Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Razor blades and methods of manufacture thereof

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3480483A
US3480483A US3480483DA US3480483A US 3480483 A US3480483 A US 3480483A US 3480483D A US3480483D A US 3480483DA US 3480483 A US3480483 A US 3480483A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
chromium
edge
cutting
method
blade
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Anthony E F Wilkinson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Wilkinson Sword Ltd
Original Assignee
Wilkinson Sword Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/14Metallic material, boron or silicon
    • C23C14/16Metallic material, boron or silicon on metallic substrates or on substrates of boron or silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C10/00Solid state diffusion of only metal elements or silicon into metallic material surfaces
    • C23C10/60After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/58After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/58After-treatment
    • C23C14/5846Reactive treatment
    • C23C14/5853Oxidation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C8/00Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals
    • C23C8/02Pretreatment of the material to be coated

Description

United States Patent US. Cl. 148-63 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Coatings are formed on the cutting edge of steel razor blades by the steps of cleaning the cutting edge, applying to the cutting edge a thin layer of chromium of less than 400 Angstroms in thickness, preferably of less than 100 Angstroms, after which the blade is heat treated in a controlled oxidising atmosphere. The heat treating may be at a temperature of approximately 400 C. and at a pressure of approximately 10* torricelli.

The chromium content of the blades may be increased in the surface region of the cutting edge by a chromating process. Conversion of a substantial portion of the chromium on the cutting edge to chromium oxide may be effected by anodising, for example by means of a glow discharge or in a liquid electrolyte.

This invention relates to razor blades.

According to the present invention at least the surface region of at least the cutting edge or cutting edges of a razor blade comprise chromium oxide.

The provision of such a surface comprising chromium oxide is designed to impart improved properties to the razor blade by giving enhanced durability to the cutting edge or edges.

One method of providing the chromium oxide surface is first to coat with chromium which is thereafter oxidised. An alternative method is to coat the surface with chromium oxide thereby eliminating the oxidising step. Yet another method is to enrich the chromium content of at least the surface region of a stainless steel razor blade by a chromating process with subsequent oxidisation.

In greater detail, one method of manufacture is to clean the cutting edge or edges, thereafter applying a thin layer of chromium, for example, less than 400 Angstroms in thickness. A thickness of less than 100 Angtroms is preferred. The blade is next annealed to improve the bond with the coating and is then heat-treated in a controlled oxidising atmosphere. The chromium coating and subsequent heat treatment can be effected without impairing the cutting edge and in some circumstances may be efiected as a single operation.

Thereafter the blades may be provided with coatings or particles of materials to facilitate shaving, such as the already known or novel coatings referred to in the specification of Belgian Patent No. 504,784 of Apr. 5, 1963 in the name of Wilkinson Sword Limited. The heat treatment required to cure the polytetrafluoroethylene will in some cases be adequate to ensure adhesion between the vapour deposited chromium and the blade edge.

The method chosen for cleaning the blade should take account of the properties of the blade material, typical methods being by immersion in an organic solvent, for example, trichloroethylene, if necessary under ultrasonic vibration, with subsequent drying, by vapor degreasing in trichloroethylene, by glow discharge or by a brief anodic etching. If the latter method is used with an 3,480,483 Patented Nov. 25, 1969 aqueous solution of chromium trioxide, this can constitute the chromating process referred to above.

The selected method of coating the blade can likewise be chosen to 'be the most suitable for the material in question and examples of possible methods are by vapour deposition, by sputtering, possible with the sputtering direction in an ion beam, by electro-plating or by gas reaction.

Finally, it is necessary to effect controlled oxidation of the metal surface. This may be achieved by heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere in which the amount of oxygen present is strictly limited; for example the blade may be heated to 400 C. in air at a pressure of 10 torricelli. Another method is to anodise in a gaseous or liquid electrolyte; for example anodising may be by means of an air glow discharge at a low pressure, say a pressure of microns. A feature of the invention is that the amount of oxygen present during the oxidation process is strictly controlled.

