US3453763A - Underwater pistol having a rotatable cylindrical magazine - Google Patents

Underwater pistol having a rotatable cylindrical magazine Download PDF

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US3453763A
US3453763A US3453763DA US3453763A US 3453763 A US3453763 A US 3453763A US 3453763D A US3453763D A US 3453763DA US 3453763 A US3453763 A US 3453763A
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magazine
cartridge
pistol
bore
detent
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Irwin R Barr
John L Critcher
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AAI Corp
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AAI Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41CSMALLARMS, e.g. PISTOLS, RIFLES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • F41C9/00Other smallarms, e.g. hidden smallarms or smallarms specially adapted for underwater use
    • F41C9/06Smallarms specially adapted for underwater use
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S102/00Ammunition and explosives
    • Y10S102/703Flechette

Description

July 8, 1969 BARR ETAL 3,453,763

UNDERWATER PISTOL HAVING A ROTATABLE CYLINDRICAL MAGAZINE Filed June 30, 1967 Sheet of 2 Irwin R. Barr John L. Critcher INVENTOR y 1969 I. R. BARR ETAL 3,453,763

UNDERWATER PISTOL HAVING A ROTATABLE CYLINDRICAL MAGAZINE Filed June so. 1967 Sheet 2 of 2 A V ii Irwin R. Barr John L. Critcher INVENTOR ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,453,763 UNDERWATER PISTOL HAVING A ROTATABLE CYLINDRICAL MAGAZINE Irwin R. Barr, Lutherville, and John L. Critcher, Cockeysville, Md., assignors to AAI Corporation, Cockeysville, Md., a corporation of Maryland Filed June 30, 1967, Ser. No. 650,573 Int. Cl. F41c 1/00 US. C]. 4259 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A pistol for underwater use, having a front loading removable cylindrical magazine rotatably disposed in a forwardly open receiver and being of a light weight low tensile strength material and having a plurality of chambers which receive and hold a corresponding plurality of cartridges. Buoyant material is provided on the receiver. The receiver has a protruding annular ridge to properly align the rotatable magazine therein, along with a resiliently biased detent or latch at the forward end of the pistol and engaging the cylindrical magazine to retain it therein. A cartridge usable with the pistol is disclosed having relatively high strength tubular walls which form a barrel enclosing a subcaliber fiechette projectile and a sabot adapted to travel through the barrel bore and propel the projectile from the cartridge barrel.

Conventional pistols and ammunition are generally unsuitable for underwater use due to the much greater density of water as compared to air, which is approximately 800 times greater. When a conventional pistol, loaded with conventional ammunition, is submerged in water, the firing mechanism and barrel are filled with water which damps the striking motion of the firing pin, thus tending to prevent the firing of the cartridge, and also impedes the acceleration of the projectile through the barrel, thereby greatly reducing the muzzle velocity of the projectile and consequently its effective range. In addition, water hinders the movements of a person submerged therein making it difficult to manipulate a conventional pistol and perform the necessary loading and unloading operations.

Accordingly, it is a feature of the present invention to provide a pistol suitable for underwater use wherein the water damping of the striking motion of the firing pin and the impeding of the acceleration of the projectile is substantially reduced. Also, it is a feature of the present invention to provide a pistol which is relatively light and is buoyed upward at its forward end when submerged in water and easy to load and unload. It is still another feature to provide a pistol having a lightweight low tensile strength, disposable cylindrical magazine which can be rotatably retained in the pistol by means of a simple detent.

In accordance with the present invention, a pistol is provided having a housing assembly and a receiver covered with a buoyant material, which is adapted to have a cylindrical magazine front-loaded therein. A cylindrical magazine constructed of relatively lightweight, low tensile strength material, with a plurality of longitudinally extending, circumferentially disposed cartridge-receiving chambers, having cartridge-retaining shoulder means, is provided to be rotatably disposed in the pistol and removably retained therein by a detent extending rearwardly into the receiver to compensate for variations in the lengths of both cylindrical magazines and cartridges to maintain the primer of a cartridge in consistently close proximity with the breech face to ensure consistent firing and prevent rupture of the primer and consequently blowout of the resulting propellant gases. Also, the detent is tilted transversely to the axis of the receiver to reduce the rotational friction between the surface of the detent and the front end of the cylindrical magazine, and has a camming surface to facilitate the loading of the cylindrical magazine into the receiver. The housing assembly contains a firing mechanism, including a firing pin, with a vent through which water, constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin, can be expelled to reduce the damping of the striking motion.

Still other objects, features and attendant advantages will become apparent to those skilled in the art from a reading of the following detailed description of the embodiment constructed in accordance with the invention, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of an underwater pistol constructed in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a cartridge suitable for use with the pistol shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 shows a cartridge being inserted into the rear portion of the cylindrical magazine and illustrates the details of the rear portion thereof.

FIG. 4 shows a cylindrical magazine being loaded into the pistol through the front of the receiver and illustrates the details of the forward portion of the cylindrical magazine, the front of the receiver, and the breech face of the housing assembly.

FIG. 5 shows a cross-sectional view of the pistol loaded with a cylindrical magazine, and illustrates the details of the receiver, the firing mechanism contained in the housing assembly, and the interaction between the firing mechanism and the cylindrical magazine.

