US3397497A - Deck system - Google Patents

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US3397497A
US3397497A US59748266A US3397497A US 3397497 A US3397497 A US 3397497A US 59748266 A US59748266 A US 59748266A US 3397497 A US3397497 A US 3397497A
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projections
concrete
panel
walls
form
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Yale R Shea
John S Hickman
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INLAND STEEL PRODUCTS CO
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INLAND STEEL PRODUCTS CO
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/32Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements
    • E04B5/36Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor
    • E04B5/38Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element
    • E04B5/40Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element with metal form-slabs

Description

Y. R. SHEA ETAL DECK SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet, 1

QQ\ m 729m ma #ZW original Filed Jan. 14, 1965 Aug. 2o, 196s Aug. 20, 1968 Y. R. SHEA ETAL 3,397,497

DECK SYSTEM Original Filed Jan. 14, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug 20, 1968 Y. R. SHEA ETAL 3,397,497

DECK SYSTEM Original Filed Jan. 14, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 @liar/Wega United States Patent O 3,397,497 DECK SYSTEM Yale R. Shea, Hales Corners, and John S. Hickman, Shorewood, Wis., assignors to Inland Steel Products Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a corporation of Delaware Continuation of application Ser. No. 428,013, Jan. 14,

1965. This application Nov. 28, 1966, Ser. No. 597,482

5 Claims. (Cl. 52-334) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A panel adapted for use in a composite concrete-metal panel structure wherein the panel comprises a plurality of trough-shaped portions having projections extending from the walls in oblique directions with the projections having a total cross-sectional area such that the panel is capable, when employed with concrete, to form a composite unit of supporting a horizontal tensile load free of separate discrete reinforcing bars.

This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 428,013, filed Jan. 14, 1965, now abandoned, which was a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 169,556, filed J an. 29, 1962, now abandoned, which was a continuationin-part of Ser. No. 98,677, filed Mar. 27, 1961, now abandoned.

This invention relates to a metal form into which concrete or the like is adapted to be poured in order to cast a roof or oor structure. It more particularly relates to a permanent metal form for providing a base for rein- Iforced concrete oors, roof slabs, and the like.

To facilitate the erection of building structures, forms are needed as a base for concrete floors and roof slabs which span the joist and beam components of the framework. A variety of form systems are available including formed metal sheets over which reinforced concrete slabs are laid. In one system for the metal form centering of concrete roofs and oors a shaped metal form having sloped side walls is used. After the forms have been positioned on the supporting joists or beams and the reinforcing rods or mesh located, the concrete is poured over the form. When the concrete hardens, the concrete and the form becomes an integral structure. The for-m has the dual function of aiding in the casting operation and of reinforcing the concrete at its lower surface where it is the weakest. It is desirable, however, to improve the bonding between the form surface and the concrete.

Accordingly, thi-s invention provides a permanent metal form havin-g projections disposed on the side wall elements of the form for keying the concrete to the form. The holding force therebetween consists not only of the bonding force of the concrete, but in addition and quite importantly, of the keying force of the projections. These projections are preferably formed in a blank sheet by means of embossing rollers or other conventional roll-forming or sheet metal Ifabricating techniques during the shaping of the sheet into a final form. The projections thus formed, though simple and easy to make, provide an inexpensive way of keying the concrete to the form. Additionally this invention obviates the need for reinforcing means while at the same time allowing for increased design strength for the integral concrete-panel form. The advantages of this invention are particularly apparent in considering the time, labor and material saved due to the deletion of conventional reinforcing bars in the erection of large multi-story buildings.

Thus, this invention provides for bonding of a metal deck with concrete or the like in a manner that reliably provides for shear transfer permitting a designer to use the metal deck for reinforcing the steel structurally.

Prior -metal deck constructions have been used for a form during erection and dead load support whereas the metal form of this invention permits the same steel to participate as an integral system for live load support wherein conventional reinforcing bars are eliminated.

The form used in carrying out this invention has a generally corrugated shape, employing adjacent troughshaped portions which are connected to one another by top walls. Each of the trough-shaped portions has a bottom wall which connects spaced side walls angularly disposed to the connecting top and bottom walls. rIlhe side walls which can depend perpendicularly or obliquely from the top walls are provided with projections which aid in keying the concrete to the form.

Other advantages will be seen when reference is made to the remainder of the specification and the drawings.

