US3424243A - Formation injecting and testing apparatus for wells - Google Patents

Formation injecting and testing apparatus for wells Download PDF

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US3424243A
US3424243A US3424243DA US3424243A US 3424243 A US3424243 A US 3424243A US 3424243D A US3424243D A US 3424243DA US 3424243 A US3424243 A US 3424243A
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string
bore
passageway
well
formation
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Doyle M Lawrence
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Doyle M Lawrence
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • E21B33/129Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing
    • E21B33/1294Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing characterised by a valve, e.g. a by-pass valve
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B49/00Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells
    • E21B49/08Obtaining fluid samples or testing fluids, in boreholes or wells
    • E21B49/10Obtaining fluid samples or testing fluids, in boreholes or wells using side-wall fluid samplers or testers

Description

Sheet D. M. LAWRENCE flay/e /1 /f lam fiance INVENTOR FORMATION INJECTING AND TESTING APPARATUS FOR WELLS Jan. 28, 1969 Filed Aug. 11, 1966 ATTOR NE Y Jan. 28, 1969 D. M. LAWRENCE 3,424,243

FORMATION INJECTING AND TESTING APPARATUS FOR WELLS D. M. LAWRENCE 3,424,243 FORMATION INJECTING AND TESTING APPARATUS FOR WELLS v Jan. 28, 1969 Sheet 3 0f 5 Filed Aug. ll, 1966 flay/e M lam weave United States Patent C 3,424,243 FORMATION INJECTING AND TESTING APPARATUS FOR WELLS Doyle M. Lawrence, Box 1064, Liberty, Tex. 77575 Filed Aug. 11, 1966, Ser. No. 571,869 US. Cl. 166-400 4 Claims Int. Cl. E21b 33/12, 43/00 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Earth formation testing and treating apparatus for use with a tubular string of well pipe to be lowered therewith into a well and operated therein by manipulation of the string to allow the introduction of fluid through the string into, or the withdrawal of fluid through the string from, an earth formation surrounding the well bore. The apparatus includes a tubular barrel adapted to be connected to the string for longitudinal movement therewith in the well bore and in which valve means is movably disposed to allow relative longitudinal movement of the barrel and valve means, anchoring means adapted to be anchored in the well by manipulation of the string, and means positioned for coaction with the anchoring means and valve means to allow the barrel to be moved with the string to Operate the valve means. The apparatus is also provided with fluid conducting mechanism through which fluid may flow through the string under the control of the valve means and which is operable by fluid pressure introduced through the string under the control of the valve means to establish fluid flow communication between the string and formation through the fluid conducting means. The apparatus is adapted to be used with a well casing perforating device, such as a perforating gun, whereby a Well casing may be perforated and fluid introduced or withdrawn from the formation at a predetermined location in the bore during a single trip of the string in the well bore.

This invention relates to apparatus for the testing and treating of well formations and more particularly to apparatus for use with a string of Well pipe to be lowered therewith into a well bore and which may 'be operated therein to perform any of a number of formation testing and injecting procedures.

The invention is capable of use to perform a wide variety of testing and treating operations on well formations and finds particular utility in connection with the perforation of well casing and the carrying out of testing and injecting operations on the formation surrounding such casing.

In the operation of wells, such as oil and gas wells, it is customary to set a well casing in the well bore to wall off the surrounding formation and to perforate the casing at selected locations of the formation from which the oil or gas is to be obtained. The perforation of the casing is usually carried out by means of a perforating gun which is lowered in the bore and fired to provide openings into the formation at the desired location. The perforating gun is then removed and other equipment lowered into the bore to carry out such testing operations as may be desired or to introduce fluids into or remove the same from the formation.

Such well treating procedures, as commonly carried out, are extremely expensive and time consuming due to the necessity for the repeated removal from and reinsertion in the well bore of long strings of pipe in order to carry out all of the necessary operations.

The present invention has for an important object, the provision of apparatus for incorporation in an operating string of pipe for lowering into a well bore with or without a perforating gun and which is operable to carry out 3,424,243 Patented Jan. 28, 1969 various testing and treating operations on a formation at a predetermined location.

Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus adapted to be lowered into a well bore with a perforating gun by which the well casing is to be perforated at a desired location and including mechanism which may be operated, during a single trip of the well string in the bore, to perform various tests and treatment of the formation through the perforations.