Referring now to the figures of the drawings, in FIG. 1 is shown an underwater pistol, generally indicated at 11, having a housing assembly, generally indicated at 13, containing a trigger-actuated firing mechanism and a receiver 15, covered with a buoyant material 17 and having a bore 19 therein. Disposed inside the bore 19 of the receiver 15 and engaging the housing assembly 13 in a properly aligned firing position is a cylindrical magazine 21, having a plurality of circumferentially disposed cartridge receiving chambers 23, which is retained in the bore of the receiver 15 by a detent, generally indicated at 25, protruding rearwardly and transversely into the bore 19 thereof. Externally mounted underneath the receiver 15 and mechanically connected to the detent 25 is a knob 27 which enables a gunner to depress the detent 25 to remove the cylindrical magazine from the bore 19 of the receiver 15. In addition, the pistol 11 is provided with a conventional handle 14 and aiming elements 31 and 33, to enable it to be held and fired in a conventional manner.

It has been found that the weight of the pistol 11 can be considerably reduced 'by constructing the cylindrical magazine 21 from a lightweight material since the cylindrical magazine 21 constitutes a great bulk of the weight of the pistol 11. However, since lightweight materials have a relatively low tensile strength and thus cannot withstand the force exerted by the high pressure propellant gas resulting from the firing of a cartridge, it has been found necessary to use a cartridge having relatively high tensile estrength tubular walls which can withstand the high pressure propellant gases and serve as a barrel for the projectile.

In FIG. 2 is shown a cartridge, generally indicated at 35 and more fully described in copending application Ser. No. 650,373, suitable for use in the underwater pistol 11 in which a fiechette projectile, generally indicated at 37, is enclosed within the air-filled bore 39 of a Watertight sealed disposable barrel 41 having an annular shoulder 42 at the forward end and adapted to be removably inserted into a cartridge-receiving chamber 23 of the cylindrical magazine 24 for firing. The projectile 37 is suspended by and between a rear end cradling pusher sabot 43, a frangible nose-guiding-end-supporting unit 45 and frangible mid-section-guiding-and-supporting unit 47. A propellant charge 49 and a conventional centerfire percussion primer, generally indicated at 51, are disposed rearwardly of the pusher sabot. The projectile 37 is propelled forward by primer ignition of the propellant 49 to impart forward motion to the pusher sabot 43, which in turn drives the projectile 37 through a frangible and fully removable sealed front barrel cover 53. The forward motion of the sabot 43 is stopped by successive incremental energy absorption through the shearing of an external helical shear thread 55 on the forward section of the pusher sabot 43 which engages the annular shoulder 42 of the barrel 41 at the forward end of its travel. The shearing and compaction of the shear thread 55 also seals in the propellant gases within the barrel bore 39 at the end of the sabot forward travel. Pressure dropping annular expansion grooves 57 on the rear section of the pusher sabot 43 are employed to obviate blow-by of the propellant gases during forward motion of the sabot 43.

The cylindrical magazine 21 has a plurality of longitudinally extending circumferentially disposed cartridgereceiving chambers 23 with annular shoulders 59 formed therein at the forward end. At the rearward end of the cylindrical magazine 21, in a recess and mounted in the center thereof, is a ratchet wheel 61 having serrations or notches 63, of the same number as the chambers 23 in the magazine 21. Attached to the ratchet wheel 61 and extending inside an axial bore in the cylindrical magazine 21 is a shaft 65 having a retaining pin 67 inserted therethrough which is embedded in the cylindrical magazine 21. and prevents the shaft 65, along with the ratchet wheel 61, from rotating. Protruding outwardly from the center of the ratchet wheel 61 is a centering pin 69 which serves to support the rearward end of the cylindrical magazine 21 and provide a point about which it may be rotated. Formed in the exterior surface of the cylindrical magazine 21 and in radial alignment with the chambers 23 are longitudinally extending indexing slots 71 by which the cylindrical magazine 21 can be aligned in the proper angular position in the piston 11 for firing.

The pistol 11 includes the receiver which is attached, by means of top and bottom bridging members 73 and 75, and side braces 74 and 76, to the housing assembly 13 which contains the firing mechanism of the pistol 11 and has a handle section formed therefrom. The receiver 15 has a spool-like configuration with annular flanges 77 and 79 at the front and back portions and a bore 19 in the center thereof into which the cylindrical magazine 21 is inserted from the front. Wrapped around the receiver between the front and back annular flanges is a covering of substantially rigid, yet flexible, buoyant material, e.g. closed cell synthetic foam rubber or polyurethane. The covering of buoyant material reduces the underwater 'eight of the pistol and the consequent downward torque about the rear handle section to facilitate the handling of the pistol. The buoyant covering is desirably rigid to prevent it from being materially compressed by the hydrostatic pressure present at great depths thereby reducing its buoyant effect. Protruding inwardly from the surface of the bore 19 of the receiver 15 is an annular rim 81 adapted to maintain the forward portion of the cylindrical magazine 21 in generally axial alignment with the bore 19 of the receiver 15. Attached to the top of the front flange 77 is one of the aiming elements 31 which is a conventional blade sight. Attached to the bottom of the front flange 77 is a detent housing 83. A hole having a rectangular cross-section, is formed in the bore 19 and the detent housing 83 which extends inwardly at an angle that slants rearwardly into the receiver and tilts transversely to the right longitudinal axis thereof. Partially mounted inside the hole is a detent with a small rod 85 attached thereto which extends through the detent housing 83 to the external side thereof where it is attached to a knob 27. Disposed inside the hole beneath the detent 25 is a compression spring 87, through which the rod protrudes, that resiliently biases the detent 25 inwardly into the bore 19 of the receiver 15.