In the drawings:

FIGURE l is a perspective view partly in cross-section showing the form and the concrete united into an integral structure;

FIGURE 2 is an elevation cross-sectional View showing the concrete keyed to the metal form by means of projections on the side wall;

FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIGURE 2 showing an embodiment wherein lthe embossments are convex;

FIGURE 4 is a perspective View showing another comventional metal form for reinforced concrete which employs the bonding system of the invention;

FIGURE 5 is a modification of the embodiment of FIGURES 2 and 3, wherein the embossments are alternately concave and convex;

FIGURE 6 is another modification of the embodiment of FIGURES 2 and 3, wherein the embossments are concave;

FIGURE 7 is a perspective view of the invention applied to a structural cellular panel system;

FIGURES 8 through 11 are elevation views showing various modications of embossments which are contemplated;

FIGURE 12 is a cross-sectional view showing the projections formed by Welding metal pieces to the web;

FIGURE 13 shows the outline of illustrative forms which incorparte the invention of this application; and,

FIGURE 14 shows a loading arrangement for tests conducted to ascertain the load carrying capacity of various slabs.

In the drawing there is shown a specific illustrative embodiment of this invention which comprises a form 10 having a general outline which is known in the art. Concrete 11 or the like is cast into form 10, which, upon hardening, results in an integral structure. Viewing FIG- URE 2, the form has smooth, uninterrupted spaced top walls 12 which lie in a plane. Parallel to and spaced between the top walls 12 lie similar smooth, uninterrupted spaced bottom walls 13. The walls 12 and 13 are preferably left smooth and void of embossments because the beam strength of these walls is reduced if there are projections or weakened places along their length. Welding the `forms to other structural members or to each other as shown for example in FIGURE 7 would be rendered difcult if walls 12 and 13 were not smooth, and the laying of electrical conduits and the like upon the smooth walls is facilitated. Spaced side Walls 14 are connected to a bottom wall 13 to form a trough shaped portion. The trough shaped portions 9 are connected together by top walls 12 to form the corrugated panel. The side walls can be perpendicular to the walls 12 and 13; however, they are generally sloped preferably outwardly from the bottom walls but they can be sloped inwardly if desired.

Either one or both of the opposite side Walls 14 in a trough shaped portion are provided with projections 1'5 along the entire length of the side wall. Projections 15 in each Wall 14 can be made either convex as shown in FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 or concave as shown in FIGURE 6. It is also contemplated that alternate projections can be made concave and convex in a repeating sequence as shown in FIGURE 5. The projections 15 can take various embodiments or patterns as shown in FIGURES 8 through 11.

The pattern of oblique projections of FIGURE 3 is the preferred embodiment. When this embodiment is employed, it is desirable to have the oblique projections in one wall 14 of a trough-shaped portion extend in a different direction from the oblique projections in the opposite spaced side wall. In fact, the projections in one Wall 14 are disposed at 45 degrees with respect to the lon-gitudinal axis of the Wall and extend in one direction, while the projections in the opposite spaced side wall 14 are disposed at 45 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis of the Wall and extend in the other direction. In other Words, the projections in the opposite side Walls of a trough-shaped portion are perpendicular to each other. These projections simultaneously prevent the vertical and horizontal displacement of concrete when the composite hydrated concrete-steel for-m beam is loaded in any manner, thereby reducing concrete slippage, while at the same time and increasing the load capacity for any given combination of projections. Projections placed only in the vertical side walls facilitate shipment as there is no interference in stacking. All load bearing horizontal walls are free of projections which, were they present in the horizontal top and bottom Walls, would cause damage to the protective coating on the metal forms during shipment.

The embodiment or pattern shown in FIGURE 8 comprises a repeating ordered sequence of elongated spaced perpendicular projections in wall 14.

The embodiment or pattern shown in FIGURE 9 cornprises a random arrangement of projections in side wall 14.

The embodiment or pattern shown in FIGURE l2 comprises a plurality of elongated projections in side wall 14 extending parallel to the longitudinal directions of top wall 12 and bottom Wall 13.

The embodiment or pattern shown in FIGURE comprises a plurality of diamond-shaped projections in side wall 14.

While the projections have been described as preferably created in the blank sheet by means of embossing rollers and are in fact embossments, it is to be understood that the projections might be formed by Welding metal strips or pieces 15a to the sheet, or to the side Walls as shown in FIGURE l1.