A further object of the invention is the provision of apparatus of the kind mentioned which is adapted for use with a perforating gun and which includes means operable by manipulation of the well string for locating selected ones of the perforations and utilizing the same for the testing or treatment of the formation at particular locations in the well.

A still further object of the invention is to provide formation testing and treating apparatus of the kind refered to which is of rugged construction, easily operated to perform a number of testing or treating procedures, and wherein the parts are readily replaceable for purposes of maintenance and repair.

Summary of the invention Briefly described the apparatus of the invention comprises a tubular valve housing adapted to be connected to :an operating string and within which valve mechanism is enclosed which is operable by manipulation of the string to control the flow of fluid through the string, fluid conducting mechanism through which fluid may flow through the string under the control of the valve mechanism, means operable by manipulation of the string for anchoring the valve mechanism in the well casing at a location with said fluid conducting mechanism positioned to allow the inflow of fluid from the string into the formation or the outflow of fluid from the formation into the string through a selected perforation in the well casing and to allow the string to be manipulated to operate the valve mechanism.

The mechanism of the invention also includes means whereby the apparatus may be operated in a single trip of the string in the well with a perforating gun to selectively position the apparatus for operation to carry out testing or treating procedures on the formation through one or more selected perforations produced by the gun.

Brief description of the views of the drawing The above and other incidental objects of the invention may best be understood from the following detailed description, constituting a specification of theinvention, when considered with the annexed drawings, wherein- FIGURE 1A is a side elevational view, partly broken away and partly in cross-section, showing an upper end portion of the apparatus of the invention, the apparatus being shown inserted in the well preliminary to the anchoring of the same therein and the setting of the fluid conducting means to allow the flow of fluid from or to the formation through a selected perforation of the well cas- FIGURE 1B is a view similar to that of FIGURE 1A, showing a central portion of the apparatus, FIGURE 1B being a downward continuation of FIGURE 1A;

FIGURE 1C is a view similar to that of FIGURE 1A showing a lower end portion of the apparatus, FIG- URE 1C being a downward continuation of FIGURE 1B;

FIGURE 2 is a view similar to that of FIGURE l-A, showing the apparatus anchored in the well casing and with the valve mechanism positioned for the setting of the fluid conducting mechanism preliminary to the carrying out of a testing or treating operation on the formation through the selected perforation of the casing;

FIGURE 3A is a view similar to that of FIGURE 1-A showing the apparatus anchored in the well casing with the fluid conducting mechanism located and the valve mechanism in position to carry out a testing or treating operation on the formation through the selected perforation; and

FIGURE 3B is a view similar to that of FIGURE l-C, FIGURE 3B being a downward continuation of FIG- URE 3-A.

Detailed description of a particular embodiment of the invention Referring now to the drawings in greater detail, the apparatus of the invention, as presently illustrated, includes a tubular barrel 10, which is adapted to be connected at its upper end to the lower end .12 of a tubing string, as by means of a coupling member 14 for lowering with the string into a well bore which may have a casing or liner C therein. The lower end of the barrel is provided with a threaded plug 16, having a central opening 17, through which a tubular stem 18 is slidably extended.

A valve housing 22 is disposed in the barrel 10 for limited longitudinal movement therein, and whose lower end is threadably connected to the upper end of the stem 18. The barrel 10 has a longitudinal side slot 24 in which a screw 26 is slidable, which screw is connected to the housing 22 to prevent the housing from rotating relative to the barrel.

The housing 22 is formed with fluid passageways 28 and 30 whose upper ends open into an internal bore 32 of the housing, and a valve 34 is slidably extended into the bore 32 which valve extends upwardly beyond the housing and is threadably connected to the connector member 14. The valve 34 is extended upwardly through the connector member into the string 12 and has a passageway 36 therein which opens laterally at its upper end into the string below the upper end of the valve and at its lower end to the exterior of the valve within the bore 32. The connector 14 also has a side passageway opening to the exterior at one end and whose other end opens into the lower end of the string 12 below the upper end of the passageway 36. The upper end of the valve is preferably tapered or pointed, as indicated at 38. A breather opening 33 is provided in the housing 22 through which fluid may flow into and out of the bore 32 beneath the piston 34.

Suitable seal forming means, such as the O-rings 40, 42 and 44 are provided in the bore 32 located in internal grooves provided for the same to form fluid tight seals between the housing and valve at locations above the upper ends of the passageways 28 and 36, between the same and below such upper ends. By this arrangement the valve housing 22 may be moved to one position to establish communication between passageways 36 and 28 while closing passageway 30, or to another position to establish communication between passageways 36 and while closing passageway 28.