The portion of the detent 25 extending into the bore 19 of the receiver 15 has a camming surface 26 facing the front of the receiver which is adapted to cause the detent to be depressed when a magazine 21 is inserted into the pistol through the front of the receiver 15. When the rearward end of the magazine moves past the detent 25, it no longer depresses it and the compression spring 87 forces the detent 25 rearwardly into the bore 19 thereby exerting a force against the front end of the cylindrical magazine 21 to further press it into the bore 19 of the receiver 15. Since the detent is disposed in a slanted hole that permits the detent to extend rearwardly into the bore of the receiver, the detent compensates for cylindrical magazines and cartridges having slight variations in length by the extent of its protrusion into the bore of the receiver. The compensation provided by the detent 25 maintains the primer 51 of any given cartridge 35 in constantly close proximity with the breech face 89 to insure constant firing and prevent rupture of the primer 51 and consequently blow-out of the resulting propellant gases. Furthermore, since the detent 25 is tilted transversely to the axis of the bore 19 of the receiver 15, it engages the cylindrical magazine 21 at a place which is normal to the radius of rotation at the place of contact in a manner which reduces the rotational friction between the surface of the detent 25 and the front end of the cylindrical magazine 21, thereby facilitating the slight depression of the detent 25 in response to a slight longitudinal movement of the cylindrical magazine 21 resulting from the slightly varying lengths of the cartridges 35 inserted into the chambers 23 in the magazine 21. The knob 27 is provided so that a gunner can manually grip and pull on it thereby depressing the detent 25 and enabling a cylindrical magazine 21 to be removed from the bore 19 of the receiver 15.

The housing assembly 13 has a handle section 14 formed in the lower portion thereof and a breech face 89 formed in the upper portion thereof with integral upper and lower bridging members 73 and 75 extending forwardly therefrom to which the receiver 15 is attached. Tracks 91 and 93 are formed in the bridging members 73 and 75 respectively which are adapted to engage a cylindrical magazine loaded into the pistol 11 through the front of the receiver 15. Protruding through the bottom guide track 93 of the lower bridging member 75 is an indexing detent 95 which is adapted to engage the longitudinally extending slots 71 in the surface of a cylindrical magazine 21 to index the magazine 21 in proper rotational alignment for the firing of a cartridge 35.

The breech face 89 has a bore 97 formed in the center thereof which is adapted to be engaged by the centering pin 69 extending rearwardly from a cylindrical magazine 21. Above the bore 97 and in vertical alignment therewith, a hole 99 is formed in the breech face 89 through which a firing pin 100 can strike the primer 51 of a properly positioned cartridge 35. Extending upwardly from the hole 99, away from the breech face 89 is a vent, generally indicated at 101, which permits water constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin 100 in the portion of the housing assembly 13 rearward of the hole 99 to be expelled therethrough and thus prevent the water from substantially damping or retarding the striking motion of the firing pin 100. At one side of the bore 97 in the breech face 89 is a guide slot 103 through which a pawl 105 can engage the serrations 63 of the ratchet wheel 61 in the center of the rearward portion of the cylindrical magazine 21 to sequentially rotate it and bring successive cartridges 35 disposed in the chambers 23 of the magazine 21 into alignment with the hole 99 through which the firing pin 100 strikes.

The firing mechanism of the pistol 11, which is contained inside the housing assembly 13 and may suitably be a single action, includes a trigger 107 and a hammer 111. The trigger 107 is pivotally mounted in the portion of the housing assembly 13 beneath the lower bridging member 75, and has a curved section 109 adapted to be gripped by the finger of a gunner. Pivotally mounted on the rearward portion of the trigger 107 is the pawl 105 which is resiliently biased forward by a torsion spring 119 so that when the trigger 107 is pivoted clockwise, the pawl 105 will move upwardly and engage a serration 63 in the ratchet wheel 61 of a cylindrical magazine 21 to rotate it and bring the primer 51 of a cartridge 35 into alignment with the hole 99 through which the firing pin 100 strikes.

Protruding from the forward portion of the trigger 107 is a lip 108 which engages an indentation in the indexing detent 95. The indexing detent 95 has a rod 113 attached thereto and is resiliently biased in an upwardly protruding position by a compression spring 115 which engages both the indexing detent 95 and a cavity 117 in the housing assembly 13. The lower side of the indexing detent 95 has a camming surface 110 and is partially supported and guided by the cavity 117 in the housing assembly 13. When the trigger .107 is pivoted clockwise, the protruding detent lip 108 forces the indexing detent 95 downward through the guide track 93 until the detent lip 108 slips out of the indentation in the indexing detent 95, thereby permitting it to snap upwardly through the lower guide track. When the trigger is pivoted counterclockwise, the protruding detent lip 108 engages the camming surface 110 of the indexing detent 95 and presses it forwardly until the detent lip 108 slips into the indentation in the indexing detent 95. Protruding from the rearward portion of the trigger 107 is a lip 121 adapted to engage a cavity 123 in the hammer .111.

