US3497950A - Tilt-sensitive devices - Google Patents

Tilt-sensitive devices Download PDF

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Publication number
US3497950A
US3497950A US3497950DA US3497950A US 3497950 A US3497950 A US 3497950A US 3497950D A US3497950D A US 3497950DA US 3497950 A US3497950 A US 3497950A
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
envelope
electrodes
bubble
tilt
paint
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Allan Maurice Squire
Donald Fulton Alexa Maclachlan
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BAC AND BRITISH AEROSPACE
BAE Systems PLC
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British Aircraft Corp Ltd
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Application filed by British Aircraft Corp Ltd filed Critical British Aircraft Corp Ltd
Priority to US67135167A priority Critical
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Publication of US3497950A publication Critical patent/US3497950A/en
Assigned to BRITISH AEROSPACE PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY reassignment BRITISH AEROSPACE PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). EFFECTIVE JAN. 2, 1981 Assignors: BRITISH AEROSPACE LIMITED
Assigned to BAC AND BRITISH AEROSPACE reassignment BAC AND BRITISH AEROSPACE ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: BRITISH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION LIMITED,
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C9/00Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels
    • G01C9/18Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels by using liquids
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49105Switch making
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49117Conductor or circuit manufacturing
    • Y10T29/49169Assembling electrical component directly to terminal or elongated conductor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4998Combined manufacture including applying or shaping of fluent material
    • Y10T29/49993Filling of opening

Description

March 3, 1970 A M. SQUIRE ETAL 3, 9

' TILT-SENSITIVE DEVICES ori im Filed' June 1. 1965 Inventor ALLAN MAURICE SQU/RE DONALD FULTON AL XAN ER MACLACH AN W Atlomey United States Patent 3,497,950 TILT-SENSITIVE DEVICES Allan Maurice Squire, Harpenden, and Donald Fulton Alexander MacLachlan, Surrey, England, assignors to British Aircraft Corporation Limited, London, England, a British company Original application June 1, 1965, Ser. No. 460,075, now abandoned. Divided and this application Sept 28, 1967, Ser. No. 671,351

Int. Cl. B23k 31/02 US. Cl. 29-622 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A tilt sensitive device comprises a tubular body having a concave upper wall and contains an electrically conducting fluid and a non-conducting bubble; it has a central electrode and an end electrode on each side of the centre electrode; the length of the bubble is less than the distance between the two end electrodes. The electrodes are formed by flowing a conductive cement through holes in the walls and firing it, after which it is given a spongy surface.

This application is a divisional application from our application Ser. No. 460,075 filed June 1, 1965 and now abandoned.

This invention relates to manufacture of tilt-sensitive devices in which the departure of the device from the level position is indicated electrically.

A tilt-sensitive device according to the invention comprises a sealed envelope containing an electrically conducting liquid and a level responsive bubble of a fluid of differing conductivity and density, the envelope having an internal concave longitudinal surface which is smooth and uniform, the tube having also a central electrode rigidly supported midway between the ends of the concave surface in such a position that while the bubble of fluid is in contact 'with that concave surface the bubble cannot come into contact with that electrode, and having two end electrodes, one each side of the central electrode, rigidly supported at equal distances from the central electrode and each in a position which is at or near an end of the concave surface, the length of the bubble when in contact with the concave surface being considerably shorter than the distance apart of the two end electrodes, and the end and central electrodes having sponge surfaces.

The electrical resistance values between the central electrode and the end electrodes depend upon the position of the bubble in the tube and so their values are an indication of any departure of the device from a level position. These resistances may be measured by any suitable bridge-circuit, for example an AC. bridge including an amplifier.

Preferably the enevlope is internally barrel shaped or is a tube of uniform diameter which has been curved into an are, thereby forming an internal longitudinal concave surface.

The bubble may be of a fluid having a density greater than that of the electrically conducting liquid, in which case the concave surface with which it is in contact during use will be at the bottom of the device. Preferably, however, the bubble has a density less than that of the electrically conducting liquid and so the concave surface will be at the top of the device during use. The bubble fluid must not be miscible with the electrically conducting liquid to any appreciable extent. It may either be a liquid or a gas. The envelope is preferably constructed of glass of the borosilicate type, for example, as sold under the trade mark Pyrex. Preferably the electrolyte is a solution of lithium chloride in an alcohol such an ethanol or isopropanol. The bubble fluid may conveniently be air.

