does not suffice for the stabilization of the position of the latter in the water, it is suitable, as indicated in FIG. 13 quite clearly, to arrange a vertical falling shaft 36 in the keel space in which the pressure gas bottles 28 are received, in which falling shaft 36 at least a keel sword 37 is mounted and movable vertically downwardly.

This sword 37 could, however, be swingably mounted, also in accordance with FIG. 14, within the range of a lower edge by a link 38 horizontally projecting through the falling shaft 36, so that after the swinging in the direction of the arrow y, it assumes the position indicated in dotted lines in the direction of the arrow y and in which the swinging movement of the saving cell 26 is extensively dampened and suppressed, respectively.

As supporting gas is suitable, as already mentioned, particularly helium, due to its non-inflammability. On the other hand, hydrogen gas is appreciably lighter (and therefore more capable of carrying) than helium and can be produced very quickly and in great quantities by the effect of water on calcium hydride, in accordance with the equation:

whereby 1 gram Cal-I yields over 1000 cm. of purest hydrogen. Since the latter is, however, highly inflammable, it is advisable to admix the hydrogen with nitrogen carried in pressure gas bottles in such a volume ratio, that the inflammability of the hydrogen is reduced to a practically non-dangerous value.

The present invention is not only limited to the described and shown examples, rather is capable of numerous variations, which are within the knowledge and know-how of the average expert. For instance, the saving cell can receive only a few passenger seats, whereby, corresponding with the number of passengers, under circumstances, a plurality of saving cells (also such for the crew) must be provided. Such smaller savings cells can, of course, be equipped only with the most necessary. They are used, therefore, only for medium size or smaller air craft, which do not fly transcontinental lanes.

In aircraft with many passengers (commercial aircraft, military transport or the like) can in a particularly advantageous manner the head of the saving crew, for

instance, the captain, have an appreciable influence of the release performance of the saving cell by the possibility of the last commando order. This can be realized in the following manner:

After the remaining members of the saving team, for instance, the pilot and co-pilot, have performed the functions assigned to them by pushing of the push button coordinated to them, the releasing device is put at first into function readiness and the release itself is performed by a pressure button pushed by the captain. The function of the remaining members of the saving crew is limited thus to introductory measures, while the function of the head of the saving crew, who was already engaged with the starting measures, includes the actual release of the saving cell such that the head by the last commando, namely by operation of a corresponding device, gives this last step for release of the saving cell. By this last commando, the member of the crew functioning as the head of the safety crew has the possibility, prior to the issue of the last commando, as much as the danger still permits, to. pass through the saving cell and to convince himself personally, whether all required measures have been properly performed. During this inspection travel, he can also answer all questions directed to him by the passengers in a quiet convincing tone and thereby create one of the most important presumptions for successful performance of the saving action, namely by his calming and proper appearance to influence decisively and finally the psychological feeling and behavior of the passengers.

The performance possibility of such decisive influence of the releasing process of the saving cell by the head of the saving team, is visible from the following figure description and the corresponding FIG. 15.

Upon operation of the pressure knob 14 by the head of the saving crew, for instance, the captain, the current flows from the board battery 13 over the pressure knob 14, control lamp 41, contact point 50, solenoid 15a, solenoid 16a, contact point 20 and contact point 21 back to the board battery 13. The solenoids 15a and 16a fed by the current, pull up the anchor cores 15b and 16b, whereby the flaps 15c and 16a of the housings 15d and 16d are freed, so that the pressure knobs 15 and 16 disposed in the latter for the remaining members of the saving crew, for instance, the pilot and the co-pilot are accessible. The lit control lamp 41 indicates that the pilot and the co-pilot can perform their function within the framework of the starting of the saving measures. As soon as the pressure knobs 15 and 16, respectively, are pushed by the pilot and the co-pilot a warning lamp 57 lights up, the circuit of which runs as follows:

Board battery 13, pressure knob 14, control lamp 41, contact point 50, contact point 54, switch 61, contact point 55, warning lamp 57, contact point 60, pressure knob 15, pressure knob 16, contact point 21 and board battery 13.

It should be remarked here that the pressure knobs 14, 15 and 16 remain in the switched position after the pressing; contrary to the pressure knobs, these pressure knob switches do not return to their original position. The lit warning lamp 57 shows the captain that the saving cell 26 is ready for ejection from the carrying body 25 of the aircraft. As soon as the captain, under circumstances, by a control walk, has convinced himself personally that all necessary measures have been taken care of properly, he hits with a small hammer a disc 59 of the box 58 made of glass or transparent synthetic material and operates the switch 61, so that the latter connects the contact points 54- and 56 together. By this arrangement, the current flows in the following manner:

Battery 13, pressure knob 14, control lamp 41, contact point 50, contact point 19, switching relay 17, pressure knob 15, pressure knob 16, contact point 21 and battery 13.