The hammer 111 is pivotally mounted rearward of the trigger 107 and resiliently biased forward by a hammer spring 125 having a bend therein with one end 127 attached to the hammer 111 at the lower rearward portion thereof and the other end 129 embedded in the bottom of the handle section 14 of the housing assembly 13. Extending forwardly from the uppermost portion of the hammer 111 is the firing pin 100 which is adapted to strike through the hole 99 in the breech face 89 to fire a properly positioned cartridge 35. A cocking lever 131 extends rearwardly from the upper portion of the hammer 111 and is adapted to be pressed downwardly by a gunner to pivot the hammer 111 counterclockwise. Extending forwardly from the bottom of the hammer 111 and forming part of the cavity 123 engaged by the lip 121 of the trigger 107 is a hammer detent 133 which is adapted to rest on the protruding lip 121 when the hammer 111 is in a cocked posi-' tion. Beneath the hammer 111 is a hammer back-01f member 135 that is resiliently biased forward by a compression spring 137 partially embedded in the housing assembly 13. A camming surface 139 is formed on the top of the hammer back-off member 135 which engages the bottom of the hammer 111 and causes the firing pin 100 to be pivoted slightly away from the hole 99 in the breech face 89, thereby preventing a properly positioned cartridge 35 from being accidentally fired. A plunger 141 protrudes forwardly from the hammer back-off member 135 and engages an indentation 143 in the trigger 107, thereby pivoting it forwardly into its normal position of rest.

In operation, a cartridge 35, of the type shown in FIG. 2, is inserted into a cartridge-receiving chamber 23 in the rearward end of the cylindrical magazine 21, as shown in FIG. 3, until it engages the annular shoulder 59 at the forward end of the chamber 23. After the cartridges have been inserted into the circumferentially disposed chambers 23 in the cylindrical magazine 21, the cylindrical magazine 21 is loaded into the pistol 11 through the front of the receiver as shown in FIG. 4.

As the cylindrical magazine 21 enters the bore 19 of the receiver 15, it engages the camming surface 26 of the upwardly protruding and resiliently biased retaining detent 25, thereby depressing it to permit the entrance of the cylindrical magazine 21 into the pistol 11. Further movement into the bore 19 of the receiver 15 causes the magazine 21 to engage the annular protruding alignment rim 81 which aligns the portion of the cylindrical magazine 21 at the front of the receiver 15 with the axis of the bore .19. As the cylindrical magazine 21 moves further backward, it engages the upper and lower guide tracks 91 and 93 of the top and bottom bridging members 73 and and the indexing detent protruding through the guide track 93 of the bottom bridging member 75, causing it to be depressed. Further backward movement of the cylindrical magazine 21 brings the centering pin 69 into engagement with the bore 97 in the center of the breech face 89 to provide a support for the rearward portion of the cylindrical magazine 21 and an axis about which it can be rotated. The cylindrical magazine 21 continues to move backward until the rear end of the magazine 21 including the ratchet Wheel 61 engages the breech face 89 of the housing assembly 13, at which time the resiliently biased retaining detent 25 at the forward end of the receiver 15 snaps into the bore 19 and engages the front end of the magazine 21 to retain it inside the pistol 11.

Since the retaining detent 25 protrudes into the bore 19 at an angle slanting inwardly towards the back of the receiver 15, it compensates for slight differences in the length of various cylindrical magazines and cartridges by the varying extent which it protrudes into the bore 19 of the receiver 15. A slight twist of the cylindrical magazine 21 will bring one of the indexing slots 71 into alignment with the indexing detent 95, whereupon the indexing detent 95 will snap upwardly into the indexing slot 71. thus locking the magazine 21 in a properly aligned rotational position whereby the primer 51 of a cartridge 35 is aligned with the hole 99 through which the firing pin strikes.

When the gunner desires to fire a cartridge 35, he will first press downward on the cocking lever 131, pivoting the hammer 111 counterclockwise and causing the hammer .detent 133 to press upwardly against the protruding lip 121 of the trigger 107, causing it to pivot clockwise. As the trigger 107 pivots clockwise, it presses against the resiliently biased plunger 141 of the hammer back-off member 135, thereby moving the hammer back-off member rearwardly. In addition, the detent lip on the forward portion thereof forces the upwardly protruding and resiliently biased indexing detent 95 downward from the indexing slot 71, thereby unlocking the cylindrical maga- Zinc 21 and enabling it to be rotated. Further clockwise movement of the trigger 107 pushes the resiliently forwardly biased pawl through the guide slot 103 in the breech face 89 and into engagement with a serration 63 of the ratchet wheel 61 in the center of the cylindrical magazine 21, thereby rotating the cylindrical magazine 21 about the centering pin 69 in the bore 97 in the breech face 89. Further clockwise pivotal movement of the trigger 107 causes the detent lip 108 to slip out of the indentation in the upwardly biased indexing detent 95, thereby permitting it to snap upwardly and engage the surface of the rotating cylindrical magazine 21.

The rotational movement of the magazine 21 brings the next indexing slot 71 into vertical alignment with th indexing detent 95 which will thereupon snap into the in dexing slot 71, stop the rotational movement, and align the primer 51 of a cartridge 35 with the hole 99 in the breech face 89 through which the firing pin 100 strikes. As each individual cartridge 35 rotates into alignment with the hole 99 in the breech face 89 through which the firing pin 100 strikes, the detent 25 at the forward end of the receiver 15, compensates for slight differences in the length of each individual cartridge 35 by being slightly depressed and consequently moving slightly away from the breech face 89 or slightly extending further into the bore and consequently moving slightly towards the breech face 89 to accommodate for variations in the length of each individual cartridge 35. At about the same time, the hammer detent 133 slips past the protruding lip 121 of the trigger, thereby permitting the forwardly resiliently biased plunger 141 engaging the indentation in the trigger 107 to pivot the trigger 107 counterclockwise until the protruding lip engages the portion of the hammer 111 beneath the detent 133. As the hammer 107 pivots counterclockwise, the protruding detent lip 10S engages the camming surface 110 of the indexing detent 95 thereby pushing it forward until the detent lip 108 slips into the indentation in the indexing detent 95.