Thus, considering the application of the process to stainless steels which can be used for razor blades, the process may typically involve vapour degreasing in trichloroethylene or chloroform, coating with chromium by vapour deposition, annealing in vacuum to bond the deposit to the edge, oxidising in a controlled atmosphere at temperatures up to 450 C. and applying a coating of polytetrafluoroethylene.

I claim:

1. The method of forming a chromium oxide coating on a cutting edge of a stainless steel razor blade comprising the steps of enriching the chromium content in the surface region of said cutting edge by a chromating process, and heat treating the cutting edge in a controlled oxidising atmosphere.

2. The method of forming a chromium oxide coating on a cutting edge of a steel razor blade comprising the steps of cleaning the cutting edge,

applying to the cutting edge a thin layer of chromium of less than 400 Angstroms in thickness, and

heat treating the blade in a controlled oxidising atmosphere to convert a substantial proportion of the chromium to chromium oxide.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein said heat treating comprises heating to a temperature of approximately 400 C. in air at very low pressure.

4. The method according to claim 2, wherein said chromium is applied by vapour deposition.

5. The method according to claim 2, wherein said chromium is applied by sputtering.

6. The method according to claim 2, wherein said controlled oxidising atmosphere is at a pressure of approxi mately 1O torricelli.

7. The method according to claim 2, wherein said coating of chromium is of less than 100 Angstroms.

8. The method according to claim 2, comprising the further step of applying to the chromium oxide coating a coating of polytetrafluoroethylene.

9. The method of forming a chromium oxide coating on a cutting edge of a steel razor blade comprising the steps of cleaning the cutting edge,

applying to the cutting edge a thin layer of chromium of less than 400 Angstroms in thickness, and anodising the chromium coating to convert a substantial proportion of the chromium to chromium oxide.

10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the anodising is effected by means of a glow discharge in the presence of a restricted amount of oxygen.

11. The method according to claim 9, wherein the anodising is eflected in a liquid electrolyte.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4 FOREIGN PATENTS 6/1949 Canada. 4/ 1967 Great Britain.

5 RALPH S. KENDALL, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

US3480483A 1965-05-06 1966-05-04 Razor blades and methods of manufacture thereof Expired - Lifetime US3480483A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1908565 1965-05-06

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3480483A true US3480483A (en) 1969-11-25

Family

ID=10123527

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3480483A Expired - Lifetime US3480483A (en) 1965-05-06 1966-05-04 Razor blades and methods of manufacture thereof

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US3480483A (en)
DE (1) DE1553843B2 (en)

