US3358778A - Spring driven power hammer - Google Patents

Spring driven power hammer Download PDF

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Publication number
US3358778A
US3358778A US480990A US48099065A US3358778A US 3358778 A US3358778 A US 3358778A US 480990 A US480990 A US 480990A US 48099065 A US48099065 A US 48099065A US 3358778 A US3358778 A US 3358778A
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Prior art keywords
hammer
housing
spring
extension
anvil
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Expired - Lifetime
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US480990A
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Ferwerda Ray
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Ferwerda Ray
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C23/00Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces
    • E01C23/06Devices or arrangements for working the finished surface; Devices for repairing or reconditioning the surface of damaged paving; Recycling in place or on the road
    • E01C23/12Devices or arrangements for working the finished surface; Devices for repairing or reconditioning the surface of damaged paving; Recycling in place or on the road for taking-up, tearing-up, or full-depth breaking-up paving, e.g. sett extractor
    • E01C23/122Devices or arrangements for working the finished surface; Devices for repairing or reconditioning the surface of damaged paving; Recycling in place or on the road for taking-up, tearing-up, or full-depth breaking-up paving, e.g. sett extractor with power-driven tools, e.g. oscillated hammer apparatus
    • E01C23/124Devices or arrangements for working the finished surface; Devices for repairing or reconditioning the surface of damaged paving; Recycling in place or on the road for taking-up, tearing-up, or full-depth breaking-up paving, e.g. sett extractor with power-driven tools, e.g. oscillated hammer apparatus moved rectilinearly, e.g. road-breaker apparatus with reciprocating tools, with drop-hammers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25DPERCUSSIVE TOOLS
    • B25D11/00Portable percussive tools with electromotor or other motor drive
    • B25D11/06Means for driving the impulse member
    • B25D11/10Means for driving the impulse member comprising a cam mechanism
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D7/00Methods or apparatus for placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds
    • E02D7/02Placing by driving
    • E02D7/06Power-driven drivers

Description

Dec. 19, 1967 FERWERDA 3,358,778
SPRING DRIVEN POWER HAMMER Filed Aug. 19, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 19, 1967 R. FERWERDA SPRING DRIVEN PQWER HAMMER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 19, 1965 FTTORNEYS United States Patent Office 3,358,778 Patented Dec. 19, 1967 3,358,778 SPRING DRIVEN POWER HAMMER Ray Ferwerda, 1050 NW. 163rd Drive, North Miami, Fla. 33161 Filed Aug. 19, 1965, Ser. No. 480,990 3 Claims. (Cl. 173-119) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A very heavy duty hammer suitable for pile driving and pavement breaking includes an elongated cylindrical housing carrying a working tool at the lower end thereof which tool has a shaft extending into the lower end of the housing and terminating inside of the housing with a blow receiving and transmitting anvil extension, together with a hammer reciprocatably mounted in the housing toward and away from the anvil extension to deliver repeated blows thereagainst. The hammer has an elongated axial extension which projects out of the upper end of the housing and is there provided with power means for repeatedly retracting the hammer away from the anvil and then suddenly releasing it. A two-part helical spring surrounds the hammer extension and is disposed between the hammer and the upper end of the housing so that the spring means is compressed when the power means lifts the hammer, after which the spring means causes the hammer to deliver a very powerful blow against the anvil when released by the power means. The novel feature of this invention is that the spring means includes at least two separate helical springs in end to end relationship differing from each other in frequency of vibration sufficiently so that they exert a mutual dampening effect upon spring release thus preventing destruction of the hammer and its driving spring.
This invention relates to improvements in a power hammer of a very powerful character useful for pile driving, pavement breaking and any other purposes requiring great power.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a self-contained hammer comprising a housing with a tool carrying member extending into the housing at one end, generally the lower end, and with an anvil lying inside of the housing adapted to deliver a blow to the tool carrying member when struck by the hammer. The hammer is reciprocatably mounted in the housing for movement toward and away from the anvil. The blow is delivered by a powerful helical spring means surrounding a hammer extension and engaged between the hammer and the portion of the housing and always urging the hammer toward the anvil. Power means is carried by the housing and constructed and arranged to engage the end of the hammer extension remote from the hammer, usually at the upper end thereof, and to lift the hammer so as to compress the spring and thereafter to suddenly release the hammer extension, whereby the spring then drives the hammer with great force against the anvil to deliver a blow to the tool.