Next, the gunner will aim the pistol 11 by use of the aiming elements 31 and 33 and squeeze the trigger 107, thereby pivoting it clockwise and causing the protruding lip 121 to press upwardly against the hammer detent 133. The upward force exerted against the hammer detent 133 pivots the hammer 111 slightly counterclockwis until the hammer detent 133 slips past the protruding lip 121 of the trigger thereby permitting the resiliently biased hammer 111 to pivot clockwise causing the firing pin to move toward the hole 99 in the breech face 89. The striking motion of the firing pin 100 causes water to be contricted in the portion of the housing assembly 13 rear- Ward of the hole 99, thereby tending to damp or retard the striking motion of the firing pin 100. However, the vent 101 permits the constricted water to be expelled therethrough to considerably reduce the damping or retarding of the striking motion of the firing pin 100. Further clockwise pivoting of the hammer 111 causes the firing pin 100 to protrude through the hole 99 and strike the percussion primer 51 of the cartridge 35.

When the firing pin 100 strikes the primer 51 of the cartridge 35, it causes the primer to ignite the propellant charge 49, thereby creating a high gas pressure that propels the sabot 43 forward through the bore 39 of the watertight sealed disposable barrel 41, causing the fiechette 37 to pierce the frangible front barrel cover 53 and force the fiechette 37 into the water. When the sabot reaches the forward end of the bore 39, its forward motion is stopped by successive incremental energy absorption through the shearing of the external helical shear thread 55 which engages the annular shoulder 42 of the barrel 41. The shearing and compaction of the shear thread 55 of the sabot 43 enables it to seal the forward end of the barrel 41 to prevent the propellant gases from escaping therefrom. The pressure dropping annular expansion grooves 57 in the rear section of the sabot 43 serve to reduce the gas pressure inside the sealed barrel 41, and thus obviate blow-by of the propellant gases during forward motion of the sabot 43. Due to the high strength of the barrel 41 of the cartridge 35, the cylindrical magazine 21 need not withstand the force exerted by the propellant gas and accordingly may be constructed from relatively lightweight, low tensile strength material thereby reducing the overall weight of the piston 11 and particularly the weight of the forwardly extending receiver 14 to reduce the downward torque about the rear handle section of the pistol.

The above sequence can be repeated until all of the cartridges in the cylindrical magazine have been fired. The gunner can unload the spent magazine by gripping the knob 27 at the forward end of the receiver and pulling outwardly on it, thereby depressing the inwardly protruding and resiliently biased retaining detent 25 and pressing against the rear end of the cylindrical magazine 21, thereby pushing the magazine through the receiver and out of the pistol. Another cylindrical magazine may be loaded into the piston by inserting it into the front of the receiver, as previously described.

While the invention has been illustrated and described with respect to a single preferred embodiment, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that still other embodiments are possible and that various modications and improvements may be made Without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

That which is claimed is:

1. In a pistol adapted to be submerged in a liquid and having a bore formed therein through which a projectile may travel, a cartridge-retaining breech, and a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge, said pistol having a cartridge-receiving magazine, and a cartridge disposed in said cartridgereceiving magazine and containing a propellant that creates a high gas pressure when the cartridge is fired, the improvement comprising:

a vent adjacent the striking path of the firing pin and extending laterally from said path, through which the liquid constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin can be expelled to reduce the retarding force exerted by the liquid on the firing pin,

said cartridge-receiving magazine being constructed from a material and having a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge, and

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectile-guiding bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufiicient to withstand and contain without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine, the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge.

2. In a pistol adapted to be submerged in a liquid and having a bore formed therein through which a projectile may travel, a cartridge-retaining breech, a cartridge-receiving magazine, and a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge, said magazine having a portion thereof facing said hole formed in said breech, the improvement comprising:

a vent adjacent the striking path of the firing pin and extending laterally from said path, through which the liquid constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin can be expelled to reduce the retarding force exerted by the liquid on the firing pin,

said magazine being disposed in said pistol in a manner enabling it to be moved away from and towards the hole formed in said breech to accommodate cartridges having slightly varying lengths being disposed in the magazine, and

said pistol having a resiliently biased detent disposed therein and engaging a forward face of said magazine opposite to the portion facing the hole in said breech to hold said magazine against discharge from said pistol, and capable of movement away from and towards said hole formed in said breech against a resilient bias to constantly press said magazine towards the hole formed in said breech in a manner that compensates for slightly varying lengths of the cartridges inserted into the magazine to maintain the cartridges in consistently close proximity with the hole formed in the breech of the pistol.