FIGURE 7 shows an application of the invention to a structural cellular panel system. In FIGURE 7 is shown a panel unit in which there are closely spaced ducts. Form 16 is composed of form 10 and similar form 17 attached t-o each other, for example by welding, in back-to-back relation. The structure of the composite form 16 possesses great structural stability. Moreover, the elongated duct 18 formed by the respective Walls of the back-to-back panels provides a convenient means for carrying electrical conduits and the like.

The hat-shaped section of FIGURE 4 illustrates another type of a conventional form to which the invention can be applied. It is therefore apparent `that the inventive concept herein disclosed is not limited to the general type of form shown in FIGURES 1 and 7 but is useful in connection with other types of forms having wall members.

Each form 10 is provided with means for attaching it to other similar forms so as to provide an entire floor or roof. In the embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 1 a tongue 19 and a groove 20 are employed to accomplish this purpose.

To demonstrate the advantages of this invention, tests were conducted to ascertain the load carrying capacity of a composite construction employing the novel panel Test specimen: Description A yPanel having projections on side walls as shown and disclosed herein plus concrete.

B Panel having no projections on any walls thereof plus concrete.

C Panel having no projections on any Walls thereof plus reinforcing bars and concrete.

D Panel having no projections on any walls thereof plus reinforcing bars and concrete (panel used only as concrete form, the panel being removed before loading).

E Concrete plus reinforcing bars (concrete was solid slab).

The roll formed panels utilized in the tests, with and without projections were all .030 (22 gauge) in thickness. The maximum depth of the individual projections extending outwardly from the face of the side walls of the panel designated specimen A is about 0.075 inch.

In all tests, a load P was applied in equal increments up to apparent yield at which time deflection dials were removed and loading was then continued to ultimate failure. The load P was :applied to the top of a slab through I beam sections to simulate a knife-edge loading. The loading arrangement for these tests is illustrated in FIGURE 14. Loading was accomplished by means of a hydraulic ram.

For purpose of analysis:

IT=Total moment of inertia for test specimen. P=load.

E=Modulus of elasticity of steel-2.95 106 p.s.i. L=Length of test specimen-60" (72"). A=Deliection at centerline of specimen.

The results of the load-deliection tests on the various test specimens designated A-E yabove are shown in Table I:

TABLE I Percent Chango Test Specimen P, Lbs. A, In IT, In.4 Comparison To Test A As evidenced by the above table, comparison test results reveal the load carrying capacity of a metal form having projections on the side walls plus concrete, is increased by 11.5% minimum (Test A compared 'to Test C) and by 62.5% maximum (Test A compared to Test E) Thus, not only are lsavings effected with the present invention due to obviating the need for the time, labor and material presently utilized in installing reinforcing bars, but additionally,

the load carrying capacity of this new and novel panel is increased more than 11%.

An illustrative embodiment of this invention employs a galvanized 16 gauge steel sheet panel. The illustrative panel has a distance between rib centers, that is the distance between the center of one bottom wall to the center of the next adjacent bottom wall is 6 inches, the depth of the trough-shaped portions in the panel being 11/2 inches. The panel is 24 inches wide and 28 feet 6 inches long. The projections which function as the keying elements are formed in the side walls of the panel and consist of embossments which are convex with respect to the surface of the panel which is in contact with the concrete. The projections extend at 45 degrees in the longitudinal direction on one side wall and at 45 degrees in the longitudinal direction on the opposite sidewall. The embossments are approximately 1% inch wide and extend outwardly from the face of the side wall about 3/16 of an inch. In general, the projections will extend over a major proportion of the width of the side wall upon which they are formed with the overall projection length being sucient to provide a composite concrete-metal panel structure under loading conditions. This condition can be effected using projection lengths (vertically projected and cumulative) of 1/z-% of the width of the side wall. The projections are positioned, in the illustrative embodiment, along the length of the side wall. This is desirable from a manufacturing standpoint; however, for certain installations where shearing stresses do not occur along the length of the composite structure it is only necessary to employ projections in the areas of the side wall which are subjected to shearing stresses when the composite structure is acting under load conditions.

