New! View global litigation for patent families

US3408786A - Siding clip fastener means - Google Patents

Siding clip fastener means Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3408786A
US3408786A US60855167A US3408786A US 3408786 A US3408786 A US 3408786A US 60855167 A US60855167 A US 60855167A US 3408786 A US3408786 A US 3408786A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
siding
member
clip
portion
layer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Jerome E Snyker
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Boise Cascade Corp
Original Assignee
Boise Cascade Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0864Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements composed of superposed elements which overlap each other and of which the flat outer surface includes an acute angle with the surface to cover

Description

NOV. 5, 1968 1 E SNYKER SIDING CLIP FASTENER MEANS Filed Jan. l1, 1967 w kwsf.

villini/1 INVENTOR Jerome E .Snyker ATTORNEYS nited States Patent 3,408,786 SIDING 'CLIP FASTENER MEANS Jerome E. Snyker, International Falls, Minn., assignor to Boise Cascade Corporation, Boise, Idaho, a corporation of Delaware Filed Jan. 11, 1967, Ser. No. 608,551 4 Claims. (Cl. 52-309) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A concealed fastener means for adhesively connecting the adjacent upper and lower edges, respectively, of a pail of overlapped synthetic plastic coated exterior wall siding members.

This invention relates generally to concealed clip means for fastening, by -means of a pressure sensitive adhesive, the lower edge portion of a horizontal siding member with the upper edge portion of a lower siding member overlapped thereby. More particularly, the invention relates to a generally U-shaped clip fastener adapted for mounting upon the upper edge of a lower siding member and including an outer leg that carries a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive for engagement with the adjacent surface of an overlapped upper siding member.

As evidenced by the prior patents to Millard No. 1,376,215, Fischer No. 1,592,760, Tashjian No. 2,114,- 362, and Eason No. 2,390,697 it is known in the prior art to provide adhesive Imeans between the overlapped portions of structural building components. Furthermore the use of clip means for fastening overlapping components is broadly suggested by the prior patents to Thomas No. 2,126,676, Hasenburger et al. No. 2,328,977, Small No. 2,413,794 and Trachtenberg No. 3,110,130. As a consequence of the recent extensive use and acceptance of building components having a lignocellulosic core coated with a protective layer of a colored synthetic plastic material such as polyvinyl chloride, the need has arisen for an improved concealed fastener means for connecting the overlapping portions of successive components that is quickly and inexpensively installa'ble, that provides a firm permanent connection under varying temperature and whether conditions, and that avoids the use of fastening means which penetrate the exposed portions of the components.

The primary object of the present invention is to provide improved concealed clip fastener means for adhesively connecting the overlapping portions of precoated or uncoated building components, such as siding members. The invention is characterized by the use of generally U-shaped synthetic plastic or metal clip fasteners that are mounted in longitudinally spaced relation on the upper edge of a lower siding member, the outer leg of each clip carrying a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive arranged for engagement with the adjacent overlapping portion of the next successive upper siding member.

A more specic object of the invention is to provide a clip fastener of the type described above wherein the outer leg of the clip is bonded to a layer of resilient cushioning material which in turn carries the layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive, whereby in the completed wall structure, each siding member may be secured (by nails for example) adjacent its upper edge to a support, and the lower edge portion is resiliently connected with the upper edge portion of the siding member overlapped thereby. According to another feature of the invention, the clip fastener is initially provided with a removable protective overlay sheet that `facilitates the marketing, packaging and handling of the clips and the installation thereof during construction of the siding structure.

Another object of the invention is to provide a clip fastener of the type described above wherein the U-shaped clip comprises a pair of separable interlocked sections each carrying one leg of the clip, whereby during construction of the siding structure, one section defining the inner leg may be nailed to the support together with the top edge portion of the lower siding member. The other section, which carries the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is then connected with the first section to permit adhesive connection between the clip (which is mounted on the lower siding member) and the overlapping portion of the upper siding member.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a study of the following specification when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 is a front elevation View of a Wall siding structure using the preferred form of securing means according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line Z-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the clip element as manufactured and prior to the removal of the protective overlay sheet; and

FIG. 5 is a sectional view, corresponding to FIG. 2, of another clip embodiment having separable interlocked sections.