The electrodes have sponge surfaces. That is to say the area of surface of each electrode exposed to the electrolyte, this being the effective area of each surface, is substantially greater that the apparent surface area. The effective area may, for instance, be as much as several hundred times greater than the apparent area. Methods of producing electrodes with sponge surfaces are known.

The electrodes are rigidly supported in the envelope. In accordance with this invention, the device is made by a method which includes the steps of forming said electrodes by boring holes in the envelope, applying platinum resinate paint on the inside of the envelope in such a manner that the paint flows through the holes, and also applying paint on the outside of the envelope so that the paint which fills the holes, together with the local zones of paint inside and outside, forms conducting plugs, firing the paint, treating the paint electro-chemically to thereby provide a sponge surface on each plug towards the interior of the envelope, and attaching a lead to each plug externally of the envelope.

The advantages exhibited by tilt-sensitive devices made in accordance with the invention are due to the large effective area of the electrodes, and one of these advantages is that, for a given current, the current density at the electrodes is much less than at the electrodes of known devices having point or strip electrodes, so that polarisation effects are reduced or eliminated. The devices according to the invention thus have a much greater sensitivity than have tilt-sensitive devices of the prior art.

A further advantage is that a lower frequency may be applied to devices according to the invention than it has previously been possible to use. A convenient frequency is one of the order of 50 cycles per second. A further advantage is that the life of the devices according to the invention is, due to the large effective area of the electrodes, longer than the life of tilt-sensitive devices of the prior art.

It is found that by choosing a particular ratio for the volume of the electrically conducting liquid to the volume of the bubble it is possible to reduce the temperature coeflicient to a minimum. This ratio is conveniently found by experiment under the conditions under which the device is to be used and it will depend on the temperature effects on liquid conductivity, surface tension and the length of the bubble due to expansion or contraction of the liquid.

The invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which the single figure shows diagrammatically a side elevation of a tilt-sensitive device made in accordance with the invention. In this figure the curvature of the walls of the envelope is exaggerated in order that it should be more clearly seen.

The device illustrated in the figure consists of a glass envelope 111 the upper surface of which is curved con-- vexly so that there is an internal longitudinal concave surface. The envelope contains an electrolyte 112 comprising a solution of lithium chloride in ethanol and a bubble 113 of air. It has a central electrode 115 and end electrodes 116 and 117. These electrodes 115, 116 and 117 are formed by boring holes in the envelope 111 and applying platinum resinate paint on the inside of the envelope in such a manner that the paint flows through the holes, and paint is also applied on the outside of the envelope so that the paint which fills the holes, together with the local zones of paint inside and outside, forms conducting plugs. The paint is then fired and treated electrochemically in known manner to provide a sponge surface so as to increase the effective area of the electrodes. The effective area of the treated surface may be of the order of 500 3 times the effective area of the untreated surface. The leads 118, 119 and 120 are attached by soldering to the electrodes.

What we claim is:

1. In a method of making a tilt-sensitive device; said device comprising a sealed envelope containing an electrically conducting liquid and a level responsive bubble of a fluid of differing conductivity and density, the envelope having an internal concave longitudinal surface which is smooth and uniform, the envelope having also a central electrode rigidly supported midway between the ends of the wall opposite to the concave surface in such a position that while the bubble of fluid is in contact with that concave surface the bubble cannot come into contact with that electrode, and having two end electrodes, one on each side of the central electrode, rigidly supported on said' wall at equal distances from the central electrode and each in a position which is at or near an end of the wall opposite to the concave surface, the length of the bubble when in contact with the concave surface being considerably shorter than the distance apart of the two end electrodes; the improvement comprising the steps of forming said electrodes by boring holes in the envelope, applying platinum resinate paint on the inside of the envelope in such a manner that the paint flows through the holes, and also applying paint on the outside of the envelope so References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,416,887 3/1947 Tibbetts 29630XR 2,627,121 2/1953 Moyer et a1. 33 211 2,864,156 12/1958 Candy 29530 XR FOREIGN PATENTS 1,255,255 1/1961 France.

950,845 2/1964 England.