Although the subject invention has been described with reference to a number of specific embodiments, it is evident that one skilled in the art can make various modifications without departing from the scope of the invention. For a variety of illustrative embodiments, reference is made to a brochure entitled Inland Floor Systems, Catalog No. 270, published by Inland Steel Products Company, Milwaukee, Wis. Conventional materials of construction are used in forming sheet metal panels Which embody metal panels which embody the instant invention. Although galvanized sheet steel or uncoated sheet steel are preferred, other structural materials, such as aluminum, copper and its alloys, etc., can be employed. In order to afford sufcient structural lrigidity, the section properties of the formed panel are selected to provide a panel which can function as a safe working platform for a workman as soon as it is positioned on the structural framework of the building and serve as a concrete form and reinforcement without the need for expensive `shoring to hold the form while the wet concrete is being poured. For the illustrative forms shown in FIGURE 13, panel types A to F, 16 to 26 gauge sheet metal suices to provide these properties. In Table II is tabularly summarized the section properties for a variety of profiles and gauges of commercially available panels.

TABLE II.-SECTION PROPERTIES Panel Type Gauge Galv. I, In.4 S, Area, 20 Y,

t., p.s.f. In.3 In.2 In. In.

Section properties per foot of cross section.

2a=Assumed effective bonding perimeter.

The length of the panels provrded will depend upon the joist or beam spacings. Generally the panels are con- Ventionally provided in lengths up to about 30 feet for ease in handling. However, the length of the Sheet is not important. Spans are selected which will permit a maximum loading with minimum deflection of the reinforced concrete oor or roof system. Although a variety of projection designs can be employed, it is preferable not to employ projections which are deeper than 1A inch when using galvanized sheet metal having a gauge between about 16 to 20. It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to particular dimensions or ratios or combinations thereof but are illustrative only.

The above-described embodiments being exemplary only, it will be understood that the present invention contemplates the use of projections differing in detail from the presently described embodiments. Accordingly, the invention is not to be considered as limited save as is consonant with the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An imperforated, unitary, integral permanent metal panel for concrete floor and deck system in building wherein said panel rests on spaced supports and is adapted for absorbing a horizontal tensile load over and above that load capable of being absorbed by solidified concrete which is positioned over the top surface of said panel and is in excess of that load capable of being carried by said panel alone, said unitary, imperforated metal panel comprising:

a plurality of trough-shaped portions, each of said trough-shaped portions comprising:

a smooth, planar bottom wall;

substantially, planar, spaced side walls angularly disposed and connected to said botto-m wall;

a plurality of smooth, planar top walls, said top walls connecting together adjacent trough-shaped portions;

said bottom Walls being of substantially different widths than the widths of said top walls;

projections extending from only said side walls of each of said trough-shaped portions for providing horizontal and vertical keying means for concrete, said projections being adapted to project inwardly into the concrete;

said projections being longitudinally obliquely disposed to the longitudinal axis of each of said walls; and,

said projections being spaced over a major proportion of the length of each of said sidewalls and said projections having a total cross-sectional area such that said panel having said projections therein is capable, when employed with concrete to form a composite unit, of supporting said load free of separate, discrete reinforcing bars.

2. A metal panel in accordance with claim 1 wherein said projections on one of said side walls of each of said trough-shaped portions extend longitudinally obliquely in a first direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said side walls, and said projections on said remaining side wall of each of said trough-shaped portions extend longitudinally obliquely in a second directioll'i1 to the longitudinal axis of each of said remaining side wa s.

3. An imperforated, unitary permanent metal panel for concrete oor and deck system in buildings wherein said panel rests on spaced supports and is adapted for absorbing horizontal tensile forces over and above those tensile forces capable of being absorbed by solidied concrete which is positioned over the top surface of said panel, said unitary, i-mperforated metal panel comprising:

a plurality of trough-shaped portions, the bottom of each of said portions being smaller in width than the top of each of said portions, each of said troughshaped portions having a depth in the range of about 11/2-3 inches and each portion comprising:

a smooth, planar bottom wall;

substantially, planar, spaced side walls angularly disposed and connected to said bottom wall;

a plurality of smooth, planar top walls, said top walls connecting together adjacent trough-shaped portions;

said bottom Walls being of substantially different widths than the widths of said top Walls;

a plurality of discontinuous projections extending from each of said side walls of each of saidtrough-shaped portions, said discontinuous projections being spaced over a major proportion of the length of each of said side walls;

said projections being longitudinally obliquely disposed to the longitudinal axis of each of said side walls;

each of said projections having a projection length between 1/2% of the width of said side walls and projecting away from said side Wall a maximum of about 1A inches; and,

each of said discontinuous projections on one of said side Walls of each of said trough-shaped portions being substantially parallel to the other projections on said side wall and extend solely obliquely in a rst direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said side Walls, and each of said discontinuous pro.

jections on said remaining side Wall of each of said trough-shaped portions being substantially parallel to the other projections on said remaining side Wall extend solely obliquely in a second direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said remaining sidewalls.