Referring irst to FIG. l, the siding structure includes a plurality of horizontal overlapping siding members 2 that are successively secured adjacent their upper edges by nails 4 to vertical supports 6 at vertically spaced locations, whereby the lower edge of one siding member overlaps the upper edge of the adjacent lower siding member to conceal the nail securing means thereof. ln accordance with the present invention, the overlapping portions of the siding members are connected by concealed clip members 8 that are mounted in longitudinally spaced relation upon the upper edge of each member and carry a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive for engagement with the overlapping lower portion of the next member thereabove.

In the preferred embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 2-4, each siding member 2 includes a core portion 12 (of a lignocellulosic material, such as wood or a pressed wood fiber composition, or other conventional natural or synthetic material) that is covered by a protective coating 14 (preferably of a synthetic plastic material, such as polyvinyl chloride).

The clips 8, which are formed of metal or a synthetic plastic material (such as a vinyl plastic), have in transverse cross section a U-shaped configuration defining downwardly extending inner and outer legs 8a, 8b that straddle the upper edge of a siding member when the clip is mounted thereon. Permanently secured to the eX- ternal surface of the outer leg 8b by a layer of cement 16 (such as a neoprene contact cement) is a layer of resilient cushioning material 18 (for example, urethane foam). The cushioning layer 18 carries a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive 20 for example, an acrylic pressure-sensitive material arranged to engage the polyvinyl chloride face of the lower portion of the inner face of siding member 2b. Preferably, at least this portion of the inner face of siding member 2b is coated with a layer of primer adhesive, such as a free flowing nitrile latex adhesive, to effect a rm bond with the pressure sensitive adhesive.

As shown in FIG. 4, each individual clip, as initially manufactured, is provided with a removable protective release sheet 22 (for example, a synthetic plastic material, cellophane, wax paper or the like) that covers the pressure sensitive adhesive layer 20 during the packaging, marketing, handling and installation of the clips.

In FIGS. 2 and 4, the combined thickness of the outer legs 8a and 8b, the cement layer 16, the cushioning material 18, the adhesive layer 16, the cushioning material 18, the adhesive layer 20 and the protective release sheet 22 is exaggerated for illustrative purposes. The actual thickness of the leg 8b and the combined layers supported thereby is generally less than two millimeters.

In constructing the siding structure, a first siding member 2a is secured adjacent its upper edge to the vertical supports 6 by nails 4 as shown in FIG. 3, whereupon a. plurality of clips 8 are mounted in longitudinally spaced relation on the upper edge of the siding member (as shown in FIG. 1), the outer legs 8b of the clips being exposed. The protective sheets 22 are then removed from the clips to expose the pressure sensitive adhesive layer 20, whereupon the next upper siding member 2b is arranged with its lower edge portion overlapping the upper edge portion of the siding member 2a, thereby concealing the nails 4 and the clips 8 associated therewith. Following partial nailing of the upper edge portion of siding member 2b to the supports 6, the lower portion of siding member 2b is pressed in firm contact with the adhesive layer 20 on the clips 8, whereupon the nailing of the siding member 2b to the support is completed. Owing to the compressability of the resilient cushioning member, the initial pressing of the member 2b into contact with the pressure sensitive layer is facilitated to achieve a uniform bond, and following completion of the siding construction, the lower portions of the siding members are rmly and resiliently held in place in a permanent manner. Any opening between siding members caused by the clips 8 may be caulked or otherwise sealed if desirable, and it lmust be understood that the constructions illustrated in the drawings are intended to show in simplified form the novel combination of applicants invention. This combination can readily be employed in conjunction with subsiding or other known constructional features not shown.

In the modification of FIG. 5, the clip 108 consists of two interlocked separable sections that carry the inner and outer legs 108a and 108b, respectively. The sections may be formed of a synthetic plastic material (for eX- ample, a vinyl plastic), metal or the like. The sections are interlocked by the cooperation between the upwardly extending projection 110 on section 112 and the downwardly extending projections 114 on section 116. The section 116 carries a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive 118 arranged for engagement with the adjacent inner face of the siding member 102b. The surfaces of clip section 116 and siding member 102b in contact with the layer 118 of pressure sensitive material may `be coated with a primer adhesive, such as nitrile latex, to enhance the pressure sensitive bond. The thickness of the clip 108 and the adhesive layer 118 has been exaggerated in FIG. 5 in a manner similar to FIGS. 2 and 4 for purposes of illustration.

During installation of the clip of FIG. 5, the leg 108a of the inner section 112 is positioned between the support 6 and the upper edge portion of siding member 102a,

tion into engagement with the adhesive layer 118. In thev alternative, the clip portion 10812 may be prefastened to the back face of the siding before application to the wall. If desired, the clip of FIG. 5 may be provided with the -resilient cushioning layer and/or the removable protective sheet illustrated in the FIG. 4 embodiment.