3. In a pistol adapted to be submerged in a liquid and having a bore formed therein through which a projectile may travel, a cartridge-retaining breech, and a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge, said pistol being front-loading and having a magazine-receiving bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain a magazine, said breech being disposed at the rear of said bore, the improvement comprising:

a vent adjacent the striking path of the firing pin and extending laterally from said path, through which the liquid constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin can be expelled to reduce the retarding force exerted by the liquid on the firing pin, a cartridge-receiving magazine adapted to be disposed in the bore of said pistol in firing alignment with said breech, and

a resiliently biased selectively releasable detent protruding into said bore and adapted to positively retain said magazine in said bore,

said magazine having a plurality of parallel cartridgereceiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having a forward reduced diameter bore section connected to the rearward larger diameter bore section by an annular cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

4. In a pistol adapted to be submerged in a liquid and having a bore formed therein through which a projectile may travel, a cartridge-retaining breech, and a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge, said pistol having a rear handle portion and a forward barrel-carrying section, a cartridge-receiving magazine, a cartridge disposed in said cartridge-receiving magazine and containing a propellant that creates a propellant gas pressure when the cartridge is fired, said magazine having a portion thereof facing said hole formed in said breech, said pistol being frontloading and having a magazine-receiving bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain a magazine, said breech being disposed at the rear of said bore, the improvement comprising:

a vent adjacent the striking path of the firing pin and extending laterally from said path, through which the liquid constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin can be expelled to reduce the retarding force exerted by the liquid on the firing pin,

a buoyant material disposed on said pistol forward of said handle, to reduce the effective weight of the pistol in a liquid and thereby reduce the resulting downward torque about the handle of said pistol,

said cartridge-receiving magazine being constructed from a material and having a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high propellant gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge, and

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectile-guiding bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufiicient to withstand and contain, without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine, the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge,

said magazine being disposed in said pistol in a manner enabling it to be moved away from and towards the hole formed in said breech to accommodate cartridges having slightly varying lengths being disposed in the magazine, and

said pistol having a resiliently biased detent disposed therein and engaging a forward face of said magazine opposite to the portion facing the hole in said breech to hold said magazine against discharge from said pistol, and capable of movement away from and towards said 'hole formed in said breech against a resilient bias to constantly press said magazine towards the hole formed in said breech in a manner that compensates for slightly varying lengths of the cartridges inserted into the magazine to maintain the cartridges in consistently close proximity with the hole formed in the breech of the pistol,

a cartridge-receiving magazine adapted to be disposed in the bore of said pistol in firing alignment with said breech, and

a resiliently biased selectively releasable detent protruding into said bore and adapted to positively retain said magazine in said bore,

said magazine having a plurality of parallel cartridgereceiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having a forward reduced diameter bore section connected to the rearward larger diameter bore section by an annular cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

5. In a pistol having a rear handle portion, and a forward barrel-carrying section, said pistol having a cartridge-receiving magazine, and a cartridge disposed in said cartridge-receiving magazine and containing a propellant that creates a propellant gas pressure when the cartridge is fired, the improvement comprising:

a buoyant material disposed on said pistol forward of said handle, to reduce the effective weight of the pistol in a liquid and thereby reduce the resulting downward torque about the handle of said pistol,

said cartridge-receiving magazine being constructed from a material and having a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high propellant gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge, and

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectile-guiding bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufficient to withstand and contain without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine, the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pres sure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge.

6. In a pistol according to claim 5, said pistol having a breech with a hole formed therein, and said cartridgereceiving magazine being disposed against the face of said breech and having one portion thereof facing the hole formed in said breech, the improvement further comprising:

said magazine being disposed in said pistol in a manner enabling it to be moved away from and toward the hole formed in said breech to accommodate cartridges having slightly varying lengths being disposed in the magazine, and

said pistol having a resiliently biased detent disposed therein and engaging a forward face of said magazine opposite to the portion facing the hole in said breech to hold said magazine against discharge from said pistol, and capable of movement away from and toward said hole formed in said breech against a resilient bias to constantly press said magazine toward the hole formed in said breech in a manner that compensates for slightly varying lengths of the cartridges inserted into the magazine to maintain the cartridges in consistently close proximity with the hole formed in the breech of the pistol.

7. In a pistol having a cartridge-receiving magazine, a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin and adapted to fire a cartridge, and a cartridge disposed in said cartridge-receiving magazine and containing a propellant that creates a propellant gas pressure when the cartridge is fired:

said cartridge-receiving magazine being constructed from a material and having a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high propellant gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge, and

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectile-guiding bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufficient to withstand and contain without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge.

8. In a pistol according to claim 7, said pistol having a breech with a hole formed therein, and said cartridgereceiving magazine being disposed against the face of said breech and having one portion thereof facing the hole formed in said breech, the improvement further comprising:

said magazine being disposed in said pistol in a manner enabling it to be moved away from and toward the hole formed in said breech to accommodate cartridges having slightly varying lengths being disposed in the magazine, and

said pistol having a resiliently biased detent disposed therein and engaging a forward face of said magazine opposite to the portion facing the hole in said breech to hold said magazine against discharge from said pistol, and capable of movement away from and toward said hole formed in said breech against a resilient bias to constantly press said magazine toward the hole formed in said breech in a manner that compensates for slightly varying lengths of the cartridges inserted into the magazine to maintain the cartridges in consistently close proximity with the hole formed in the breech of the pistol.

9. In a pistol according to claim 8, said pistol being front-loading and having a magazine-receiving bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain a magazine, said breech being disposed at the rear of said bore, the improvement further comprising:

a cartridge-receiving magazine adapted to be disposed in the bore of said pistol in firing alignment with said breech, and

a resiliently biased selectively releasable detent protruding into said bore and adapted to positively retain said magazine in said bore,

said magazine having a plurality of parallel cartridgereceiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having a forward reduced diameter bore section connected to the rearward larger diameter bore section by an annular cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

10. In a pistol having a breech, a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge, and a cartridge-receiving magazine disposed against the face of said breech and having one portion thereof facing the hole formed in said breech:

said magazine being disposed in said pistol in a manner enabling it to be moved away from and towards the hole formed in said breech to accommodate cartridges having slightly varying lengths being disposed in the magazine, and

said pistol having a resiliently biased detent disposed therein and engaging a forward face of said magazine opposite to the portion facing the hole in said breech to hold said magazine against discharge from said pistol, and capable of movement away from and towards said hole formed in said breech against a resilient bias to constantly press said magazine towards the hole formed in said breech in a manner that compensates for slightly varying lengths of the cartridges inserted into the magazine to maintain the cartridges in consistently close proximity with the hole formed in the breech of the pistol.