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3634147A (en) * 1969-11-20 1972-01-11 United States Steel Corp Corrosion resistant tin-free steel and method for producing same
US3635811A (en) * 1967-11-06 1972-01-18 Warner Lambert Co Method of applying a coating
US3652443A (en) * 1970-08-25 1972-03-28 Gillette Co Deposition apparatus
US3754329A (en) * 1967-11-06 1973-08-28 Warner Lambert Co Razor blade with rf sputtered coating
US3773544A (en) * 1970-06-02 1973-11-20 Steel Corp Fluorocarbon polymer coated substrate
US3805387A (en) * 1972-05-22 1974-04-23 American Optical Corp Fiber razor blade
US3811189A (en) * 1971-07-09 1974-05-21 Gillette Co Process for producing an improved cutting tool
US3829969A (en) * 1969-07-28 1974-08-20 Gillette Co Cutting tool with alloy coated sharpened edge
US3871836A (en) * 1972-12-20 1975-03-18 Allied Chem Cutting blades made of or coated with an amorphous metal
US3890109A (en) * 1972-04-08 1975-06-17 Wilkinson Sword Ltd Razor blades having high purity Al{hd 2{b O{HD 3 {B coating
US3900636A (en) * 1971-01-21 1975-08-19 Gillette Co Method of treating cutting edges
US3904506A (en) * 1972-11-13 1975-09-09 Shatterproof Glass Corp Apparatus for continuous production of sputter-coated glass products
US3911579A (en) * 1971-05-18 1975-10-14 Warner Lambert Co Cutting instruments and methods of making same
US3916523A (en) * 1969-09-29 1975-11-04 Warner Lambert Co Coated razor blade
US3939293A (en) * 1974-04-30 1976-02-17 International Business Machines, Corporation Method for passivating chromium
US3968018A (en) * 1969-09-29 1976-07-06 Warner-Lambert Company Sputter coating method
US4262875A (en) * 1979-08-17 1981-04-21 Rca Corporation Information record stampers
US4726368A (en) * 1985-02-19 1988-02-23 Bioquantum Technologies, Inc. Non-reflective surgical instruments
WO1992019425A2 (en) * 1991-04-26 1992-11-12 The Gillette Company Improvements in or relating to razor blades
US5295305A (en) * 1992-02-13 1994-03-22 The Gillette Company Razor blade technology
US5301431A (en) * 1992-12-01 1994-04-12 Etm Corporation Hand-held cutting tool
EP0591339A1 (en) * 1991-06-24 1994-04-13 The Gillette Company Improvements in or relating to razor blades
DE19800758A1 (en) * 1998-01-12 1999-07-15 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Process for coating foil comprised of nickel or a nickel alloy and coated film of nickel or a nickel alloy
US20030121158A1 (en) * 2000-02-29 2003-07-03 The Gillette Company, A Delaware Corporation Razor blade technology
US20040172832A1 (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-09 Colin Clipstone Razor blade
US20050268470A1 (en) * 2004-06-03 2005-12-08 Skrobis Kenneth J Colored razor blades
US20060174977A1 (en) * 1999-01-13 2006-08-10 Tadahiro Ohmi Metal material having formed thereon chromium oxide passive film and method for producing the same, and parts contacting with fluid and system for supplying fluid and exhausting gas
US20080190758A1 (en) * 2004-09-08 2008-08-14 Vassilis Papachristos Method of Deposition of a Layer on a Razor Blade Edge and Razor Blade
US20090314136A1 (en) * 2008-06-23 2009-12-24 The Stanley Works Method of manufacturing a blade
US20130180117A1 (en) * 2009-07-15 2013-07-18 Eveready Battery Company Inc. Razor Blade Technology
US8769833B2 (en) 2010-09-10 2014-07-08 Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. Utility knife blade

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7152526B2 (en) * 2002-01-29 2006-12-26 Nihon New Chrome Co., Ltd. Surface treated doctor blade

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA457378A (en) * 1949-06-14 Gillette Safety Razor Company Fine edged cutting implements and the manufacture thereof
US3071856A (en) * 1959-12-31 1963-01-08 Irwin W Fischbein Razor blade and method of making same
US3283117A (en) * 1965-04-22 1966-11-01 Philip Morris Inc Method for coating cutting edges of sharpened instruments
GB1065723A (en) * 1963-10-24 1967-04-19 Wilkinson Sword Ltd Improvements relating to razor blades and to methods of manufacture thereof
US3345202A (en) * 1963-06-10 1967-10-03 Eversharp Inc Method of making razor blades

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA457378A (en) * 1949-06-14 Gillette Safety Razor Company Fine edged cutting implements and the manufacture thereof
US3071856A (en) * 1959-12-31 1963-01-08 Irwin W Fischbein Razor blade and method of making same
US3345202A (en) * 1963-06-10 1967-10-03 Eversharp Inc Method of making razor blades
GB1065723A (en) * 1963-10-24 1967-04-19 Wilkinson Sword Ltd Improvements relating to razor blades and to methods of manufacture thereof
US3283117A (en) * 1965-04-22 1966-11-01 Philip Morris Inc Method for coating cutting edges of sharpened instruments

Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3635811A (en) * 1967-11-06 1972-01-18 Warner Lambert Co Method of applying a coating
US3754329A (en) * 1967-11-06 1973-08-28 Warner Lambert Co Razor blade with rf sputtered coating
US3829969A (en) * 1969-07-28 1974-08-20 Gillette Co Cutting tool with alloy coated sharpened edge
US3916523A (en) * 1969-09-29 1975-11-04 Warner Lambert Co Coated razor blade
US3968018A (en) * 1969-09-29 1976-07-06 Warner-Lambert Company Sputter coating method
US3634147A (en) * 1969-11-20 1972-01-11 United States Steel Corp Corrosion resistant tin-free steel and method for producing same
US3773544A (en) * 1970-06-02 1973-11-20 Steel Corp Fluorocarbon polymer coated substrate
US3652443A (en) * 1970-08-25 1972-03-28 Gillette Co Deposition apparatus
US3900636A (en) * 1971-01-21 1975-08-19 Gillette Co Method of treating cutting edges
US3911579A (en) * 1971-05-18 1975-10-14 Warner Lambert Co Cutting instruments and methods of making same
US3811189A (en) * 1971-07-09 1974-05-21 Gillette Co Process for producing an improved cutting tool
US3835537A (en) * 1971-07-09 1974-09-17 Gillette Co Improved cutting tool
US3890109A (en) * 1972-04-08 1975-06-17 Wilkinson Sword Ltd Razor blades having high purity Al{hd 2{b O{HD 3 {B coating
US3805387A (en) * 1972-05-22 1974-04-23 American Optical Corp Fiber razor blade
US3904506A (en) * 1972-11-13 1975-09-09 Shatterproof Glass Corp Apparatus for continuous production of sputter-coated glass products
US3871836A (en) * 1972-12-20 1975-03-18 Allied Chem Cutting blades made of or coated with an amorphous metal
USRE29989E (en) * 1972-12-20 1979-05-08 Allied Chemical Corporation Cutting blades made of or coated with an amorphous metal
US3939293A (en) * 1974-04-30 1976-02-17 International Business Machines, Corporation Method for passivating chromium
US4262875A (en) * 1979-08-17 1981-04-21 Rca Corporation Information record stampers
US4726368A (en) * 1985-02-19 1988-02-23 Bioquantum Technologies, Inc. Non-reflective surgical instruments
WO1992019425A2 (en) * 1991-04-26 1992-11-12 The Gillette Company Improvements in or relating to razor blades
WO1992019425A3 (en) * 1991-04-26 1993-01-21 Gillette Co Improvements in or relating to razor blades
EP0591339A4 (en) * 1991-06-24 1994-08-31 The Gillette Company
EP0591339A1 (en) * 1991-06-24 1994-04-13 The Gillette Company Improvements in or relating to razor blades
US5295305A (en) * 1992-02-13 1994-03-22 The Gillette Company Razor blade technology
US5301431A (en) * 1992-12-01 1994-04-12 Etm Corporation Hand-held cutting tool
DE19800758C2 (en) * 1998-01-12 2000-08-31 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Process for coating foil comprised of nickel or a nickel alloy and coated film of nickel or a nickel alloy
DE19800758A1 (en) * 1998-01-12 1999-07-15 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Process for coating foil comprised of nickel or a nickel alloy and coated film of nickel or a nickel alloy
US7935385B2 (en) * 1999-01-13 2011-05-03 Tadahiro Ohmi Metal material having formed thereon chromium oxide passive film and method for producing the same, and parts contacting with fluid and system for supplying fluid and exhausting gas
US20060174977A1 (en) * 1999-01-13 2006-08-10 Tadahiro Ohmi Metal material having formed thereon chromium oxide passive film and method for producing the same, and parts contacting with fluid and system for supplying fluid and exhausting gas
US20030121158A1 (en) * 2000-02-29 2003-07-03 The Gillette Company, A Delaware Corporation Razor blade technology
US6684513B1 (en) * 2000-02-29 2004-02-03 The Gillette Company Razor blade technology
US6866894B2 (en) 2000-02-29 2005-03-15 The Gillette Company Razor blade technology
US20060265885A1 (en) * 2003-03-04 2006-11-30 The Gillette Company, A Delaware Corporation Razor blade
US20040172832A1 (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-09 Colin Clipstone Razor blade
US20050268470A1 (en) * 2004-06-03 2005-12-08 Skrobis Kenneth J Colored razor blades
US7673541B2 (en) * 2004-06-03 2010-03-09 The Gillette Company Colored razor blades
US20080190758A1 (en) * 2004-09-08 2008-08-14 Vassilis Papachristos Method of Deposition of a Layer on a Razor Blade Edge and Razor Blade
US9180599B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2015-11-10 Bic-Violex S.A. Method of deposition of a layer on a razor blade edge and razor blade
US8505414B2 (en) 2008-06-23 2013-08-13 Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. Method of manufacturing a blade
US20090314136A1 (en) * 2008-06-23 2009-12-24 The Stanley Works Method of manufacturing a blade
US20130180117A1 (en) * 2009-07-15 2013-07-18 Eveready Battery Company Inc. Razor Blade Technology
US20150096164A1 (en) * 2009-07-15 2015-04-09 Eveready Battery Company Inc. Razor Blade Technology
US9032628B2 (en) * 2009-07-15 2015-05-19 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Razor blade technology
US9149944B2 (en) * 2009-07-15 2015-10-06 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Razor blade technology
US9393984B2 (en) 2010-09-10 2016-07-19 Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. Utility knife blade
US8769833B2 (en) 2010-09-10 2014-07-08 Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. Utility knife blade