While in accordance with the provisions of the patent statutes the preferred forms and embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modications may Ibe made without deviating from the invention set forth in the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A building wall construction, comprising:

inner and outer horizontal parallel overlapping siding members each arranged vertically upon one longitudinal edge, said inner siding member being connected adjacent its upper edge with a vertical support and said outer siding member being connected adjacent its upper edge with the support at an elevation above and spaced from the upper edge of said inner siding member, the lower portion of the inner vertical side surface of the outer siding member being opposite the upper portion of the outer vertical side surface of the inner siding member, each of said siding members including a lignocellulosic core portion and a synthetic plastic shell covering the side and edge surfaces of the core portion;

a plurality of generally U-shaped clip means mounted in spaced relation upon the upper edge portion of the inner siding member, each of said clip means comprising a clip member including downwardly depending legs in contiguous engagement with the corresponding inner and outer surfaces of the inner siding member, respectively;

cushioning means including a layer of resilient cushioning material bonded to the outer surface of the outer leg of each clip member; and

pressure sensitive adhesive means carried by the outer surface of said resilient cushioning layer securing said clip means with the 4said lower portion of the inner vertical side surface of the outer siding member, whereby the lower portion of the outer siding member is rigidly connected with the inner siding member,

2. A building construction as defined in claim 1, wherein said synthetic plastic covering layer comprises polyvinyl chloride, and wherein said pressure sensitive adhesive comprises an acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive.

3. A building construction as defined in claim 2, and further including a primer layer of nitrile latex adhesive coating at least that portion of the synthetic plastic layer that is adjacent the pressure sensitive adhesive.

4. A building wall construction, comprising:

inner and outer horizontal parallel overlapping siding members each arranged vertically upon one longitudinal edge, said inner siding member being connected adjacent its upper edge with the support at an elevation above and spaced from the upper edge of said inner siding member, the lower portion of the inner vertical side surface of the outer siding member being opposite the upper portion of the outer vertical side surface of the inner siding member, each of said siding members including a lignocellulosic core portion and asynthetic plastic shell covering the side and edge surfaces of the core portion;

a plurality of generally U-shaped clip means mounted in spaced relation upon the upper edge portion of the inner siding member, each of said clip means ycomprising a clip member including downwardly depending legs, Said clip members each including a pair of interlocked separable sections carrying the leg portions of said clip member, respectively, one of said sections including a transverse extension carrying a generally 'upwardly directed projection and the other of said sections including a transverse extension carrying a generally ydownwardly directed projection in interlocked relation with said upwardly directed projection; and

adhesive means bonding said sections with the outer surface of the inner siding member and the inner surface of the outer siding member, respectively.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Sharp 52-418 Fulenwider 52-547 Johannsen 52-394 Newton 52-547 Rubenstein 52--309 Johnson 52-716 Patry 52-309 Bettoli 52-417 Kessler 52-538 Great Britain.

15 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner-

US3408786A 1967-01-11 1967-01-11 Siding clip fastener means Expired - Lifetime US3408786A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3408786A US3408786A (en) 1967-01-11 1967-01-11 Siding clip fastener means

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3408786A US3408786A (en) 1967-01-11 1967-01-11 Siding clip fastener means

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3408786A true US3408786A (en) 1968-11-05

Family

ID=24436998

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3408786A Expired - Lifetime US3408786A (en) 1967-01-11 1967-01-11 Siding clip fastener means

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3408786A (en)