11. In a pistol according to claim 10, the improvement further comprising:

said detent being selectively releasably resiliently biased in positive locking relation against said forward face of said magazine.

12. In a pistol according to claim 11, the improvement further comprising:

said detent being disposed for longitudinal sliding motion along a line canted relative to the forward face of said magazine and extending to one side of the axis of rotation of said magazine, and a biasing spring resiliently urging said detent toward said magazine face in a direction against the direction of rotation of said magazine.

13. In a pistol according to claim 10, said pistol being front-loading with a magazine-receiving bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain said cartridge-receiving magazine, said breech being disposed at the rear of said bore, wherein:

said cartridge-receiving magazine being disposed in the bore of said pistol in firing alignment with said breech, and

said magazine having a plurality of parallel cartridgereceiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having a forward reduced diameter bore section connected to the rearward larger diameter bore section by an annular cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

14. In a pistol according to Claim 13, said pistol being adapted to be submerged in a liquid, the improvement further comprising:

a vent adjacent the striking path of the firing pin and extending laterally from said path, through which the liquid constricted by the striking motion of the firing pin can be expelled to reduce the retarding force exerted by the liquid on the firing pin.

15. In a front-loading pistol having a magazine-receiving bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain a magazine, a breech disposed at the rear of said bore, a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin having a striking path extending through a hole formed in said breech to fire a cartridge:

a cartridge-receiving magazine adapted to be disposed in the bore of said pistol in firing alignment with said breech, and a resiliently biased selectively re leasable detent protruding into said bore and adapted to positively retain said magazine in said bore,

said magazine having a plurality of parallel cartridgereceiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having .a forward reduced diameter bore section connected to the rearward larger diameter bore section by an annular cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

16. In a front-loading pistol according to claim 15,

the improvement further comprising:

said detent having a forwardly facing camming surface adapted to be engaged by said magazine upon insertion into the bore of said pistol through the front thereof.

17. In a front-loading pistol according to Claim 15, said pistol being adapted to be submerged in a liquid and having a rear handle portion, and a forward barrelcarrying section, in which is formed said magazine receiving bore, the improvement further comprising:

a buoyant material disposed on said pistol forward of said handle, to reduce the effective weight of the pistol in a liquid and thereby reduce the resulting downward torque about the handle of said pistol.

18. In a front-loading pistol according to claim 17:

said cartridge-receiving magazine having a cartridge disposed therein which contains a propellant that creates a high gas pressure upon the firing of the cartridge,

said cartridge-receiving magazine being constructed from a material and having a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge, and

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectileguiding bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufficient to withstand and contain without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine, the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge,

whereby said cartridge-receiving magazine may be constructed from a relatively lightweight material to further reduce the effective weight of the pistol in a liquid and hereby further reduce the resulting downward torque about the handle of said pistol.

19. In a pistol having a cartridge-receiving magazine, a firing mechanism including a trigger and a firing pin and adapted to fire a cartridge, and a cartridge disposed in said cartridge-receiving magazine and containing a propellant that creates a propellant gas pressure when the cartridge is fired:

said cartridge forming a tubular projectile-carrying and projectile-guiding barrel having a projectileguiding .bore, and a projectile disposed in said bore, said cartridge barrel having a lateral strength sufficient to withstand and contain without material lateral deformation and lateral force transmission to said magazine the lateral forces exerted by the high gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge,

whereby said cartridge-receiving magazine may be constructed from a material and have a construction incapable of withstanding the lateral forces exerted by the high propellant gas pressure created by the propellant upon the firing of the cartridge.

20. In a front-loading pistol having a magazine-receiving :bore open at its forward end and adapted to removably receive and contain a magazine, and having a firing pin adapted to fire a cartridge in said magazine:

a cartridge-receiving magazine adapted to be disposed in the bore of said pistol and rotatable to sequentially position cartridges removably disposed therein in firing alignment with said firing pin, and

a detent engageable with said removable magazine to retain said magazine in said bore,

said magazine having a plurality of circumferentially arranged cartridge-receiving bore chambers formed therein in annular spaced relation, each of said bore chambers having a rear-ward and central cross-sectional bore area of sufiicient size to enable rear loading of cartridges thereinto and having a forward reduced diameter bore section adjacent an annular forward cartridge-retaining shoulder stop.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,082,288 6/1937 Hillyard 4259 2,354,025 7/1944 Johnson 421 3,139,692 7/1964 Sellers et al. 42-1 3,160,156 12/1964 Tyler 421 3,237,336 3/1966 Lewis 42-59 3,274,936 9/1966 Messina et al 42-1 3,300,888 1/1967 Belche-r et a1. 42-1 5 BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner.

