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US3462832A - Process for fabricating high density multilayer electrical interconnections - Google Patents

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US3462832A
US3462832A US3462832DA US3462832A US 3462832 A US3462832 A US 3462832A US 3462832D A US3462832D A US 3462832DA US 3462832 A US3462832 A US 3462832A
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circuit
copper
nickel
inch
epoxy
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James R Kubik
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General Dynamics Corp
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General Dynamics Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/40Forming printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits
    • H05K3/4092Integral conductive tabs, i.e. conductive parts partly detached from the substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K3/00Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits
    • H05K3/40Forming printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits
    • H05K3/42Plated through-holes or plated via connections
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49117Conductor or circuit manufacturing
    • Y10T29/49124On flat or curved insulated base, e.g., printed circuit, etc.
    • Y10T29/49155Manufacturing circuit on or in base
    • Y10T29/49165Manufacturing circuit on or in base by forming conductive walled aperture in base

Description

1969 J. R. KUBIK 3,462,832

PROCESS FOR FABRICATING HIGH DENSITY MULTILAYER ELECTRICAL lNTERcoNNEcTxoNs 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Uff/fab@ 24 Aug. 26,

Filed ocx. 24, 196e a, m M m .W wh m w .r ,im W w@ e o n) fb d.. Jg h 6 www o United States Patent O M U.S. Cl. 29-625 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A method of making multilayer printed circuit boards having perpendicularly extending tube-like nickel interconnectors which are molecularly integral with associated interconnecting nickel plated circuits, the tube-like interconnectors being adapted to receive electronic component leads which may then be soldered or welded Within the interconnectors.

Devices which serve as a media for attaching electronic components to a circuit in single or multilayer apparatus, such as 3-D module construction, are known. The end result of such devices is a series of circuits on at least one positioner or carrier board with tube-like elements at appropriate places in continuity with these circuits. The function of these tube-like elements is to receive electronic component leads so that they may be connected to the circuits as used in module constructtion, for example, U.S. Patent No. 3,209,066 exempliiies such known devices.

The present invention is an improvement of the manufacturing methods described and claimed in U.S. Patents Nos. 3,370,351 and 3,396,459, and assigned to the same assignee. This invention has for its purpose an improved methods of fabricating multilayer circuit boards incorporating high density tube-like elements, and has the following advantages: (l) The tube-like elements (unitubes) are fabricated as an integral part of the carrier board and are stronger units and will stand more abuse; (2) there is no chance of mismatch between the hole in the positioner board and the tube-like element as they are one and the same; (3) no hard tooling is necessary for limited production; (4) the tube-like element height is easily controlled; (5 the tube-like element diameters can be varied to accept different size component leads; and (6) provides high density packaging suitable for both soldering and welding techniques.

Therefore, it is an Object of this invention to provide methods for fabricating high density multilayer electrical circuit boards.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of fabricating circuit boards having high density tubelike elements formed therein.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method for fabricating high density electrical interconnection assemblies which produces ease of fabrication, improved registration and appearance, and lower manufacturing costs.

Other objects of the invention will become readily apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a multilayer circuit board made in accordance with the invention and partially illustrating the fabrication method thereof;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a circuit board made in accordance with the invention, the internal circuits being shown in phantom; and

3,462,832 Patented Aug. 26, 1969 ICC FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of the FIG. 2 embodiment showing a portion of the fabrication method therefor in phantom.

Broadly, the invention relates to methods of producing multilayer printed circuit boards having molecularly integral tube-like elements extending perpendicularly away from the surface of the board. FIG. 1 embodiment illustrates an assembly or laminate formed by stacking epoxy-glass prepreg sheets, copper clad epoxy-glass laminates, and a sheet of aluminum. This assembly of sheets, which have been punched or drilled to provide suitable alignment registration holes, are then bonded together. The result is to provide a circuit panel having an external nickel circuit on one side, interconnected through the registration holes by a molecularly integral nickel tube-like element to all of the internal copper circuits. The nickel components are prepared by an electroless nickel plating step followed by a nickel electroplating step. The aluminum is chemically milled away so that the nickel plated through the hole stands up away from the circuit board as a tube-like element on the side opposite that of the external nickel circuit. The embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 differs in appearance from the FIG. 1 embodiment in that both sides of the circuit board are provided with external circuits, the newly added circuit being on the side from which the nickel tube-like elements extend, and being formed initially on the aluminum sheet prior to the stacking of the various component elements, during which assembly that circuit is pressed into the surface of the circuit board.