An inner pipe 46 is positioned within the stem 18, extending longitudinally through the stem in inwardly spaced relation thereto to form an annular passageway 48 which is in communication at its upper end with the passageway 28 and an inner passageway 50 whose upper end is in communication with the passageway 30. The inner pipe 46 is extended at its upper end into the lower end of the bore 32 of the housing 22 and is provided with suitable sealing means, such as the O-rings shown at 52 in the bore.

The stem 18 and inner pipe 46 are threadably connected at their lower ends to the upper end of an injector body 54, which in turn is connected at its lower end to the upper end of a perforation gun G, of conventional construction, as shown in FIGURE l-C.

The body 54 has a lateral bore 58 mediate its ends, which opens at one end to the exterior of the body and at its other end into the bottom of an enlarged counterbore 60 which also opens to the exterior of the body. A piston 62 is 'movably disposed in the bore 58, whose outer end is provided with a seal forming element 64 positioned to be sealingly engaged with the internal surface of the surrounding casing when the piston is extended outwardly beyond the bore, and another piston 66 is movably disposed in the bore 58 in spaced relation to the inner end of the piston 62 and having an enlarged outer end portion 68 in the counterbore 60. The piston 66 has a central bore 70 into which a tubular stem 72 is connected to the piston 62 is slidably extended, which stem has a plunger portion 74 in the bore 70 against which a coil spring 76 is seated at one end, whose other end bears against the bottom of the bore 70 to yieldingly urge the pistons 58 and 66 toward each other. The tubular stem 72 opens at one end into a central opening 78 in the seal forming element 64 and at its other end into the bore 70. The stem 72 with the pistons 62 and 66 and the sealing member 64 thus form an injector nozzle arrangement through which fluid may be pumped into or removed from the formation through a perforation in the casing C.

The body 54 has a passageway 80 which is in communication with the passageway 48 in the stem 18 and which leads into the bore 58 between the pistons 62 and 66 and a passageway 92 opening into the bore 58 between the pistons 62 and 66 and which passes downwardly to the lower end of the body.

A flexible pipe 84 is connected at one end to the body 54 in a recess 86 opening into the bottom of the counterbore 60 which pipe is in communication with the passageway 50 of the inner pipe 46, the other end of the flexible pipe being connected to the piston 66 in communication with the bore 70 thereof. The pipe 84 is disposed in a radial slot 88 in the enlargement 68 of piston 66. By this arrangement fluid from the passageway 48 may enter the bore 58 through passageway 80 to urge the pistons 62 and 66 apart, and fluid may flow from passageway 50 through pipe 84 and stem 72 for injection into the surrounding formation through a perforation in the casing C.

Fluid may also flow from passageway 80 into passageway 82 around the reduced inner end portion 90 of the piston 66, which is loosely received in an inner end recess 92 in the piston 62.

Suitable sealing means, such as the rings 94 and 96, are provided on the pistons 62 and 66, to form fluid tight seals between the pistons and the surrounding internal surface of the bore 58.

An elongated, external, longitudinally slidable sleeve 98 surrounds the stem 18, which sleeve has an external upper end flange 100 positioned for abutment with the lower end face of the plug 16 of the barrel 10, and is provided with an elongated, longitudinal side slot 102 whose lower end is open and from which longitudinally spaced notches 104 extend peripherally. The stem 18 carries a pin, or the like, 106, extending radially therefrom, as best seen in FIGURE 3B, which moves in the slot 102 and which may be moved into and out of any selected one of the notches 104 to hold the sleeve and stem against relative longitudinal movement.

Suitable anchoring mechanism is provided on the sleeve 98 for anchoring the same at a desired location in the casing C, such as the externally toothed slips 108 formed with upper and lower internal tapered faces 110 and 112, respectively, which are positioned for engagement with the external tapered face 114 of an upper, stationary actuator 116 mounted on the sleeve and the external tapered face 118 of a lower movable actuator 120 threadably carried on the sleeve, as seen at 122, to move the members 108 radially outwardly into gripping engagement with the casing. The lower actuator 120 is provided with friction elements 124 positioned for sliding engagement with the surrounding casing C to resist rotation of the actuator 120 in the casing to allow the sleeve 98 to be rotated in the lower actuator to move the same longitudinal'ly toward the upper actuator to set the slips or away from the upper actuator to release the slips.