The present invention is specifically directed to a spring means comprising a plurality of helical springs surrounding the hammer extension and concentric therewith and the present invention is described in connection with two such springs, although it will be understood that more might be used if desired. One of the difiiculties in prior devices of this sort related to the vibration of along powerful spring after it was suddenly released during operation of the hammer. Such vibration was so destructive that the assembly was destroyed within a few hours of use. In the present invention, at least two separate springs are provided differing from each other in frequency of vibration sufiiciently so that they exert amutual dampening effect, upon release of the compressed springs, thus preventing destruction of the hammer.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be set forth in the accompanying drawings and description and the essential features thereof will be summarized in the appended claims.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a central sectional view through one embodiment of this invention and means for mounting the hammer On a boom carrying vehicle adapted to hold and manipulate the same;
FIG. 1A is a continuation of FIG. 1 at the lower end thereof showing the tool carrying member located below the line A indicated in both figures;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view, enlarged, taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a fragmental sectional line 4-4 of FIG. 2; while FIG.5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 2.
Referring to FIG. 1, the hammer of this invention is shown compactly assembled in connection with a housing which comprises a cylindrical member 10 carrying at its view taken along the upper end rigid therewith a flange 10a which is secured by means of screws or bolts 11 to a housing head 12. The cylinder 10 is provided with a head member 13 at its lower end, welded to the cylinder 10, and having a central opening through which enters an anvil shaft 14 coaxial with the cylinder 10 and carrying integral therewith at its upper end the anvil 14a. The anvil shaft 14 passes through a suitable bearing sleeve 15 which is rigidly connected to the head member 13 and cylinder 10 by means of gussets 16 welded in place. Preferably, a recoil absorbing cushion 17 is provided in the form of a polyurethane annulus surrounding the anvil shaft 14 and lying against the head member 13. It should be understood that the anvil shaft 14 is freely slidable in the head member 13 to carry the anvil 14a axially of the cylinder 10.
A hammer is provided for delivering a blow to the anvil 14a. This hammer is axially aligned with the anvil and is provided with a hammer extension 19 extending axially upwardly through the cylinder 10, concentrically thereof, and extending axially and out the upper end thereof through a sleeve bearing 20 which is held in proper position by means of a bearing cap 21 to which the bearing is welded; and the cap in turn is secured to the lower wall of the housing head portion 12 by means of screws or bolts 22. An oil seal 20a prevents leakage of lubricant out of the housing means 12.
A powerful helical spring means, 23a and 23b, approximately one foot in diameter and almost three feet long (for a four to five ton blow) surrounds the hammer extension 19 within the cylinder 10 for compression between the hammer 18 and the bearing cap 21 which lies against lower end of spring 23a backed up by a'polyurethane cushion 238 lying between the disk 237 and the hammer head 18.
The purpose of the two springs 23a and 23b is to provide at least two separate springs dilfering from each other in frequency of vibration sufliciently so that they exert a mutual dampening effect preventing destruction of the hammer. While more than two spring members might be provided in such end-to-end relationship, two such springs are sufficient to provide the improved performance of hammer operation envisioned by this invention. The springs 23a and 23b have parameters of length, diameter, pitch, number of working coils, diameter of spring wire and torsional modulus of elasticity and the two springs must differ from each other in at least one of these parameters sufficiently to cause the above mentioned dampening effect. In one embodiment the spring 23a has a length of twenty inches, a diameter of twelve inches, seven working coils, three inch pitch, and a spring rod material 1% inches in diameter. The spring 21% has a length of 13 /2 inches, a spring diameter of 11% inches, six working coils, 2 /2 inch pitch, and spring rod material 1% inches in diameter. The torsional modulus of the elasticity of the two springs may be varied by varying the analysis of the steel slightly or by changing the tempering of similar steels so as to cause a variation in the two springs.
In carrying out this invention, any suitable means may be provided for lifting the hammer to compress the springs 23:: and 23b and thereafter to release the hammer so that the springs cause a tremendous blow against the anvil head 14a. The lifting means here shown comprises a T-shape member 24 having a vertically extending central bore which fits on a reduced diameter portion 19a of the hammer extension which terminates at a shoulder 1% against which the T -shape member 24 rests. A nut 25 holds the member 24 in position. The T-shape mem ber has laterally extending arms 2411 on opposite sides thereof for the purpose of engagement by a lifting device about to be described.