Referring now to the FIG. l embodiment and process for fabrication thereof, the invention provides a method of improving the tube-like element (unitube) fabrication of high density electronic circuit boards by ease of fabrication, improved registration and appearance, and lower manufacturing costs. This improved unitube circuit board fabrication procedure incorporates the following concents:

(l) Complete photo engraving system for the highest denition and most precise registration (elimination of silk screening).

(2) Elimination of electroless copper and zincate pro,-

cesses.

(3) Elimination of subsequent electrolytic copper plating (cyanide and acid).

(4) Elimination of redrilling operations of plated unitube to meet specific unitube dimensions (with the use of electroless nickel).

(5) Incorporation of an al1-nickel system eliminating acid etching undercutting to inner copper circuits.

The following description for producing the' FIG. 1 embodiment will be set forth in ve basic sections and with reference to FIG. 1.

(1) Preparation of circuit board laminate.

1.1 Cut 0.004 inch thick epoxy-glass prepreg, copper clad epoxy-glass laminates (2/2 or 2/l:0.0025 inch to 0.008 inch core) and 0.032 inch aluminum (grade 7075-T6) to size 6 inch by 9 inch or 9 inch by 12 inch.

1.2 Punch or drill registration holes.

1.3 Photo resist coat and photo engrave any required inner circuits on copper clad material, acid etch, clean and dry.

1.4 Assemble circuit board composite as follows:

1.4.1 For single layer:

1.4.1.1 2 oz. copper one side 00025-0008 inch epoxy-glass laminate l0. 1.4.1.2 Epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive sheet 11. 1.4.1.3 0.032 inch aluminum sheet 12. 1.4.1.4 Epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive sheet 13.

1.4.1.5 1 oz. electrolytic copper metal foil 14 (copper oxide one side). 1.4.2 For multilayer:

1.4.2.1 Same as single layer except insert etched copper circuit layers 15 in desired order. Add required layers of prepreg between each inner circuit.

1.5 Place in lamination fixture (not shown) and hond at recommended temperature, pressure and time (for example, 325 F, 300 p.s.i. and 30 minutes).

1.6 Trim epoxy ash.

(2) Initial plating process (nickel resist` circuit pat tern).

2.1 Scrub, clean and dry laminate. 2.2 Photo resist coat and photo engrave by resist pattern 16, circuit 17 and mirror (redundant) image 1S. 2.3 Nickel plate (sulfamate) approximately l minutes at -25 a.s.f. (amp/ft2). 2.4 Remove photo resist coat with stripper solvent.

(3) Drilling of circuit holes (unitube).

3.1 Mask exposed copper both sides of laminate with a maskant (strippable organic, pressure sensitive Teflon or Mylar tape, etc.).

3.2 Drill all inner-connect holes with carbide drills.

3.3 Deburr, sand, vapor hone or dry blast unitube holes and exposed aluminum surfaces.

(4) Final plating process.

4.1 Chemically clean.

4.2 Electroplate (sulfarnate) nickel, 10 minutes at 15-20 a.s.f.

4.3 Water rinse.

4.4 Apply electroless nickel 19 to drilled unitube walls 20 (100-25 0 micro inches).

4.5 Cold Water rinse and remove maskant.

4.6 Wet sand both sides with 280-400 grit paper.

4.7 Etch all exposed copper.

4.8 Water rinse.

4.9 Alkali rinse.

4.10 Activate in 50% HC1.

4.11 Water rinse.

4.12 Deionized water rinse.

4.13 Electroplate, nickel 21 for 5-8 hours at 25-30 a.s.f. which produces a unitube with a wall thickness of, for example', 0.004i-00l inch.