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3604736A (en) * 1970-04-17 1971-09-14 Engineered Products Inc Panel joint construction
US3852932A (en) * 1971-10-14 1974-12-10 Nippon Light Metal Co Metal roof structure
US3866378A (en) * 1971-10-12 1975-02-18 Gerald Kessler Siding with loose plastic film facing
US3967422A (en) * 1968-09-23 1976-07-06 Stegmeier William J Disposable mold form and method of molding
FR2322244A1 (en) * 1975-08-28 1977-03-25 Grefco Junction device for panels
US4034532A (en) * 1976-05-13 1977-07-12 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Roof hold down clip assembly
US4102106A (en) * 1976-12-28 1978-07-25 Gaf Corporation Siding panel
US4346541A (en) * 1978-08-31 1982-08-31 G & S Company Building panel construction and panel assemblies utilizing same
US4706432A (en) * 1986-02-18 1987-11-17 Fishburn Roofing Sciences Group Limited Air vapor securement closure for a membrane roofing system
US4782638A (en) * 1986-11-03 1988-11-08 National Gypsum Company Hurricane protector clips
US5070670A (en) * 1989-12-11 1991-12-10 Alderson W Howard Roof panel attachment system
US5201981A (en) * 1991-08-16 1993-04-13 Citadel Architectural Products, Inc. Method of forming synthetic plastic film-projected building siding
FR2717202A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-15 Creabat Invisible fixing of wall facings
WO2006127344A2 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 David James Horwitz Handrail assembly
US7325325B2 (en) 2000-02-28 2008-02-05 James Hardle International Finance B.V. Surface groove system for building sheets
US7524555B2 (en) 1999-11-19 2009-04-28 James Hardie International Finance B.V. Pre-finished and durable building material
US7713615B2 (en) 2001-04-03 2010-05-11 James Hardie International Finance B.V. Reinforced fiber cement article and methods of making and installing the same
US20100251655A1 (en) * 2009-04-01 2010-10-07 Shaun Robert Monteer Universal mounting clip for siding strips installed in a horizontal overlapping pattern
US7993570B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2011-08-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Durable medium-density fibre cement composite
US7998571B2 (en) 2004-07-09 2011-08-16 James Hardie Technology Limited Composite cement article incorporating a powder coating and methods of making same
US8281535B2 (en) 2002-07-16 2012-10-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Packaging prefinished fiber cement articles
US8297018B2 (en) 2002-07-16 2012-10-30 James Hardie Technology Limited Packaging prefinished fiber cement products
US8993462B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2015-03-31 James Hardie Technology Limited Surface sealed reinforced building element
US9624675B2 (en) 2013-01-27 2017-04-18 Fiber Cement Foam Systems Insulation, LLC Method and device to attach building siding boards

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1334178A (en) * 1919-08-01 1920-03-16 Walter B Sharp Compensating expansion roofing connection
US1880318A (en) * 1929-07-29 1932-10-04 Southern States Iron Roofing C Roofing fastener
US2602408A (en) * 1949-02-17 1952-07-08 Gen Electric Expansion joint
US2928143A (en) * 1956-09-26 1960-03-15 Building Products Ltd Ventilated siding and panel clip
GB920803A (en) * 1959-06-24 1963-03-13 Skanska Attikfabriken Ab Improvements in or relating to mouldings for decorative wall panelling
US3145502A (en) * 1955-04-01 1964-08-25 Rubenstein David Structural element and method of making
US3200547A (en) * 1963-07-01 1965-08-17 Standard Coated Products Inc Corner molding
US3300913A (en) * 1964-03-02 1967-01-31 Lamont & Riley Inc Expansion joint cover and flashing therefor
US3300927A (en) * 1963-01-21 1967-01-31 Ruberoid Company Laminated sheet material
US3332192A (en) * 1964-06-09 1967-07-25 Kessler Gerald Interlocking panel assembly

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1334178A (en) * 1919-08-01 1920-03-16 Walter B Sharp Compensating expansion roofing connection
US1880318A (en) * 1929-07-29 1932-10-04 Southern States Iron Roofing C Roofing fastener
US2602408A (en) * 1949-02-17 1952-07-08 Gen Electric Expansion joint
US3145502A (en) * 1955-04-01 1964-08-25 Rubenstein David Structural element and method of making
US2928143A (en) * 1956-09-26 1960-03-15 Building Products Ltd Ventilated siding and panel clip
GB920803A (en) * 1959-06-24 1963-03-13 Skanska Attikfabriken Ab Improvements in or relating to mouldings for decorative wall panelling
US3300927A (en) * 1963-01-21 1967-01-31 Ruberoid Company Laminated sheet material
US3200547A (en) * 1963-07-01 1965-08-17 Standard Coated Products Inc Corner molding
US3300913A (en) * 1964-03-02 1967-01-31 Lamont & Riley Inc Expansion joint cover and flashing therefor
US3332192A (en) * 1964-06-09 1967-07-25 Kessler Gerald Interlocking panel assembly