4. A composite concrete metal panel structure designed to carry a horizontal tensile load which is over and above that load capable of being carried by the concrete and is in excess of that load capable of being carried by said panel alone, said structure being equivalent to a concretemetal slab having separate, discrete reinforcing bars therein, said structure comprising:

a unitary, integral metal panel having a substantially horizontal solidied concrete slab keyed to the top surface of said panel by casting the concrete thereon;

said panel having a plurality of trough-shaped portions,

each of said trough-shaped portions comprising:

a substantialy planar bottom wall;

substantially planar, spaced side walls angularly disposed and connected to said bottom wall;

a plurality of substantially planar top Walls, said top walls connecting together adjacent trough-shaped portions;

said bottom walls being of substantially different Widths than the Widths of said top walls;

a plurality of discontinuous projections extending from said walls, said projections being spaced over a major proportion of the length of said walls for providing horizontal and vertical keying means for concrete;

said projections being positioned on one of said side walls of each of said trough-shaped portions with said discontinuous projections on said side wall being substantially parallel to each other and extending 5 solely longitudinally obliquely in a rst direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said side walls; said discontinuous projections being positioned on said remaining side wall of each of said trough-shaped portions With said projections on said remaining side Wall being substantially parallel to each other and extending solely longitudinally obliquely in a second direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said remaining side walls; and,

said discontinuous projections having a total crosssectional area such that said panel having said projections and concrete cast on said panel form a cornposite unit which supports said load free of said separate, discrete reinforcing bars.

5. A unitary, integral metal panel for use in a composite concrete-metal panel structure designed to carry a horizontal tensile load which is over and above that load capable of being carried by the concrete and is in excess of that load capable of being carried by said panel alone, said structure being equivalent to a concrete-metal slab having separate, discrete reinforcing bars therein, said metal panel comprising:

a plurality of troughgshaped portions, each of said trough-shaped portions comprising:

a substantially planar bottom wall;

substantially planar, spaced side Walls angularly disposed and connected to said bottom wall;

a plurality of substantially planar top Walls, said top walls connecting together adjacent trough-shaped portions;

said bottom Walls being of substantially diiferent widths than the widths of said top walls;

a plurality of discontinuous projections extending from said Walls, said projections being spaced over a major proportion of the length of said walls for providing horizontal and vertical keying means for concrete;

said discontinuous projections being positioned on one of said side Walls of each of said trough-shaped portions With said discontinuous projections on said side walls being substantially parallel to each other and extending solely longitudinally obliquely in a first direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said side Walls;

said discontinuous projections being positioned on said remaining side Walls of each of said trough-shaped portions, said discontinuous projections on said remaining side walls being substantially parallel to each other and extending solely longitudinaly obliquely in a second direction to the longitudinal axis of each of said remaining side Walls; and,

said projections having a total cross-sectional area such that said panel having said projections therein is capable, when employed with concrete to form a composite unit, of supporting said load free of said separate, discrete reinforcing bars.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 602,274 4/ 1898 Sill 52-399 1,073,906 9/1913 Kahn 52--577 1,170,743 2/1916 Evers 52--675 1,986,171 l/1935 Wilson 52-336 3,245,186 4/1966 Jentoft 52-334 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.

JAMES L. RIDGILL, JR., Assistant Examiner.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION Patent No. 3,397,497 August 20, 1968 Yale R. Shea et al.

It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 4, line 8, "suporting" should read supporting Column 5, TABLE II, sixth column, line 2 thereof, ".658" should read .650 Column 6, line 2l, "building" should read buildings Signed and sealed this 13th day of January 1970.

(SEDIJ Attest:

Edward M. Fletcher, Jr'. WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, JR.

Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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