4.14 Double water rinse and air dry.

(5) Stripping and finalization.

5.1 Grind off redundant nickel plated circuit 18.

5.2 Wet sand, #250 grit, aluminum surface and circuit side.

5.3 Particle blast (dry), aluminum surface and inside of unitube 19 to deburr.

5.4 Tape (lead) nickel circuit 16 Side.

5.5 Chemically mill away aluminum 12.

5.6 Double water rinse.

5.7 Air blow dry.

5.8 Trim circuit board to size.

As shown in FIG. 1, the above-described fabrication process produces a multilayer circuit board having molecularly integral tube like elements (unitubes) extending perpendicullarly away from the surface of the board for interconnection with the lead of a desired electronic component, the portions of FIG. 1 shown in phantom lines (prepreg 13, foil 14 and redundant circuit 18) being removed during the fabrication process.

Referring now :to the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, there is provided a high density multilayer electronic circuity unitube assembly with two external plated circuits and fabricated as set forth hereinafter, which provides the following advantages: (1) Higher density packaging; (2) adaptable to multi-multilayer stacking; (3) suitable for both soldering and Welding techniques, and (4) lowers cost per each interconnect.

The completed multilayer circut board indicated generally at 22 and illustrated in FIG. 2, comprises a carrier or positioner board 23 which is provided with a plurality of tube-like members (unitubes) 24 extending from the| upper surface thereof. Certain of the unitubes 24 are connected with a top-imbedded circuit 25, and/or an inner circuit 26, and/or an annulus bottom circuit 27. The unitubes 24 are connected to a component 28 by a lead 29 welded thereto as indicated at 30. In addition, if desired, the* top circuit 25 may be connected to another circuit board or component by a soldered or Welded tab as indicated at 31. The top circuit 25 may additionally function as a ground plane and can be designed to accept other welded or solded connections, if desired. Generally, but not limited to, this assembly may be made by the electro-deposition of nickel (sulfamate), although other electroplated or electroless finishes such as gold, tin/nickel, tin, solder, silver, rhodium, etc., can be applied to extend the versatility of the circuit board for special applications, such as flat packs, micro circuitry, etc.

Another advantage of the top circuit 25 is the reinforcement of the unitube and the minimizing of stresses caused by welding and fabrication which may create undiscernable discontinuity breaks to the intersecting internal layers and sever completely when subjected to qualifying environmental tests, this being more clearly illustrated by FIG. 3 and the sequence for fabrication thereof which is as follows:

1.1 Cut material: epoxy-glass prepeg, copper laminates,

and 0.032 inch aluminum sheet such as 7075-T6 to standard size (e.g.; 6" X 9" or 9" x 12").

1.2 Punch or drill registration holes 1.3 Photoengrave and chemically etch required copper internal circuits 26 (utilizing epoxy-glass copper clad laminates).

1.4 Prepare top circuit 25 on aluminum sheet.

1.4.1 Zincate. 1.4.2 Preplate, copper cyanide. 1.4.3 Copper plate (acid). 1.4.4 Photo resist coat and photoengrave (or silk screen circuit pattern. 1.4.5 Nickel plate (sulfarnate) 25 a.s.f. (amp/ft2) to 0.004-0.006 inch thickness. As an alternate plating procedure.

1.4.5a Nickel plate or gold plate to 0.00005- 00002 inch thickness. 1.4.6a Activate (50% HC1) 10-20 seconds. 1.4.7a Water rinse. 1.4.8a Copper plate (acid) 20-60 a.s.f., to copper plate thickness of 0.002 to 0.006 inch. 1.4.6 Remove photo resist or silk screen resist with stripper or MEK.

1.5 Assemble circuit board components in the following order on a metal lamination jig.

1.5.1 Copper epoxy-glass laminate 33 having for example, an 0.0025 inch core, and 2 oz. copper on one side to define redundant circuit 35.