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3967422A (en) * 1968-09-23 1976-07-06 Stegmeier William J Disposable mold form and method of molding
US3604736A (en) * 1970-04-17 1971-09-14 Engineered Products Inc Panel joint construction
US3866378A (en) * 1971-10-12 1975-02-18 Gerald Kessler Siding with loose plastic film facing
US3852932A (en) * 1971-10-14 1974-12-10 Nippon Light Metal Co Metal roof structure
FR2322244A1 (en) * 1975-08-28 1977-03-25 Grefco Junction device for panels
US4067155A (en) * 1975-08-28 1978-01-10 Grefco, Inc. Sealing system
US4034532A (en) * 1976-05-13 1977-07-12 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Roof hold down clip assembly
US4102106A (en) * 1976-12-28 1978-07-25 Gaf Corporation Siding panel
US4346541A (en) * 1978-08-31 1982-08-31 G & S Company Building panel construction and panel assemblies utilizing same
US4706432A (en) * 1986-02-18 1987-11-17 Fishburn Roofing Sciences Group Limited Air vapor securement closure for a membrane roofing system
US4782638A (en) * 1986-11-03 1988-11-08 National Gypsum Company Hurricane protector clips
US5070670A (en) * 1989-12-11 1991-12-10 Alderson W Howard Roof panel attachment system
US5201981A (en) * 1991-08-16 1993-04-13 Citadel Architectural Products, Inc. Method of forming synthetic plastic film-projected building siding
US5324382A (en) * 1991-08-16 1994-06-28 Citadel Architectural Products Apparatus for forming synthetic-plastic-covered exterior building siding
FR2717202A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-15 Creabat Invisible fixing of wall facings
US7524555B2 (en) 1999-11-19 2009-04-28 James Hardie International Finance B.V. Pre-finished and durable building material
US7325325B2 (en) 2000-02-28 2008-02-05 James Hardle International Finance B.V. Surface groove system for building sheets
US8409380B2 (en) 2001-04-03 2013-04-02 James Hardie Technology Limited Reinforced fiber cement article and methods of making and installing the same
US7713615B2 (en) 2001-04-03 2010-05-11 James Hardie International Finance B.V. Reinforced fiber cement article and methods of making and installing the same
US8281535B2 (en) 2002-07-16 2012-10-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Packaging prefinished fiber cement articles
US8297018B2 (en) 2002-07-16 2012-10-30 James Hardie Technology Limited Packaging prefinished fiber cement products
US7993570B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2011-08-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Durable medium-density fibre cement composite
US7998571B2 (en) 2004-07-09 2011-08-16 James Hardie Technology Limited Composite cement article incorporating a powder coating and methods of making same
WO2006127344A2 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 David James Horwitz Handrail assembly
US7523592B2 (en) * 2005-05-20 2009-04-28 Duracase Proprietary, Llc Handrail assembly with panel and engaging sleeves
WO2006127344A3 (en) * 2005-05-20 2009-04-23 David James Horwitz Handrail assembly
US20060283108A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-12-21 Horwitz David J Handrail assembly
US8993462B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2015-03-31 James Hardie Technology Limited Surface sealed reinforced building element
US20100251655A1 (en) * 2009-04-01 2010-10-07 Shaun Robert Monteer Universal mounting clip for siding strips installed in a horizontal overlapping pattern
US9624675B2 (en) 2013-01-27 2017-04-18 Fiber Cement Foam Systems Insulation, LLC Method and device to attach building siding boards

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3466831A (en) Sandwich-type building panel
US3421276A (en) Transition joint-forming devices and joint structures incorporating the same
US3533201A (en) Fascia and flashing construction
US3237360A (en) Fastening means for overlapping boards
US3121649A (en) Method of installing roof insulation on buildings
US3162906A (en) Separating strips for wall joints
US3158960A (en) Siding panels
US3307306A (en) Insulation blanket structure
US3251163A (en) Clamp joint construction for prefabricated panels
US4566239A (en) Insulation system
US5417020A (en) Wall system providing an array of individual panels
US4034528A (en) Insulating vinyl siding
US3214876A (en) Nail anchored building siding
US3388518A (en) Curtain wall assembly clip
US5765328A (en) Drainage system for decks
US2894292A (en) Combination sub-floor and top floor
US3159251A (en) Flexible corner molding for curved surfaces
US5729946A (en) Apparatus and method of applying building panels to surfaces
US4052831A (en) Panel building construction and method, and clip
US5016415A (en) Insulated panel siding
US5003743A (en) Panel support member and support arrangement
US3968610A (en) Facing structures for building
US6000185A (en) Apparatus and method of applying building panels to surfaces
US2307653A (en) Wall and ceiling construction
US5857303A (en) Apparatus and method of applying building panels to surfaces