The upper end of the sleeve 98 is provided with an end projection or driving dog 126 which is positioned to enter a lower end recess 128 in the plug 16 to cause the barrel and sleeve 98 to rotate together and to allow independent rotation of the barrel relative tothe sleeve when the projection is out of the recess.

Suitable means, such as the cup type seal forming member 130, or other similar sealing device, having a central opening therethrough, through which the upper end 38 of the valve 34 may be extended, is provided, which may be inserted into the pipe string 12 and moved downwardly therein, under the influence of the downwardly flowing fluid in the string to position the member to close the side passageway 15, while leaving the passageway 36 open to the interior of the string. The member 130 is constructed to close the string during the downward movement of the member therein, but to be penetrated by the upper end of the valve to open the passageway 36 to the interior of the string when the member reaches the lower end of the string.

In making use of the invention constructed as described above, the apparatus is lowered into the well with the perforating gun G attached to the lower end of the-body 54, as shown in FIGURE 1-C, the gun being preferably of a type having perforating charges therein, which are arranged in vertical alignment and at locations spaced vertically apart, as indicated at 132, at the same distance as are the notches 104 opening into the slot 102 of the sleeve 98.

When the perforating gun has reached the location where it is desired to form perforations in the casing C, the string is rotated to turn the sleeve 98 relative to the slip mechanism to move the lower actuator 120 and sleeve relative to each other to expand the slips 108 into gripping engagement with the casing to anchor the sleeve therein. Such rotation of the sleeve 98 is accomplished by engaging the projection 126 on the upper end of the sleeve in the recess 128 in the lower end of the plug 16.

With the sleeve 98 thus anchored at the desired location the string may be lifted somewhat while rotating the same slowly to cause the pin 106 to enter the lower end of the slot 102, whereupon the string may be moved upwardly until the pin 106 reaches the upper end of the slot 102. The string is then rotated to move the pin 106 into the uppermost one of the notches 104 so that upon relaxing the upward lift on the string a slight loss of weight will be indicated which indicates that the pin is in the notch. When the apparatus has been thus set at the desired location the gun G is fired to make the perforation in the casing.

An upward pull is then exerted on the string and the string rotated to move the pin 106 out of the uppermost notch 104, whereupon the string is lowered while exerting a rotational force thereon to cause the pin 106 to enter a selected notch below the uppermost notch which will be indicated by another slight loss of weight.

The spacing of the parts is so arranged that, when the pin 106 is in the first notch below the uppermost one of the notches 104, the seal forming member 64 will be positioned to be moved radially into sealing engagement with the casing C about the uppermost perforation therein, whereupon the sealing cup 130 maybe inserted in the string and pumped downwardly to close the passageway 15 while leaving passageway 36 open to the interior of the string. By then lowering the string the barrel 10 and the housing 22 therewith may be moved to position passageway 36 in communication with passageway 28, so that pressure in the string will be applied through annular passageway 48 to the bore 50 between pistons 62 and '66 to move the piston apart, thus engaging the enlarged portion 68 and the seal forming member 64 with the casing with the opening 78 in communication with the uppermost perforation of the casing.

The string may then be lifted to shut ofi the flow of pressure from passageway 36 into passageway 28, thus trapping pressure in bore 58 between the pistons 62 and 66 to hold the seal member 64 in tight sealing contact with the casing, while establishing communication between passageway 36 and passageway 30 so that fluid may be pumped through central passageway 50 and tubu- 'lar stem 72 into the surrounding formation through the uppermost perforation. 'If desired fluid may also be removed from the formation through central passageway 50 and passageways 30 and 36 upwardly through the string.

The apparatus may be similarly operated to allow fluid to be pumped into or removed from the formation through any selected one of the perforations of the eas- 1ng.

It will be apparent that during the positioning of the apparatus at the desired location in the casing prior to the introduction of the sealing cup in the string, circulation may be maintained through passageway 15, which also serves to allow the removal of the sealing cup 130 by reverse circulation when desired.

The passageway 82 below the injecting nozzle arrange ment may be used to furnish pressure from the string to other apparatus connected thereto in place of the gun G or this passageway may be plugged when not in use.

The entire apparatus may be recovered with the string from the well by reengaging the driving dog 126 in the recess 128 and rotating the string in a direction to release the slips 108.