1.5.2 Prepreg, 0.004 inch thickness.

1.5.3 Prepared aluminum panel 32 with top circuit 1.5.4 Two sheets prepreg, 0.004 inch thickness.

1.5.5 Etched copper circuit or circuits 26 separated by 2 sheets of 0.004 inch prepreg.v

1.5.6 Two sheets 0.004 inch prepreg.

1.5.7 Copper epoxy laminate 34 having, for example, an 0.0025 inch core and a 2 oz. copper layer on one side to dene bottom circuit 27.

1.6` Bond at specific temperature, pressure, and time (e.g.,

325 F., 300 p.s.i., and 30 minutes).

1.7 Remove epoxy resin flash.

1.8 Photo resist coat, photoengrave (or silk screen) and chemically etch bottom circuit 27 and redundant mirror image circuit 35.

1.9 `Cover both etched circuits sides with maskant (organic strippable, pressure sensitive tape) such as 0.002 inch thick Mylar tape.

2.0 Drill all required holes for unitubes 24 with carbide drills.

2.1 Mechanically and chemically clean drill unitube holes.

2.2 Zincate to inhibit aluminum activity.

2.3 Copper flash, copper cyanide, 20 a.s.f. for 2-3 minutes.

2.4 Copper plate (acid) 30 a.s.f. for 1 minute, 60 a.s.f.

for 2 minutes.

2.5 Electroless copper plate on inside of plastic portions of unitube wall 24.

2.6 Remove maskant after electroless copper plating or after catalyst (PdCI-2) treatment and then nalize electroless deposition.

2.7 Copper plate (acid), 30 a.s.f. for 1 minute, 60 a.s.f. for 1 minute. (Plating of steps 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.7 produce copper layer 36 interconnecting circuits 25, 26, and 27 as shown in FIG. 3.)

2.8 Water rinse.

2.9 Sulfuric acid dip,

3.0 Water rinse.

3.1 Deionize water rinse.

3.2 Nickel plate (sulfamate, 5-8 hours at 25-30 a.s.f.) to produce a thickness of 0.004i0.001 inch on unitube 24 wall and bottom circuit 27.

3.3 Grind ol redundant plated circuit 35 removing the epoxy board 33 to the surface of aluminum sheet 32.

3.4 Wet sand and deburr.

3.5 Lead tape or mask with pressure sensitive adhesive circuit 27 side and chemically mill away aluminum sheet 32 with caustic (20-25%). Rinse.

3.6 Chemically etch olf exposed copper on walls of unitubes 24 and/ or other extraneous copper.

3.7 Water rinse.

3.8 Remove tape (maskant) from circuit 27.

3.9 Neutralization dip.

4.0 Water rinse.

4.1 HCl wash (10%).

4.2 Water rinse.

4.3 Lightly vapor hone unitubes and circuitry.

4.4 Water rinse.

4.5 Deionized water rinse.

4.6 Dry with ltered air blast.

4.7 Trim circuit boards to size.

Alternate methods of inhibiting aluminum activity may be accomplished by replacing steps 2.2 and 2.3 above by utilizing the known Alstan 70 process and the application of pyro phosphate copper as known in the art.

It has thus been shown that this invention provides an improved manner of fabricating high density multilayer circuit boards having electrical interconnects molecularly integral with the circuits thereon.

Although particular sequences for producing the illustrated embodiments have been described, modifications will become apparent to those skilled in the art, and it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modiications as come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What I claim is:

1. A process for fabricating high density multilayer electrical interconnects molecularly integral with the circuit thereof comprising the steps of: photo resist coating and photoengraving desired circuit paths on certain of a plurality of copper clad layers of insulating material, placing a layer of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive over each of said photoengraved copper clad layers as necessary to produce a desired thickness of said layers, placing a sheet of aluminum over said thickness of layers, placing a single layer of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive over said sheet of aluminum, placing a sheet of copper foil over said single layer of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive, laminating the thus assembled stack of layers and sheets at recommended temperature, pressure and time such that the formed circuit paths are located internally of said laminate, photo resist coating and photoengraving a circuit pattern on opposite external sides of said laminate such that the circuit pattern on the top portion of the laminates is a redundant image of the actual circuit pattern on the bottom portion of the laminate, nickel plating the circuit patterns to a predetermined thickness, drilling holes in the laminate at those places requiring an electrical interconnect, electroplating with nickel at least the surface areas of the drilled holes, applying electroless nickel to the surface areas of the drilled holes, activating in suitable acid solution, electroplating the circuit patterns and surface areas with nickel to the desired thickness, removing the circuit adjacent the aluminum sheet, taping the electroplated nickel areas, chemically removing the aluminum sheet, and cleaning and drying thereby producing a multilayer circuit board with electrical interconnects extending from one surface thereof and molecularly integral with the desired circuits therein.

