US3424171A - Tobacco aromatics enriched nontobacco smokable product and method of making same - Google Patents

Tobacco aromatics enriched nontobacco smokable product and method of making same Download PDF

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US3424171A
US3424171A US3424171DA US3424171A US 3424171 A US3424171 A US 3424171A US 3424171D A US3424171D A US 3424171DA US 3424171 A US3424171 A US 3424171A
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tobacco
aromatics
charcoal
nontobacco
aroma
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William A Rooker
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William A Rooker
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B15/00Chemical features or treatment of tobacco; Tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/18Treatment of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/24Treatment of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes by extraction; Tobacco extracts

Description

United States Patent TOBACCO AROMATICS ENRICHED NUNTOBACCO SMOKABLE PRODUCT AND METHOD OF MAK- ING SAME William A. Rocker, 112 E. Piccadilly, Winchester, Va. 22601 No Drawing. Filed Aug. 15, 1966, Ser. No. 572,199 U.S. Cl. 131-143 9 Claims Int. Cl. A24b /08, 3/00, 15/02 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A novel process for the production of a commercially acceptable nontobacco smokable product having a tobacco taste, involves the removal of aromatic material from natural tobacco by conventional techniques, sorbtion of these extracted aromatics on charcoal, removal of the aromatics from the charcoal by means of a solvent and final incorporation of the solvent extract on commercially acceptable treated vegetable (cellulose) base.

This invention relates generally to smokable products. More specifically, the present invention relates to a smokable product having the aroma and taste of tobacco without the presence of any tobacco leaves or tobacco plant fibrous matter.

Much research has been performed in connection with the health hazard attributable to smoking tobacco. Even prior to the well known U.S. Surgeon Generals report on the health hazard due to cigarette smoking, it was recognized by many that cigarette smoking was undoubtedly harmful. Since the Surgeon Generals report, many other reports were published which were related to the Surgeon Generals findings, all of which evidenced great research being devoted to isolating those ingredients in tobacco which are a menace to the worlds population.

It is believed by some authorities that the presence of one or more somewhat obscure substances in tobacco constitutes the cause for the health hazard. It follows, therefore, that the removal of these substances from tobacco eliminates-or at least substantially reduces-the danger. However, even when any of these presumed harmful substances can be conveniently removed, there is an accompanying lossif not destruction of the familiar and wholly desirable taste and aroma of tobacco. This change in taste and aroma in the eyes of many cigarette smokers results in a totally tasteless and unsatisfying product.

Since no completely satisfactory smoking product having the harmful ingredients removed has been commercially produced, there is a great need the world over for a smokable product which possesses the satisfying taste and aroma of tobacco but omits the hazardous constituents believed to be present in tobacco.

Much reserach and experimentation has been conducted in attempts to perfect synthetic tobaccos free from the substances in real tobacco that are injurious to health. Satisfactory processes apparently have been developed for treating various nontobacco leaves and fibers and such materials can be smoked in pipes, cigars, and cigarettes. However, while all of these preparations have a characteristic aroma of their own, they are devoid of a true tobacco aroma or of aroma even suggestive of tobacco. Hence these synthetic tobaccos have very little if any appeal to the average tobacco smoker.

Accordingly, the primary object of the present inven tion is to provide a smokable product formed from commercially acceptable, nontobacco leaf vegetable matter which includes the taste and aroma of tobacco.

ice

A further object of the present invention is to make use of any and all kinds or grades of cured tobacco without the necessity of using particularly shaped or formed tobacco leaves.

This invention has as a further object the provision of extracting the aromatics from tobacco for subsequent addition to the commercially acceptable, nontobacco leaf vegetable matter.

A further object of the present invention is to sorb the tobacco aromatics on a sorbing means which retains these aromatics in an undeteriorated condition to subsequently permit their addition to nontobacco leaf vegetable matter.

These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description.