The switching relay 17 passed by electric current pulls up the anchor and closes thereby the two contact pairs 43 and 44. By means of the contact pair 43, the electric motor 18 is fed with current in the following manner:

Battery 13, pressure knob 14, lamp 41, contact point 50, contact point 19, contact pair 43, contact pair '51 (electric motor), contact point 52, contact point 53, contact point 20, contact point 21 and battery 13. The anchor of the electric motor 18 with the pinion 12 rotates in clockwise direction and moves the gear racket 10 in the direction of the dotted arrow w. By this arrangement, the crank bolts 10a are pulled out on the connections 3, which is shown in the drawing, whereby the saving cell 26 is released from the carrying body 25 of the aircraft and falls downwardly. Simultaneously, with the electric motor 18 is, however, also the electric magnet 45 fed with current which opens the fast closing valves 29 on the pressure gas bottles 28, and in particular by means of the contact pair 44 in the following manner:

Battery 13, pressure knob 14, lamp 41, contact point 50, contact point 19, contact pair 44, electric magnet 45, contact point 20, contact point 21 and battery 13. Upon release of the saving cell 26 from the carrying body 25 of the aircraft, simultaneously the fast closing valves 29 are opened on the pressure gas bottles 28, so that the pressure gas (carrying gas) can flow into the balloons 31 (see FIGS. 10 and 12). It is to be remarked, that upon pulling the anchor 46 (FIG. 15) in the direction of the direction of the arrow 11, the valve shaft 48 is moved by the crank lever rod 47 in the direction of the arrow v, whereby the valve 49 is lifted from its seat and frees the exit for the gas from the pressure gas bottle 28. By the switching relay 17, of course, further current circuits (for instance, can be closed, for the sudden release of the parachutes, for the automatic sending of SOS signals, etc.).

The device reducing the free fall speed of the saving cell 2 6 can also consist of a rocket or a set of rockets, which after the ignition exercises a return pushing force directed oppositely to the falling movement of the saving cell.

While I have disclosed several embodiments of the present invention, it is to be understood that these embodiments are given by example only and not in a limiting sense, the scope of the present invention being determined by the objects.

I claim:

1. An apparatus for saving the passengers of a crashlanding, ditching or diving and in danger to be diving, respectively, airplane, comprising:

a saving cell,

said saving cell including a cockpit, a passenger cabin and a baggage compartment,

means for hermetically closing said saving cell,

means for releasing said saving cell from a plurality of connecting points of said airplane,

feedingand control-means connecting said saving cell with the remaining portion of said airplane,

safety coupling means disposed in said feedingand control-means, in order to safely close up and separate said feeding and control-means upon release of said saving cell,

at least one parachute and at least one balloon to be gas-filled secured to said saving cell,

at least one emergency current source disposed in said saving cell,

a driveand control-means for movement of said saving cell in water,

charging explosive loads disposed at the connecting points between said saving cell and the remaining part of said airplane,

circuit means for igniting said charging explosive loads,

and

said circuit means comprising a current source and a plurality of in series disposed manually operated switching means for closing said circuit means.

2. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, wherein:

at least one part of said parachute and of said balloon,

respectively, comprises at least difiiculty inflammable material.

3. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, wherein:

said saving cell comprises a hollow body suspended in the fuselage of said airplane,

the latter being open at the bottom thereof in the area of receiving said saving cell, and

said saving cell complementing said open area of said airplane fuselage.

4, The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, which includes:

at least one pressure-gas bottle having fast closing valves and is disposed in said saving cell,

conduit means leading from said pressure gas bottle to an upwardly directed gas tube, and

said gas tube is connected by means of a filling hose with said ballon.

5. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 4, wherein:

said fast closing valves are operatively connected with automatically operating means, and

latter cause a sudden opening of said valves upon separation of said saving cell at said connecting points.

6. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, wherein:

said driving means for movement in water comprises at least one ship screw.

7. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, wherein:

said driving means for movement in water comprises at least one tubular pump.

8. The apparatus, as set forth in claim 1, wherein:

said circuit means includes a single manually operated means for controlling and rendering operative and circuit means.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,959,671 11/1960 Stevinson 244- X 3,377,037 4/1968 Stewart 244-140 X 1,251,896 1/1918 Korgel 244-140 1,760,061 5/1930 Horni 244-140 1,820,958 9/ 1931 Zinkowetsky 244-140 1,862,989 6/1932 Townsley 244-140 2,077,910 4/1937 Thomson 244-140 2,115,932 5/1938 Poindexter et a1. 244-140 2,196,947 4/1940 Swofford 244152 X 2,640,666 6/1953 Cerrella 244-152 X 3,693,923 11/1954 Bigio 244-140 FERGUS S. MIDDLETON, Primary Examiner J. E. PITTENGE-R, Assistant Examiner

US709560A 1967-08-08 1968-03-01 Apparatus for saving of the passengers of a crash landing,ditching or diving and in danger to be diving,respectively,airplane Expired - Lifetime US3508727A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH1124867A CH497315A (en) 1967-08-08 1967-08-08 Means for saving the occupants of a notlandenden, notwassernden or crashing or risk of falling aircraft

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US3508727A true US3508727A (en) 1970-04-28