JOHN F. CAMPBELL, Primary Examiner R. CHURCH, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

US3497950D 1967-09-28 1967-09-28 Tilt-sensitive devices Expired - Lifetime US3497950A (en)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3927287A (en) * 1973-03-23 1975-12-16 Charles E Hopwood Sensor unit
US4022284A (en) * 1975-03-17 1977-05-10 Dresser Industries, Inc. Automatic alignment system for earth boring rig
US4438720A (en) * 1982-02-08 1984-03-27 Detectors, Inc. Tilt detector
US4521974A (en) * 1983-08-30 1985-06-11 Sperry Corporation Temperature stable arcuate bubble gravity sensor mount
US4628612A (en) * 1984-11-24 1986-12-16 Tokyo Kogaku Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha Tilt angle detection device
USRE32570E (en) * 1982-02-08 1988-01-05 Detectors, Inc. Tilt detector
US4989334A (en) * 1989-03-30 1991-02-05 Dubose Jr Thomas L V Tilt indicator
US5612679A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-03-18 Burgess; Lester E. Electrolytic tilt sensor
US5630280A (en) * 1995-05-01 1997-05-20 The Fredericks Company Dual axis electrolytic tilt sensor
US5774996A (en) * 1995-02-14 1998-07-07 Nissho Corporation Biaxial inclination sensor
US6343422B1 (en) 1999-05-31 2002-02-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Tilt angel measuring device
US6572073B2 (en) 1999-11-22 2003-06-03 Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc. Vial and method of making same

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416887A (en) * 1944-10-20 1947-03-04 Tibbetts Lab Inc Piezoelectric device
US2627121A (en) * 1949-06-10 1953-02-03 W A Moyer & Sons Level vial
US2864156A (en) * 1953-04-17 1958-12-16 Donald K Cardy Method of forming a printed circuit
FR1255255A (en) * 1960-04-28 1961-03-03 Contraves Ag leveler gas bubble level
GB950845A (en) * 1960-08-08 1964-02-26 Ass Elect Ind Improvements in and relating to electrically conducting vacuum seals

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416887A (en) * 1944-10-20 1947-03-04 Tibbetts Lab Inc Piezoelectric device
US2627121A (en) * 1949-06-10 1953-02-03 W A Moyer & Sons Level vial
US2864156A (en) * 1953-04-17 1958-12-16 Donald K Cardy Method of forming a printed circuit
FR1255255A (en) * 1960-04-28 1961-03-03 Contraves Ag leveler gas bubble level
GB950845A (en) * 1960-08-08 1964-02-26 Ass Elect Ind Improvements in and relating to electrically conducting vacuum seals

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3927287A (en) * 1973-03-23 1975-12-16 Charles E Hopwood Sensor unit
US4022284A (en) * 1975-03-17 1977-05-10 Dresser Industries, Inc. Automatic alignment system for earth boring rig
US4438720A (en) * 1982-02-08 1984-03-27 Detectors, Inc. Tilt detector
USRE32570E (en) * 1982-02-08 1988-01-05 Detectors, Inc. Tilt detector
US4521974A (en) * 1983-08-30 1985-06-11 Sperry Corporation Temperature stable arcuate bubble gravity sensor mount
US4628612A (en) * 1984-11-24 1986-12-16 Tokyo Kogaku Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha Tilt angle detection device
US4989334A (en) * 1989-03-30 1991-02-05 Dubose Jr Thomas L V Tilt indicator
US5774996A (en) * 1995-02-14 1998-07-07 Nissho Corporation Biaxial inclination sensor
US5612679A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-03-18 Burgess; Lester E. Electrolytic tilt sensor
US5630280A (en) * 1995-05-01 1997-05-20 The Fredericks Company Dual axis electrolytic tilt sensor
US6343422B1 (en) 1999-05-31 2002-02-05 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Tilt angel measuring device
US6572073B2 (en) 1999-11-22 2003-06-03 Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc. Vial and method of making same
US6735880B1 (en) 1999-11-22 2004-05-18 Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc. Vial and method of making same
US20040143980A1 (en) * 1999-11-22 2004-07-29 Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc. Vial and method of making same
US6912793B2 (en) 1999-11-22 2005-07-05 Great Neck Saw Manufacturers, Inc. Vial and method of making same

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AS Assignment

Owner name: BRITISH AEROSPACE PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:BRITISH AEROSPACE LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:004080/0820

Effective date: 19820106

Owner name: BRITISH AEROSPACE PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY, DISTRICT

AS Assignment

Owner name: BAC AND BRITISH AEROSPACE, BROOKLANDS RD., WEYBRID

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:BRITISH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION LIMITED,;REEL/FRAME:003957/0227

Effective date: 19811218