US. Cl. X.R. 421

US3453763D 1967-06-30 1967-06-30 Underwater pistol having a rotatable cylindrical magazine Expired - Lifetime US3453763A (en)

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3545117A (en) * 1968-11-08 1970-12-08 Steven C Van Voorhees Multishot underwater power head
US3711982A (en) * 1971-04-22 1973-01-23 Colt Ind Operating Corp Revolver having removable cylinder
US3721031A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-03-20 Us Navy Underwater repeating shotgun
US3765116A (en) * 1971-01-07 1973-10-16 Colt Ind Operating Corp Cylinder for revolvers
US4122621A (en) * 1977-07-14 1978-10-31 Barr W Lincoln Underwater repeating spear gun
US4266358A (en) * 1979-01-18 1981-05-12 Phillips John C Underwater firearm
US4324310A (en) * 1979-10-29 1982-04-13 Marathon Oil Company Seismic apparatus
US4418488A (en) * 1981-10-02 1983-12-06 Jack Hughes Pistol and removable cartridge shaped barrel insert
US4584925A (en) * 1983-09-26 1986-04-29 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater rocket launcher and rocket propelled missile
US4821441A (en) * 1988-01-27 1989-04-18 Castro Jr Manuel Multishot underwater survival gun
US4848307A (en) * 1988-06-07 1989-07-18 Tsao Yung Chi Toy air pistol for launching missile bullet
US5639982A (en) * 1996-05-23 1997-06-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Means to fire a fully automatic gun underwater using a special barrel clearance blank round
US5687501A (en) * 1996-03-06 1997-11-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Sealing apparatus for exclusion of water from underwater gun barrels
US5911568A (en) * 1997-10-17 1999-06-15 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Regulated gas source for underwater gun operation
US20080016745A1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2008-01-24 Bunney Robert F Apparatus
US7987624B1 (en) * 1982-07-14 2011-08-02 Moeller Tilo Flashless electric firearm and ammunition therefor
US20160187097A1 (en) * 2014-12-31 2016-06-30 King Abdulaziz University Multiple shot spear gun
US10520278B2 (en) * 2017-06-29 2019-12-31 Spike's Tactical, Llc Auto-loading underwater firearm

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2082288A (en) * 1935-04-12 1937-06-01 Newton S Hillyard Firearm
US2354025A (en) * 1942-07-20 1944-07-18 Kilgore Mfg Co Firearm
US3139692A (en) * 1963-03-14 1964-07-07 Charles A Sellers Cartridge powered spear gun
US3160156A (en) * 1961-01-16 1964-12-08 Mattox And Moore Inc Artificial insemination device
US3237336A (en) * 1963-05-31 1966-03-01 Browning Ind Inc Cylinder ratchet mechanism for revolver type firearms
US3274936A (en) * 1964-08-25 1966-09-27 Messina Salvatore John Explosive spearhead
US3300888A (en) * 1964-01-09 1967-01-31 Bangstick Corp Underwater gun

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2082288A (en) * 1935-04-12 1937-06-01 Newton S Hillyard Firearm
US2354025A (en) * 1942-07-20 1944-07-18 Kilgore Mfg Co Firearm
US3160156A (en) * 1961-01-16 1964-12-08 Mattox And Moore Inc Artificial insemination device
US3139692A (en) * 1963-03-14 1964-07-07 Charles A Sellers Cartridge powered spear gun
US3237336A (en) * 1963-05-31 1966-03-01 Browning Ind Inc Cylinder ratchet mechanism for revolver type firearms
US3300888A (en) * 1964-01-09 1967-01-31 Bangstick Corp Underwater gun
US3274936A (en) * 1964-08-25 1966-09-27 Messina Salvatore John Explosive spearhead

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3545117A (en) * 1968-11-08 1970-12-08 Steven C Van Voorhees Multishot underwater power head
US3721031A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-03-20 Us Navy Underwater repeating shotgun
US3765116A (en) * 1971-01-07 1973-10-16 Colt Ind Operating Corp Cylinder for revolvers
US3711982A (en) * 1971-04-22 1973-01-23 Colt Ind Operating Corp Revolver having removable cylinder
US4122621A (en) * 1977-07-14 1978-10-31 Barr W Lincoln Underwater repeating spear gun
US4266358A (en) * 1979-01-18 1981-05-12 Phillips John C Underwater firearm
US4324310A (en) * 1979-10-29 1982-04-13 Marathon Oil Company Seismic apparatus
US4418488A (en) * 1981-10-02 1983-12-06 Jack Hughes Pistol and removable cartridge shaped barrel insert
US7987624B1 (en) * 1982-07-14 2011-08-02 Moeller Tilo Flashless electric firearm and ammunition therefor
US4584925A (en) * 1983-09-26 1986-04-29 Culotta Kenneth W Underwater rocket launcher and rocket propelled missile
US4821441A (en) * 1988-01-27 1989-04-18 Castro Jr Manuel Multishot underwater survival gun
US4848307A (en) * 1988-06-07 1989-07-18 Tsao Yung Chi Toy air pistol for launching missile bullet
US5687501A (en) * 1996-03-06 1997-11-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Sealing apparatus for exclusion of water from underwater gun barrels
US5639982A (en) * 1996-05-23 1997-06-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Means to fire a fully automatic gun underwater using a special barrel clearance blank round
US5911568A (en) * 1997-10-17 1999-06-15 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Regulated gas source for underwater gun operation
US20080016745A1 (en) * 2001-03-13 2008-01-24 Bunney Robert F Apparatus
US20160187097A1 (en) * 2014-12-31 2016-06-30 King Abdulaziz University Multiple shot spear gun
US9506717B2 (en) * 2014-12-31 2016-11-29 King Abdulaziz University Multiple shot spear gun
US10520278B2 (en) * 2017-06-29 2019-12-31 Spike's Tactical, Llc Auto-loading underwater firearm

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