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US (1) US3508727A (en)
CH (1) CH497315A (en)
DE (2) DE1992863U (en)
FR (1) FR1603439A (en)
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NL (1) NL6811183A (en)

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US3622108A (en) * 1970-02-27 1971-11-23 George A Mathewson Safety device for disabled airplanes
JPS52170500U (en) * 1976-06-18 1977-12-24
WO1990013479A1 (en) * 1989-05-04 1990-11-15 Mashinostroitelny Zavod Im P.O.Sukhogo Aircraft
US5568903A (en) * 1995-01-18 1996-10-29 Pena; Jesus S. Plane saddle for a safety airplane
US5673875A (en) * 1995-01-30 1997-10-07 Martin; Joseph R. Stabilizing inflight parachute system
US5921504A (en) * 1997-08-17 1999-07-13 Elizondo; Joey P. Aircraft passenger extraction system
US6382563B1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2002-05-07 Chui-Wen Chiu Aircraft with severable body and independent passenger cabins
US6595466B2 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-07-22 Airbus France Boarding device for aircraft and flying wings equipped with such a device
US6761334B1 (en) * 2003-05-28 2004-07-13 Costica Nutu Aircraft passenger safety module
US7234667B1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2007-06-26 Talmage Jr Robert N Modular aerospace plane
US8643850B1 (en) * 2010-03-02 2014-02-04 Richard L. Hartman Automated system for load acquisition and engagement
US20150203200A1 (en) * 2011-12-21 2015-07-23 George Bye Unmanned Aerial Systems
US20180155038A1 (en) * 2016-12-02 2018-06-07 Joseph Miller Aircraft Parachute System
US10005559B2 (en) * 2015-09-01 2018-06-26 Guoxin WEI Crash-resistant aircraft and crash-resistant control method

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CH587106A5 (en) * 1973-10-12 1977-04-29 Granger Maurice
DE3010833A1 (en) * 1980-03-21 1982-11-25 Eric Neubeck Escape system for large passenger aircraft - has multiple parachutes connect to passenger compartment, with explosives to jettison remainder of aircraft
GB2200877B (en) * 1987-02-10 1990-10-10 Zinovi Levin Device for overcoming the problem of crew safety during a spacecraft launch and improve the joints connecting the segments of the solid rocket booster
DE9416639U1 (en) * 1994-10-15 1994-12-08 Hoechst Ag Apparatus for the cutting of film rolls
DE19507069C2 (en) * 1995-03-01 1999-07-01 Schubert Werner Devices against aircraft crashes
DE19847546A1 (en) * 1998-10-15 2000-01-05 Mellmann Gerhard Airbag system to bring aircraft safely to ground in event of emergency situation
GB2355965B (en) * 1999-11-06 2001-12-12 Andrew Thomas Pike Passenger aircraft escape system
DE10222712A1 (en) * 2002-05-23 2003-12-11 Gerhard Mellmann Aircraft with a rescue system
HRPK20020783B3 (en) * 2002-11-11 2005-12-31 Donas Don Aircraft structure reinforcement
TR200703725A2 (en) * 2007-05-31 2007-12-24 Gültekin Bülent Life-saving aircraft systems.

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3622108A (en) * 1970-02-27 1971-11-23 George A Mathewson Safety device for disabled airplanes
JPS52170500U (en) * 1976-06-18 1977-12-24
JPS568800Y2 (en) * 1976-06-18 1981-02-25
WO1990013479A1 (en) * 1989-05-04 1990-11-15 Mashinostroitelny Zavod Im P.O.Sukhogo Aircraft
US5568903A (en) * 1995-01-18 1996-10-29 Pena; Jesus S. Plane saddle for a safety airplane
US5673875A (en) * 1995-01-30 1997-10-07 Martin; Joseph R. Stabilizing inflight parachute system
US5921504A (en) * 1997-08-17 1999-07-13 Elizondo; Joey P. Aircraft passenger extraction system
US6382563B1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2002-05-07 Chui-Wen Chiu Aircraft with severable body and independent passenger cabins
US6595466B2 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-07-22 Airbus France Boarding device for aircraft and flying wings equipped with such a device
US6761334B1 (en) * 2003-05-28 2004-07-13 Costica Nutu Aircraft passenger safety module
US7234667B1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2007-06-26 Talmage Jr Robert N Modular aerospace plane
US8643850B1 (en) * 2010-03-02 2014-02-04 Richard L. Hartman Automated system for load acquisition and engagement
US20150203200A1 (en) * 2011-12-21 2015-07-23 George Bye Unmanned Aerial Systems
US10005559B2 (en) * 2015-09-01 2018-06-26 Guoxin WEI Crash-resistant aircraft and crash-resistant control method
US20180155038A1 (en) * 2016-12-02 2018-06-07 Joseph Miller Aircraft Parachute System

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NL6811183A (en) 1969-02-11
FR1603439A (en) 1971-04-19
GB1236283A (en) 1971-06-23
CH497315A (en) 1970-10-15
DE1992863U (en) 1968-08-29
DE1756581A1 (en) 1970-04-30

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