US3368016A - Process of manufacturing composite and prestressed steelconcrete beams - Google Patents

Process of manufacturing composite and prestressed steelconcrete beams Download PDF

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US3368016A
US3368016A US476833A US47683365A US3368016A US 3368016 A US3368016 A US 3368016A US 476833 A US476833 A US 476833A US 47683365 A US47683365 A US 47683365A US 3368016 A US3368016 A US 3368016A
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concrete
zone
flat
prestressed
prestress
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Birguer Alexandre
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/29Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures
    • E04C3/293Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/20Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • E04C3/22Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members built-up by elements jointed in line
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/20Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • E04C3/26Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members prestressed
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/29Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures
    • E04C3/293Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete
    • E04C3/294Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete of concrete combined with a girder-like structure extending laterally outside the element

Description

Feb. 6, 1968- A. BIRGUER 3,368,016

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING COMPOSITE AND PRESTRESSED STEELrCONCRETE BEAMS Filed Aug. 5, 1965 INVENTOR.

ABirguer ATTQRLMEg;

United States Patent ()fllice 3,368,016 Patented Feb. 6, 1968 3,368,016 PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING COM- POSITE AND PRESTRESSED STEEL- CONCRETE BEAMS Alexandre Birguer, 36 Rue Lincoln, Uccie, Brussels, Belgium Filed Aug. 3, 1965, Ser. No. 476,833 Claims priority, application Belgium, May 21, 1965, 664,243 4 Claims. (Cl. 264-228) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A composite steel-concrete beam has a zone adapted to be subjected to a compressive stress, and another zone adapted to be subjected to a tensive stress. The process of making the beam includes subjecting it to one prestress by means of wires located in the second-mentioned zone, then attaching metal flats, whereby at least one flat is attached by bolts of high tensile strength, applying a layer of mortar between this flat and the underlying flange and then subjecting the beam to another prestress by means of wires located in the second-mentioned zone.

In the erection of buildings and bridges, cases are sometimes encountered in which, over a considerable span of the construction, the height of the beam must be reduced to a minimum.

Armoured and prestressed concrete elements cannot solve this problem, on account of the fact that their l/h ratio (in which I and h are respectively the span and the height of the beam) is limited. An object of the present invention is the provision of a beam which will make it possible to reach limiting values of 1/11 of the order of twice as much as is possible with prestressed concrete, under the same conditions.

In the appended drawing, FIGURE 1 is a cross section, partially in perspective, of a beam of the present invention.

FIGURE 2 is a section through a similar beam provided with additional elements.

For this purpose, the process for making such beam substantially consists in starting with a prefabricated concrete beam 1 (FIG. 1) which may comprise in its zone intended to be compressed by outside stresses, at least one unstressed metal element; in applying to this beam at first prestress by means of wires 6; in fastening to the beam in question, in the zone thereof intended for being subjected to outside tensile stresses, at least one nonstressed element 8 by means of fastening elements of high tensile strength and in inserting, between the metal and the concrete, a layer of mortar 9 and, finally, in applying onto the composite material which has thus been realized by means of wires 7, a second prestress.

In one form of embodiment of the present invention, the composite and prestressed steel-concrete beam consists of a prefabricated concrete beam 1 onto which is fastened a nonstressed metal flat 8 on the side where the flange will be compressed by outside stresses. This flat may be fastened to the hard concrete by means of bolts 10 of high elastic limit and by inserting a layer 9 of cement-mortar or other material between the metal flat and the concrete flange. These bolts must be able to withstand the skimming stresses existing between the metal flat and the remainder of the section (the skimming or grazing stress being the eflort which tends to separate the concrete from the steel). On the other hand, these bolts must prevent buckling of the flat in the zone where the latter is strongly compressed; it is for this reason, although the skimming effort may be negligible at this point, that the bolts must, after all, not be spaced too far apart.

The bolts of high elastic limit subject the contact surface between the steel and the concrete to a prestress which provides the connection by friction. The presence of the layer of cement-mortar provides a coeflicient of friction which is considerably higher than that which would be obtained without this layer of mortar.

The flat can also be attached to the concrete flange by means of studs fastened into said metal flat. These studs should be provided with a head or hook in order to ensure a mutual grip between the flat and the concrete.

These studs must also withstand the skimming or grazing stresses and avoid buckling of the metal flat under compression. The latter must be placed on the concrete flange immediately after the flange has been cast, in order that the studs should readily penetrate into the concrete.

There is a third system for fastening; this metal flat. The latter is then replaced by two or several parts into which the studs are fastened, and they are placed on the shuttering in order that the concrete might be cast between the various flats. This process also has the further advantage of making it possible to tie some prestressing cables between two or several flats.

It may be possible to replace aforesaid metal flats by heavy nonstressed bars embedded into the concrete flange, but in most cases there will hardly be enough space for lodging the number of bars which would be required to replace an outside fiat.