2. The process defined in claim 1, wherein the step of drilling holes in the laminate is accomplished by: masking the exposed copper surfaces of the laminate with a maskant, drilling the holes with at least one carbide drill, and deburring, sanding, and honing the surface areas of the holes.

3. The process defined in claim 1, wherein the step of laminating is accomplished by: assembling a layer of epoxy-glass copper clad on one side to dene the upper surface of the laminate a layer of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive, a layer of aluminum having a circuit deposited on one side thereof, two layers of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive, at least one layer of epoxy-glass having at least one side thereof copper clad, two layers of epoxy-glass prepreg adhesive, and a layer of epoxy-glass having one side clad with copper; to define the bottom surface of the laminate and bonding at recommended temperature, pressure and time.

4. The process defined in claim 3, additionally including the step of covering the upper and bottom surfaces of the laminate with a maskant prior to the step of drilling holes in the laminate, and the step of zincating the surface areas of the drilled holes to inhibit aluminum activity.

5. The process defined in claim 4, wherein the surface areas of the drilled holes are electroplated with copper, electroless plated with copper, and additionally including the steps of removing the maskant after the electroless plating step and electroplating with copper to a desired thickness prior to the step of activating.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,102,213 8/1963 Bedson et al. 29-625 XR 3,163,588 12/1964 Shortt et al.

3,201,851 8/1965' Steam 29-625 3,261,769 7/1966- Coe et al.

3,317,966 4/1967 Shaheen et al. 29-625 3,345,749 10/1967 Reimann 174-685 3,348,990 10/ 1967 Zimmerman et al. 29-625 XR 3,370,351 2/1968 Freehauf et al. 174-685 XR JOHN F. CAMPBELL, Primary Examiner ROBERT W. CHURCH, Assistant Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3819430A (en) * 1973-02-05 1974-06-25 Gen Dynamics Corp Method of manufacturing circuit board connectors
US3850711A (en) * 1972-12-07 1974-11-26 Accra Paint Arrays Corp Method of forming printed circuit
JPS5030057A (en) * 1973-07-06 1975-03-26
US3923359A (en) * 1971-07-09 1975-12-02 Pressey Handel Und Investments Multi-layer printed-circuit boards
US3925578A (en) * 1971-07-29 1975-12-09 Kollmorgen Photocircuits Sensitized substrates for chemical metallization
US4155775A (en) * 1977-12-12 1979-05-22 International Business Machines Corporation Cleaning of high aspect ratio through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards
US4374003A (en) * 1980-02-28 1983-02-15 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
US4374708A (en) * 1980-02-28 1983-02-22 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
US4610758A (en) * 1983-06-01 1986-09-09 Ferranti Plc Manufacture of printed circuit boards
US4649338A (en) * 1980-02-28 1987-03-10 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
FR2618631A1 (en) * 1987-07-24 1989-01-27 Thomson Csf Method of producing electrical connections between sides of printed-circuit boards withstanding thermal stresses, in particular three-board circuits
US5257452A (en) * 1991-05-27 1993-11-02 Hitachi, Ltd. Methods of recovering a multi-layer printed circuit board
US5878487A (en) * 1996-09-19 1999-03-09 Ford Motor Company Method of supporting an electrical circuit on an electrically insulative base substrate
US20050178669A1 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-08-18 Strubbe John L. Method of electroplating aluminum