The present invention for producing a smokable nontobacco leaf product which possesses a tobacco taste and flavor may be briefly described as including the removal of the aromatics naturally contained in cured tobacco by means of dry heat, steam distillation, or inert gas, sorbing these aromatics on active charcoal to prevent any substantial deterioration of the aromatics, extracting these aromatics from the charcoal by means of particular solvents and applying these extracted aromatics to vegetable matter to form a smokable product having the desirable tobacco taste and flavor.

In the practice of the present invention, any kind or grade of tobacco which has been cured may be used, provided it has a desirable tobacco aroma. Obviously, unless the aromatics are originally present in the tobacco, any extraction of these taste and flavor-imparting constituents of tobacco would not provide a satisfactory smoking product when subsequently applied to commercially acceptable, nontobacco-containing vegetable matter. The ability, in accordance with the present invention, to use low grade tobacco, including scraps or waste, is of decided advantage in the economy of the commercial adaptation of the present invention.

The aromatics present in the tobacco may be removed in any of a number of ways, including:

(a) Macerating the pure tobacco in water and then subjecting the tobacco-water mixture to a distillation at a temperature below the scorching temperature of tobacco, generally about 350400 F.

(b) Heating the tobacco substantially dry or without any added water to a temperature again below the scorching point of the tobacco about 350400 F.

(c) Steam distilling the tobacco to produce the aromatics from the tobacco, and

(d) Gas extracting the tobacco, either in a water mixture or dry comminuted, by an inert gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas may be heated but to a temperature not to exceed approximately 350-400 F.

The temperatures employed in the extraction of the aromatics from the tobacco should at all times be below the temperature at which the tarry constituetns of the tobacco are volatilized. It has been found that excessive amounts of undesirable volatiles are not obtained if temperature of air, water vapor, or inert gas does not scorch the tobacco.

The distillation of the desired aromatics may be conducted in any convenient manner and may be under pressure or at normal atmospheric pressure or under a vacuum.

In any of the above described aromatics extracting steps, the aromatics are to be thereafter trapped and collected by a sorbent material. For sorbing the aroma-tics, the preferred charcoal successfully used in the practice of this invention is one commercially identified as absorbit activated charcoal Type EH-2, prepared to high density from coconut shell and produced to the following specifications:

Mesh size 6 x 8 90 to 95% CCL, activity to saturation Moisture content maximum Activity rating 75 minutes accelerated chloropicrin test to breakthrough point (U.S. Government Test) A suitable charcoal will have a low afiinity for water vapor but yet may retain up to 40% of its weight of tobacco aromatics.

The charcoals low affinity for water vapor permits an efiicient solvent extraction of the tobacco aromatics from the charcoal. The granular nature and uniform mesh of the charcoal particles permit a Soxhlet extraction whereby a complete recovery of the aromatics may be effected.

Through sorption of the aromatics on the charcoal, any deterioration or chemical change due to oxidation or hydrolysis is prevented.

In order to achieve a timely sorption of the aromatics, there may be induced gaseous movement of the aromatics toward the charcoal. This induced movement is most easily obtained by suction or lower relative pressure in the direction of the charcoal than at the environment of the source of the aromatics.

As soon as the aromatics are sorbed by the charcoal, they are immobilized and protected from any substantial deterioration and are released only by extraction with a solvent or steam.

In practicing the invention, the saturation point of the charcoal is easily noted from the odors coming from the charcoal beds or chambers. When the effiuent vapors or gases from the charcoal carry an appreciable tobacco odor or aroma, the charcoal is saturated. In actaul processing two charcoal beds or chambers are arranged in parallel. By simply changing valves, a fresh batch of charcoal is made immediately available when a bed being used becomes saturated and ready for the solvent extraction.

The aromatics can be desorbed from the charcoal and added to nontobacco vegetable matter to noticeably enhance flavor and aroma of the product.