The first prestress is applied by the wires 6, either to the concrete only, when the metal flat is fastened by means of studs of high tensile strength, or on the compound section formed by the concrete section and the steel section fastened to the flange which is to be compressed by outside stresses. The nonstressed metal flat is then fastened to the concrete flange which will be drawn by action of the outside stresses by means of bolts 10 of high tensile strength, by a layer of cement-mortar inserted between this flat and the concrete flange, or by other means which will make it possible to carry out this system of connection with or without mortar layer. These bolts 10 must only withstand the skimming effort existing between the flat and the remainder of the section, considering that in this case the metal flat is being drawn. Any suitable means may be used for inserting the bolts 10 in the manner shown in FIG. 1.

The second prestress is then applied on the complete section with upper and lower flats by wires 7.

After the first prestress, the concrete flange which will be drawn under the effect of outside stresses is strongly compressed. After the fastening of the flat, the loss of stress in the concrete by creep is recovered in the steel, which fact is quite important, considering that this flat will subsequently be subjected to heavy tensile stresses.

The beam is ready; it has either protruding bars for the upper slab, or holes through which prestressing cables can be passed for the latter.

Compared to concrete beams which are merely prestressed, this beam offers an additional safety against the formation of cracks, on account of the presence of the drawn metal flat. Under the action of creep, there will be no increase of stress therein. In fact, at this point, the concrete is only very weakly stressed and there is no need to seek release on the steel.

On the other hand, the compressed metal flat will undergo a considerable increase of stresses: because at this point the concrete undergoes a very strong compression and will seek release by transferring part thereof to the steel.

This phenomenon results from tests which have been made on a prestressed steel-concrete compound beam at the Magnel laboratory of the Ghent University.

Experience has shown that the creep ceases much faster than for a concrete beam which has simply been prestressed, and also that the creep is much weaker.

In FIGURE 1, 1 is a prefabricated concrete beam; 2 and 3 are the metal flats fastened by means of their studs 4-5 to the flange of the beam, before hardening; 6 are the elements of first prestress; 7 are the elements of second prestress; 8 is the metal flat; 9 is the layer of cementmortar inserted between flat 8 and the face of beam 1; 10 are the bolts of high tensile strength for fastening the flat 8 to the flange of the concrete beam.

All these elements are again illustrated in the embodiment of FIGURE 2 which is moreover completed by concrete fillings 11-12 and by cross-bars or cross-cables 13 for subsequent application of a transversal prestress. Any suitable means are used for inserting the cable in the manner shown in FIG. 2.

It is evident that the process according to the present invention can be applied to beams or similar elements of various shapes and dimensions, together with any appropriate additional feature.

What I claim is:

1. A process of making a composite steel-concrete beam, comprising in combination the steps of casting a concrete beam having a first zone and a second zone, at least said second zone having a flange, said first zone being adapted to be subjected to a compressive stress and said second zone being adapted to be subjected to a tensile stress, securing at least one metal flat to said first zone, locating Wires in said second zone and causing said wires to produce a prestress in said beam, securing a metal flat to said second zone by bolts of high tensile strength extending through said flange while inserting a layer of mortar between said last mentioned metal fiat and said second zone, locating wires in said second zone and causing the last-mentioned wires to produce another prestress in said beam.

2. A process of making a composite steel-concrete beam in accordance with claim 1, wherein said one metal flat is secured to said first zone by studs inserted during said casting.

3. A process of making a composite steel-concrete beam in accordance with claim 2, wherein two spaced metal flats are secured to said first zone and wherein the space between them is filled with concrete.

4. A process of making a composite steel-concrete beam, comprising in combination the steps of casting a concrete beam having a first zone and a second zone, said zones having separate flanges, said first zone being adapted to be subjected to a compressive stress and said second Zone being adapted to be subjected to a tensile stress, locating wires in said second zone and causing said wires to produce a prestress in said beam, securing separate metal flats to said zones at least partly by bolts of high tensile strength extending through at least one of said flanges while inserting a layer of mortar between at least one of said flats and at least one of said zones, locating wires in said second zone and causing the last-mentioned wires to produce another prestress in said beam.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 947,514 1/1910 Stevens 52724 1,243,000 10/1917 Stewart 52723 X 2,435,998 2/1948 Cueni 52223 2,587,724 3/1952 Henderson 52723 2,844,024 7/1958 McDonald 52724 X 2,902,721 9/1959 Heuer 264-274 X 3,252,215 5/ 1966 De Long et al 29458 FOREIGN PATENTS 559,136 6/1958 Canada.

CASMIR A. NUNBERG, Primary Examiner.

DAVID J. WILLIAMOWSKY, Examiner.