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3102213A (en) * 1960-05-13 1963-08-27 Hazeltine Research Inc Multiplanar printed circuits and methods for their manufacture
US3163588A (en) * 1955-02-14 1964-12-29 Technograph Printed Electronic Method of interconnecting pathway patterns of printed circuit products
US3201851A (en) * 1960-10-05 1965-08-24 Sanders Associates Inc Method of making interconnecting multilayer circuits
US3261769A (en) * 1961-09-05 1966-07-19 Philips Corp Method of forming metallic liners by electrodeposition in apertured printed circuit boards
US3317966A (en) * 1966-02-16 1967-05-09 Anthony M Gildone Hose clamp
US3345749A (en) * 1965-08-13 1967-10-10 Matthews & Co Jas H Rotary die layout machine
US3348990A (en) * 1963-12-23 1967-10-24 Sperry Rand Corp Process for electrically interconnecting elements on different layers of a multilayer printed circuit assembly
US3370351A (en) * 1964-11-02 1968-02-27 Gen Dynamics Corp Method of manufacturing electrical connectors

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3163588A (en) * 1955-02-14 1964-12-29 Technograph Printed Electronic Method of interconnecting pathway patterns of printed circuit products
US3102213A (en) * 1960-05-13 1963-08-27 Hazeltine Research Inc Multiplanar printed circuits and methods for their manufacture
US3201851A (en) * 1960-10-05 1965-08-24 Sanders Associates Inc Method of making interconnecting multilayer circuits
US3261769A (en) * 1961-09-05 1966-07-19 Philips Corp Method of forming metallic liners by electrodeposition in apertured printed circuit boards
US3348990A (en) * 1963-12-23 1967-10-24 Sperry Rand Corp Process for electrically interconnecting elements on different layers of a multilayer printed circuit assembly
US3370351A (en) * 1964-11-02 1968-02-27 Gen Dynamics Corp Method of manufacturing electrical connectors
US3345749A (en) * 1965-08-13 1967-10-10 Matthews & Co Jas H Rotary die layout machine
US3317966A (en) * 1966-02-16 1967-05-09 Anthony M Gildone Hose clamp

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3923359A (en) * 1971-07-09 1975-12-02 Pressey Handel Und Investments Multi-layer printed-circuit boards
US3925578A (en) * 1971-07-29 1975-12-09 Kollmorgen Photocircuits Sensitized substrates for chemical metallization
US3850711A (en) * 1972-12-07 1974-11-26 Accra Paint Arrays Corp Method of forming printed circuit
US3819430A (en) * 1973-02-05 1974-06-25 Gen Dynamics Corp Method of manufacturing circuit board connectors
JPS5030057A (en) * 1973-07-06 1975-03-26
US4155775A (en) * 1977-12-12 1979-05-22 International Business Machines Corporation Cleaning of high aspect ratio through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards
US4649338A (en) * 1980-02-28 1987-03-10 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
US4374003A (en) * 1980-02-28 1983-02-15 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
US4374708A (en) * 1980-02-28 1983-02-22 General Dynamics, Pomona Division Fine line circuitry probes and method of manufacture
US4610758A (en) * 1983-06-01 1986-09-09 Ferranti Plc Manufacture of printed circuit boards
FR2618631A1 (en) * 1987-07-24 1989-01-27 Thomson Csf Method of producing electrical connections between sides of printed-circuit boards withstanding thermal stresses, in particular three-board circuits
US5257452A (en) * 1991-05-27 1993-11-02 Hitachi, Ltd. Methods of recovering a multi-layer printed circuit board
US5878487A (en) * 1996-09-19 1999-03-09 Ford Motor Company Method of supporting an electrical circuit on an electrically insulative base substrate
US20050178669A1 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-08-18 Strubbe John L. Method of electroplating aluminum
WO2005080633A2 (en) * 2004-02-17 2005-09-01 Tyco Printed Circuit Group Lp Method for zinc coating aluminum
WO2005080633A3 (en) * 2004-02-17 2006-02-09 Tyco Printed Circuit Group Lp Method for zinc coating aluminum

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