The power means for lifting the hammer extension comprises an hydraulic motor 26 bolted to the wall of the housing head means 12 and supplied with hydraulic power through flexible tubular connections 27 and 28 from any suitable source. This motor terminates in a drive shaft 29 which extends vertically downwardly into the housing 12 for rotation of a unitary worm 34 which in turn meshes with a cone drive worm gear 35 with a mechanical advantage of about twenty to one. The worm gear 35 is keyed to a shaft 36 which in turn is journaled in bearing 37 carried by suitable bearing caps 38 secured to the housing 12. Keyed to the shaft 36 are a pair of pinions 39 each of which is aligned with a gear wheel 40 meshing with the pinions 39 and having a mechanical advantage of approximately three to one. Each of the gear wheels 40 is keyed to a shaft 41 which is journaled in suitable bearings 42 carried by the bearing caps 43 in the housing 12. A pair of cam rollers 44 are secured to each of the gear wheels 40 diametrically opposite to each other by means of stub shafts 44a and held in position by nuts 45 and suitable lock washers. The cam rollers 44 on each gear wheel are aligned to engage beneath the opposite arms 24a of the T-member 24 so as to lift the hammer extension 19 and the hammer head 18. It will be noted in FIG. 1 that each cam roller 44 in the dotted position of FIG. 1 engages beneath one of the T-shape arms 24a toward the left side thereof and lifts the T-shape member while the cam roller 44 moves through an arc of slightly more than ninety degrees causing the cam roller to reach the dot-dash position of FIG. 1 after which it rolls out of contact with the arm 24a, thus releasing the arm suddenly so that it is urged downwardly impelled by springs 23a and 23b which in this embodiment is compressed approximately ten inches of its total vertical length.
It should be understood that a suitable tool 46 is carried at the lower end of anvil shaft 14. The tool will depend upon the kind of work to be performed. The tool attachment of this embodiment is clearly shown in FIG. 1A.
Stop means is provided on the anvil shaft 14 to prevent it being driven up inside of the cylinder 10 so that the anvil head 14a always remains spaced below the blow delivering hammer 18. This stop is shown at 49 and comprises a split collar threaded on the shaft 14 and held in position by bolt 50. This collar will strike the lower end of the bearing sleeve 15 on the rebound after a blow is delivered so as to stop the upward motion of the anvil member 14a. Preferably, but not necessarily, a recoil spring 51 is provided surrounding the shaft 14 and held between the collar 49 and the bearing 15 to cushion the recoil at this point after a blow is delivered.
The collar 49 may be provided with means for preventing rotation of the tool 46 about its own axis if desired. Such a device is shown as a bar 52 rigidly welded to the housing cylinder 10 and extending freely through a hole 48a in the collar 49.
Means may be provided if desired for holding the hammer of this invention and for manipulating the same from a boom 53 which may be of any suitable type but is here shown as a telescopic boom of a vehicle shown in United States Patent No. 2,541,045, granted to Ray and Koop Ferwerda, Feb. 13, 1951. Bearing caps 54 are bolted to boom 53 and journal a shaft 55 which carries a crank arm 56 which in turn is pivotally connected to a clevis rod 56 controlled by a piston 57 reciprocatable in cylinder 58 on the boom 53 by suitable hydraulic fiuid supply means. Movement of piston 57 will tilt the hammer about shaft pivot 55. Welded to shaft 55 are a pair of parallel cars 60 in turn welded to a sleeve 61 in which the cylinder 10 is held snugly but freely reciprocal in a vertical direction as blows are delivered. To hold the cylinder 10 from rotating the sleeve 61, a vertical bar 62 is welded to the flange 10a at the top and to a collar 63 at the bottom, which in turn is bolted to the cylinder 10 at 64. Parallel flanges 65 welded to sleeve 61 on opposite sides of bar 62 prevent relative rotation at this point.
The mechanism herein described provides approximately a ten inch stroke of the hammer from sixty to seventy-five times per minute, thus delivering eight to ten thousand foot pounds for each blow or slightly over five hundred to six hundred thousand foot pounds per minute.