A. CALVERT, Assistant Examiner.

US476833A 1965-05-21 1965-08-03 Process of manufacturing composite and prestressed steelconcrete beams Expired - Lifetime US3368016A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4516876A (en) * 1983-01-10 1985-05-14 Wicks Harry O Precast concrete expansion joint for roads and the like
US4856173A (en) * 1987-02-24 1989-08-15 Dyckerhoff & Widmann Aktiengesellschaft Method of the formation of slide surfaces on a track for electromagnetically levitated vehicles
WO1990007410A1 (en) * 1988-12-27 1990-07-12 Varitech Industries, Inc. Method of encapsulating a tendon tensioning anchor
US5072558A (en) * 1988-04-21 1991-12-17 Varitech Industries, Inc. Post-tension anchor system
US5115622A (en) * 1989-12-23 1992-05-26 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Method of reinforcing structural components
US5152112A (en) * 1990-07-26 1992-10-06 Iota Construction Ltd. Composite girder construction and method of making same
ES2048047A2 (en) * 1991-09-05 1994-03-01 In Tec Impulsor Sa Procedure for repairing damaged frames.
US5479748A (en) * 1992-01-07 1996-01-02 Siller; Jose L. Friction connector for anchoring reinforcement tendons in reinforced or pre-stressed concrete girders
US5617685A (en) * 1992-04-06 1997-04-08 Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- Und Forschungsanstalt Empa Method and apparatus for increasing the shear strength of a construction structure
US6054197A (en) * 1997-09-19 2000-04-25 State University Of New York At Albany Structural elements
US6385940B1 (en) * 1997-09-24 2002-05-14 Leonhardt, Andra Und Partner Beratende Ingenieure Gmbh Method and apparatus for strengthening/restoring a reinforced/prestressed concrete structure
US20040187411A1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2004-09-30 Clegg James D. Concrete construction log
US6811861B2 (en) 2000-11-28 2004-11-02 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Structural reinforcement using composite strips
US20050252116A1 (en) * 2002-10-23 2005-11-17 Markus Maier Tensioning device for strip-shaped tension members
US7107730B2 (en) * 2001-03-07 2006-09-19 Jae-Man Park PSSC complex girder
US7213379B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2007-05-08 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US20070289234A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2007-12-20 Barry Carlson Composite decking material and methods associated with the same
US20080295453A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2008-12-04 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US20090075031A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Carlson Barry L Structural member
US20090094929A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2009-04-16 Carlson Barry L Reinforced structural member and frame structures
US20110030307A1 (en) * 2009-08-10 2011-02-10 Caterpillar Inc. Concrete bar slag container
US20120000153A1 (en) * 2010-07-02 2012-01-05 Urban Frame Engineering, Inc. Bracket structure for increasing load-carrying capacity of concrete structure and enabling easy construction
CN102704698A (en) * 2012-05-04 2012-10-03 南京盛圆土木工程高科技有限公司 Fully prestressed and compositely integrally reinforced concrete structure
RU2476655C2 (en) * 2010-07-13 2013-02-27 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Сибирский государственный университет путей сообщения" (СГУПС) Method to strengthen reinforced concrete elements and their couplings
US20190257081A1 (en) * 2018-02-21 2019-08-22 Scott Edward Heatly Precast modular structural building system and method

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SE431241B (en) * 1980-03-04 1984-01-23 Vm Permaban Ab Device for legga floors of concrete

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US947514A (en) * 1908-10-19 1910-01-25 Frank W Stevens Concrete floor construction.
US1243000A (en) * 1916-03-04 1917-10-16 Gertrude F Stewart Composite beam.
US2435998A (en) * 1943-03-31 1948-02-17 Porete Mfg Company Composite prestressed concrete beam and slab structure
US2587724A (en) * 1945-09-10 1952-03-04 Peoples First Nat Bank & Trust Precast reinforced concrete unit
CA559136A (en) * 1951-05-03 1958-06-24 W. Abeles Paul Structural members
US2844024A (en) * 1954-10-21 1958-07-22 Mcdonald James Leonard Combination preformed and cast-in-situ reinforced flooring structure
US2902721A (en) * 1955-08-08 1959-09-08 Gen Refractories Co Process of molding refractory brick
US3252215A (en) * 1961-12-06 1966-05-24 Dow Chemical Co Method of coating a magnesium metal article

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US947514A (en) * 1908-10-19 1910-01-25 Frank W Stevens Concrete floor construction.
US1243000A (en) * 1916-03-04 1917-10-16 Gertrude F Stewart Composite beam.
US2435998A (en) * 1943-03-31 1948-02-17 Porete Mfg Company Composite prestressed concrete beam and slab structure
US2587724A (en) * 1945-09-10 1952-03-04 Peoples First Nat Bank & Trust Precast reinforced concrete unit
CA559136A (en) * 1951-05-03 1958-06-24 W. Abeles Paul Structural members
US2844024A (en) * 1954-10-21 1958-07-22 Mcdonald James Leonard Combination preformed and cast-in-situ reinforced flooring structure
US2902721A (en) * 1955-08-08 1959-09-08 Gen Refractories Co Process of molding refractory brick
US3252215A (en) * 1961-12-06 1966-05-24 Dow Chemical Co Method of coating a magnesium metal article