Any solvent which will remove the aromatics in a concentrated form from the charcoal and permits a substantially complete separation of the solvent and the aromatics by fractional distillation without appreciable loss of the aromatics is suitable for the purpose of this invention. Organic solvents which have been found suitable include the halogenated alkanes such as the chlorofluoromethanes or ethanes such as: dichlorodifluoromethane, trichloromonofluoromethane, dichloromonofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane and others of the commercial Freons. Additionally, methylene chloride, ethyl chloride, and ethyl ether may also be used.

After the aromatics are extracted from the tobacco, they are added to the nontobacco-leaf containing vegetable matter, such as cellulose or any of the leafy vegetables, such as cabbage, lettuce, and the like, which are commercially acceptable, all of which have been treated so that they are combustible in a manner for a smokable product. The particular type vegetable matter used is not critical for the invention, since it is important only that the vegetable matter (a) be combustible in the manner of conventional tobacco, (b) be able to retain the aromatics which are applied and intimately mixed with the vegetable matter, and (c) of course, the vegetable matter should not have any obnoxious flavor or odor upon combustion and be commercially acceptable.

The preferred methods of practice of the present in vention are as follows:

EXAMPLE I (l) 750 grams of a commercial pipe tobacco was macerated in 6000 cc. of water at 185 F. for 60 minutes.

(2) A vacuum was drawn on the vessel containing the tobacco-water mixture and the mass was subjected to a vacuum distillation for 60 minutes. The average temperature of the vapors passing from the vessel was F. At the end of the distillation period, the residual mass in the vessel had only a slight odor or aroma not distinguishable as that of tobacco.

(3) The vapors of the distillation were passed through a glass tube containing 17 grams of the activated charcoal. The water vapors which passed through the charcoal tube were condensed to form 1105 grams of condensate or 18.42% of the original water used in step (1). No tobacco odor could be detected at either the inlet or the outlet end of the charcoal tube. The condensed water vapor which had passed through the charcoal tube was also odor free. All of the tobacco aromatics were adsorbed by the charcoal.

(4) Using a Soxhlet extraction unit and ether as a solvent, the charcoal containing the tobacco aromatics was subjected to a Soxhlet extraction for 76 complete cycles in a 7-hour period.

(5) The ether solution of the aromatics was subjected to a fractional distillation until all of the ether was recovered. The ether-free residue containing the tobacco aromatics weighed 4.56 grams.

(6) 750 grams of shredded, treated and commercially acceptable lettuce leaves were spread on a porcelain tray and sprayed with the 4.56 grams of the tobacco aromatics. The mass was then stored for 48 hours in a sealed container to allow for the aromatics to diffuse uniformly throughout the lettuce leaves.

(7) The tobacco-flavored lettuce had a rich, natural, pleasing tobacco aroma similar to and of like intensity to that of the original tobacco from which the aromatics were prepared. Likewise, when smoked, the tobaccoflavored lettuce had a pleasing and natural tobacco aroma and flavor.

EXAMPLE II The same procedure as in Example I was followed, except that the aromatics were extracted from cured tobacco without added water, dry heated at a temperature of approximately 250 F., and the aromatics were sorbed into the activated charcoal.

EXAMPLE III The same procedure was followed as in Example I, except that an inert gas (nitrogen) was heated to 225 F. and passed through the tobacco of Example I. This inert gas containing the aromatics was then passed through the activated charcoal "bed as in Example I.

Another variation contemplated by the present invention relates to the source of the aromatics, for instance, substantial quantities of high quality aromatics may be recovered from the air in which tobacco has been stored or processed if the aromatic ladened air is drawn through the chambers containing the charcoal. These aromatics have a variety of uses including that of providing a taste and aroma of tobacco to nontobacco vegetable matter.

From the foregoing detailed description it will be evident that there are a number of changes, adaptations, and modifications of the present invention which come within the province of those skilled in the art.