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE1553843A1 (en) 1971-01-14 application
DE1553843B2 (en) 1976-02-26 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5032243A (en) Method and apparatus for forming or modifying cutting edges
US5965629A (en) Process for modifying surfaces of materials, and materials having surfaces modified thereby
US5488774A (en) Cutting edges
US5543183A (en) Chromium surface treatment of nickel-based substrates
Imai et al. Structural changes in sol-gel derived SiO2 and TiO2 films by exposure to water vapor
US3798061A (en) Method for forming a single-layer nitride film or a multi-layer nitrude film on a portion of the whole of the surface of a semiconductor substrate or element
US4889589A (en) Gaseous removal of ceramic coatings
Takata et al. Pool boiling on a superhydrophilic surface
US3911579A (en) Cutting instruments and methods of making same
US3634147A (en) Corrosion resistant tin-free steel and method for producing same
US3862851A (en) Method of producing Magnesium-Based coating for the sacrificial protection of metals
Haidopoulos et al. Development of an optimized electrochemical process for subsequent coating of 316 stainless steel for stent applications
US4763601A (en) Continuous composite coating apparatus for coating strip
Nishi et al. High fracture resistance of carbon fiber treated by electron beam irradiation
US3345276A (en) Surface treatment for magnesiumlithium alloys
US3278331A (en) Process for coating steel with zinc
US4434189A (en) Method and apparatus for coating substrates using a laser
Atik et al. Sol-gel TiO 2-SiO 2 films as protective coatings against corrosion of 316L stainless steel in H 2 SO 4 solutions
US5324414A (en) Ion selective electrode
US20050268470A1 (en) Colored razor blades
US3979534A (en) Protective coatings for dispersion strengthened nickel-chromium/alloys
US6410144B2 (en) Lubricious diamond-like carbon coatings
US4150178A (en) Aluminum diffusion layer forming method
US3743551A (en) Razor blades and methods of manufacture thereof
US5271917A (en) Activation of carbon fiber surfaces by means of catalytic oxidation