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4516876A (en) * 1983-01-10 1985-05-14 Wicks Harry O Precast concrete expansion joint for roads and the like
US4856173A (en) * 1987-02-24 1989-08-15 Dyckerhoff & Widmann Aktiengesellschaft Method of the formation of slide surfaces on a track for electromagnetically levitated vehicles
US5072558A (en) * 1988-04-21 1991-12-17 Varitech Industries, Inc. Post-tension anchor system
WO1990007410A1 (en) * 1988-12-27 1990-07-12 Varitech Industries, Inc. Method of encapsulating a tendon tensioning anchor
US5115622A (en) * 1989-12-23 1992-05-26 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Method of reinforcing structural components
US5152112A (en) * 1990-07-26 1992-10-06 Iota Construction Ltd. Composite girder construction and method of making same
ES2048047A2 (en) * 1991-09-05 1994-03-01 In Tec Impulsor Sa Procedure for repairing damaged frames.
US5479748A (en) * 1992-01-07 1996-01-02 Siller; Jose L. Friction connector for anchoring reinforcement tendons in reinforced or pre-stressed concrete girders
US5617685A (en) * 1992-04-06 1997-04-08 Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- Und Forschungsanstalt Empa Method and apparatus for increasing the shear strength of a construction structure
US6054197A (en) * 1997-09-19 2000-04-25 State University Of New York At Albany Structural elements
US6385940B1 (en) * 1997-09-24 2002-05-14 Leonhardt, Andra Und Partner Beratende Ingenieure Gmbh Method and apparatus for strengthening/restoring a reinforced/prestressed concrete structure
US6811861B2 (en) 2000-11-28 2004-11-02 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Structural reinforcement using composite strips
US7107730B2 (en) * 2001-03-07 2006-09-19 Jae-Man Park PSSC complex girder
US20050252116A1 (en) * 2002-10-23 2005-11-17 Markus Maier Tensioning device for strip-shaped tension members
US20040187411A1 (en) * 2003-03-25 2004-09-30 Clegg James D. Concrete construction log
US8266856B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2012-09-18 Tac Technologies, Llc Reinforced structural member and frame structures
US20070193212A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2007-08-23 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US20070193199A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2007-08-23 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US7213379B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2007-05-08 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US20080295453A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2008-12-04 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US8938882B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2015-01-27 Tac Technologies, Llc Reinforced structural member and frame structures
US20090094929A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2009-04-16 Carlson Barry L Reinforced structural member and frame structures
US7721496B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2010-05-25 Tac Technologies, Llc Composite decking material and methods associated with the same
US7882679B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2011-02-08 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US8438808B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2013-05-14 Tac Technologies, Llc Reinforced structural member and frame structures
US7930866B2 (en) 2004-08-02 2011-04-26 Tac Technologies, Llc Engineered structural members and methods for constructing same
US20070289234A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2007-12-20 Barry Carlson Composite decking material and methods associated with the same
US20090075031A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Carlson Barry L Structural member
US8065848B2 (en) 2007-09-18 2011-11-29 Tac Technologies, Llc Structural member
US20110030307A1 (en) * 2009-08-10 2011-02-10 Caterpillar Inc. Concrete bar slag container
US8240096B2 (en) * 2010-07-02 2012-08-14 Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation Bracket structure for increasing load-carrying capacity of concrete structure and enabling easy construction
US20120000153A1 (en) * 2010-07-02 2012-01-05 Urban Frame Engineering, Inc. Bracket structure for increasing load-carrying capacity of concrete structure and enabling easy construction
RU2476655C2 (en) * 2010-07-13 2013-02-27 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Сибирский государственный университет путей сообщения" (СГУПС) Method to strengthen reinforced concrete elements and their couplings
CN102704698A (en) * 2012-05-04 2012-10-03 南京盛圆土木工程高科技有限公司 Fully prestressed and compositely integrally reinforced concrete structure
CN102704698B (en) * 2012-05-04 2015-10-28 南京盛圆土木工程高科技有限公司 A kind of full prestressing composite integrated reinforced steel concrete structure
US20190257081A1 (en) * 2018-02-21 2019-08-22 Scott Edward Heatly Precast modular structural building system and method
US10550565B2 (en) * 2018-02-21 2020-02-04 Scott Edward Heatly Precast modular structural building system and method

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BE664243A (en) 1965-09-16
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ES317020A1 (en) 1965-12-01
IL25157A (en) 1970-02-19

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