It will, of course, be evident that the apparatus of the invention may be used in a number of different ways and for a variety of purposes in connection with the introduction of fluids into or the removal of the same from well formations through perforations in the well casing and that more than one unit of the apparatus may be connected to the well string for operation in the same way in the treatment of or production from formations at different depths in a well.

The invention thus provides formation injecting and testing apparatus by which a wide variety of well operations may be carried out and which is easily operated and maintained.

The invention is disclosed herein in connection with a particular embodiment of the same, which it will be understood is intended by way of example only, various modifications of the structure and mode of operation being contemplated within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus clearly shown and described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. Apparatus for injecting fluid into and removing fluid from a well formation through a perforation in a well casing comprising (a) an injector body adapted to be connected to a string of well pipe for lowering therewith in a well casing having a perforation, said body having a bore opening laterally into the casing,

(b) an injector member movable disposed in the bore for movement to a retracted position in the bore and to an extended position in engagement with the casing and having an opening through which fluid may flow through the perforation when the bore is in alignment with the perforation,

(c) means for admitting fluid under pressure from the interior of the string into said bore at a location to move said member to said position,

(d) means forming a passageway in communication with said opening and the interior of said string, and

(e) means for discontinuing the admission of fluid 7 under pressure into the bore at said location when said member is in said extended position.

2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including (i) means for closing said passageway when said injector member is out of said extended position and for opening said passageway when said member is in said extended position.

3. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said string is movable longitudinally relative to said body, and including (g) means for anchoring the body in the casing with said bore in alignment with said perforation, and

(h) means movable with the string relative to said body to a position to close the passageway during the admission of fluid under pressure into said bore and to another position to open said passageway and cause discontinuance of such admission.

4. The apparatus as claimed in claim 3, wherein said anchoring means comprises (i) means movably carried by the string for longitudinal movement relative thereto,

(k) means for anchoring said movable means in the casing, and including (1) means on the body and anchoring means positioned for coaction to hold the body against longitudinal movement in the casing.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS DAVID H. BROWN, Primary Examiner.

US. Cl. X.R.

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4158388A (en) * 1977-06-20 1979-06-19 Pengo Industries, Inc. Method of and apparatus for squeeze cementing in boreholes
US20030094282A1 (en) * 2001-11-19 2003-05-22 Goode Peter A. Downhole measurement apparatus and technique
US20050072565A1 (en) * 2002-05-17 2005-04-07 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. MWD formation tester

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2262655A (en) * 1940-01-19 1941-11-11 Roy Q Seale Formation tester
US2526695A (en) * 1941-08-01 1950-10-24 Schlumberger Well Surv Corp Well conditioning apparatus
US2582719A (en) * 1950-02-01 1952-01-15 Standard Oil Dev Co Oil well formation tester
US2612346A (en) * 1951-06-27 1952-09-30 Standard Oil Dev Co Device for obtaining samples from well bores
US2640542A (en) * 1947-09-11 1953-06-02 Luther E Brown Sidewall sample taking device
US2675080A (en) * 1949-12-10 1954-04-13 Standard Oil Dev Co Oil well formation tester
US3338307A (en) * 1965-02-02 1967-08-29 Fletcher H Redwine Formation fluid sampler

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2262655A (en) * 1940-01-19 1941-11-11 Roy Q Seale Formation tester
US2526695A (en) * 1941-08-01 1950-10-24 Schlumberger Well Surv Corp Well conditioning apparatus
US2640542A (en) * 1947-09-11 1953-06-02 Luther E Brown Sidewall sample taking device
US2675080A (en) * 1949-12-10 1954-04-13 Standard Oil Dev Co Oil well formation tester
US2582719A (en) * 1950-02-01 1952-01-15 Standard Oil Dev Co Oil well formation tester
US2612346A (en) * 1951-06-27 1952-09-30 Standard Oil Dev Co Device for obtaining samples from well bores
US3338307A (en) * 1965-02-02 1967-08-29 Fletcher H Redwine Formation fluid sampler

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4158388A (en) * 1977-06-20 1979-06-19 Pengo Industries, Inc. Method of and apparatus for squeeze cementing in boreholes
US20030094282A1 (en) * 2001-11-19 2003-05-22 Goode Peter A. Downhole measurement apparatus and technique
US7000697B2 (en) * 2001-11-19 2006-02-21 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole measurement apparatus and technique
US20050072565A1 (en) * 2002-05-17 2005-04-07 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. MWD formation tester
US7204309B2 (en) * 2002-05-17 2007-04-17 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. MWD formation tester

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