I claim:

1. A process for producing a smokable product possessing a tobacco taste and flavor comprising:

providing cured natural tobacco,

removing the aromatics naturally contained in said tobacco,

'sorbing said aromatics on activated charcoal without substantial deterioration of said aromatics, extracting said aromatics from said charcoal,

providing commercially acceptable, smokable vegetable matter, and

applying said extracted aromatics to said vegetable matter to form a smoka'ble product having tobacco taste and flavor.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein said aromatics are removed from said tobacco by dry heat at a temperature not greater than the scorching temperature of the tobacco.

3. The process of claim 1, wherein said aromatics are removed from said tobacco by steam distillation.

4. The process of claim 1, wherein said aromatics are removed from said tobacco by passing an inert gas through said tobacco.

5. The process of claim 1, wherein said sorbing is accomplished from conventionally processed tobacco.

6. The process of claim 1, wherein said extraction is a solvent extraction wherein the solvent is selected from the group consisting of halogenated alkanes and ethyl ether.

7. The process of claim 4, wherein said extraction is a solvent extraction wherein the solvent is selected from the group consisting of halogenated alkanes and ethyl ether.

8. The process of claim 1, wherein said vegetable matter is a nontobacco, commercially acceptable, smokable material, selected from the group consisting of cellulose, treated lettuce leaves, cabbage leaves, and vegetable fibers.

9. A smoka'ble product possessing a tobacco taste and flavor made by the process of claim 1.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,576,021 11/1951 Korge l3l2 FOREIGN PATENTS 654,045 6/ 1951 Great Britain.

588,955 11/1933 Germany.

OTHER REFERENCES Shmuk (text): The Chemistry and Technology of Tobacco, pub. by Pishchepromizdat, Moscow 1953translation available from Office of Technical Services, US. Dept. of Commerce, Washington 25, D.C. P.S.T. Cat. No. 96, pp. 588-590, incl. cited.

MELVIN D. REIN, Primary Examiner.

US. Cl. X.R. 1312, 17

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US4144895A (en) * 1974-03-08 1979-03-20 Amf Incorporated Solvent extraction process
US4150677A (en) * 1977-01-24 1979-04-24 Philip Morris Incorporated Treatment of tobacco
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Cited By (111)

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US3529607A (en) * 1968-09-05 1970-09-22 Werner Richard Gotthard Luttic Method of influencing the flavor of tobacco
US3651815A (en) * 1968-09-30 1972-03-28 Haarmann & Reimer Gmbh Smokable products and a process for their production
US4153063A (en) * 1970-09-02 1979-05-08 Studiengesellschaft Kohle Mbh Process for the extraction of nicotine from tobacco
US4144895A (en) * 1974-03-08 1979-03-20 Amf Incorporated Solvent extraction process
US4150677A (en) * 1977-01-24 1979-04-24 Philip Morris Incorporated Treatment of tobacco
US4793365A (en) * 1984-09-14 1988-12-27 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US5076292A (en) * 1984-09-14 1991-12-31 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US4727889A (en) * 1986-12-22 1988-03-01 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco processing
US4898188A (en) * 1986-12-22 1990-02-06 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco Processing
US5018540A (en) * 1986-12-29 1991-05-28 Philip Morris Incorporated Process for removal of basic materials
US5005593A (en) * 1988-01-27 1991-04-09 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Process for providing tobacco extracts
US5435325A (en) * 1988-04-21 1995-07-25 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Process for providing tobacco extracts using a solvent in a supercritical state
US5016654A (en) * 1988-12-21 1991-05-21 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Flavor substances for smoking articles
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EP0374779A2 (en) * 1988-12-21 1990-06-27 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Flavor substances for smoking articles
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US5074319A (en) * 1990-04-19 1991-12-24 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco extraction process
US5318050A (en) * 1991-06-04 1994-06-07 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco treatment process
US5235992A (en) * 1991-06-28 1993-08-17 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Processes for producing flavor substances from tobacco and smoking articles made therewith
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