Power hammers of the type herein described previously known in the prior art and utilizing a single spring in place of the springs 23a and 23b tore themselves apart in a relatively few hours of operation. The reason for this apparently lay in the powerful forces released when a spring almost three feet long and a foot in diameter and made of heavy spring wire or rod in the neighborhood of 1% to two inches in diameter suddenly released tremendous vibratory forces. The present invention seems to overcome this problem because the springs 23a and 23b differ from each other in frequency of vibration sufficiently so that they exert a mutual dampening elfect after the spring means is released to deliver a blow of the hammer on the anvil.
What is claimed is:
1. A pile driving and pavement breaking hammer comprising a housing; a tool-carrying member having a shaft extending into said housing at one end thereof; said shaft having a blow receiving and transmitting anvil extension disposed within said housing; a hammer reciprocatably mounted in said housing for a stroke movement in line with said shaft toward and away from said anvil extension; said hammer having an elongated extension coaxial with said shaft and extending in said housing away from said hammer and said anvil extension; a helical spring means surrounding said hammer extension and disposed between said hammer and the end of said housing opposite said one end; said spring means including at least two separate helical springs in end to end relationship differing from each other in frequency of vibration sufficiently so that they exert a mutual dampening effect upon release of the loaded spring means and prevent destruction of the hammer and spring means; said spring means delivering a blow of spring-meansdestructive force when delivered by a single spring; a rigid wear plate between said two separate springs and holding them concentric; and power means carried by said housing including means repeatedly retracting said hammer extension and said hammer against the bias of said spring means and then suddenly releasing them, in use of said hammer, thereby permitting said spring means to cause said hammer to deliver sequential blows against said anvil extension.
2. A hammer as defined in claim 1 wherein said two separate springs have parameters of length, diameter, pitch, number of working coils, diameter of spring wire and torsional modulus of elasticity, differ in at least one of said parameters.
3. A hammer as defined in claim 2 wherein said two and said springs 1 springs have approximately the same means diameter and are longitudinally aligned so that their vibratory forces substantially directly oppose each other.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,244,386 10/1917 Spehar 173-119 X 1,356,556 10/1920 Payne 173-119 X 2,110,957 3/1938 Kollock 173-119 X 2,225,531 12/1940 Charles 173-119 X 2,772,858 12/1956 Galvez 173-119 X 3,276,760 10/ 1966 Last et al. 267-1 X FRED C. MATTERN, JR., Primary Examiner. L. P. KESSLER, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A PILE DRIVING AND PAVEMENT BREAKING HAMMER COMPRISING A HOUSING; A TOOL-CARRYING MEMBER HAVING A SHAFT EXTENDING INTO SAID HOUSING AT ONE END THEREOF; SAID SHAFT HAVING A BLOW RECEIVING AND TRANSMITTING ANVIL EXTENSION DISPOSED WITHIN SAID HOUSING; A HAMMER RECIPROCATABLY MOUNTED IN SAID HOUSING FOR A STROKE MOVEMENT IN LINE WITH SAID SHAFT TOWARD AND AWAY FROM SAID ANVIL EXTENSION; SAID HAMMER HAVING AN ELONGATED EXTENSION COAXIAL WITH SAID SHAFT AND EXTENDING IN SAID HOUSING AWAY FROM SAID HAMMER AND SAID ANVIL EXTENSION; A HELICAL SPRING MEANS SURROUNDING SAID HAMMER EXTENSION AND DISPOSED BETWEEN SAID HAMMER AND THE END OF SAID HOUSING OPPOSITE SAID ONE END; SAID SPRING MEANS INCLUDING AT LEAST TWO SEPARATE HELICAL SPRINGS IN END TO END RELATIONSHIP DIFFERING FROM EACH OTHER IN FREQUENCY OF
US480990A 1965-08-19 1965-08-19 Spring driven power hammer Expired - Lifetime US3358778A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US480990A US3358778A (en) 1965-08-19 1965-08-19 Spring driven power hammer

Applications Claiming Priority (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US480990A US3358778A (en) 1965-08-19 1965-08-19 Spring driven power hammer
DE19661534254 DE1534254B1 (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-10 Power hammer for ramming or breaking pavement
GB3598266A GB1099640A (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-11 Spring driven power hammer assembly
CH1156566A CH443189A (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-11 Power hammer
BE685541D BE685541A (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-16
SE1114666A SE322473B (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-17
NL6611623A NL6611623A (en) 1965-08-19 1966-08-18

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US3358778A true US3358778A (en) 1967-12-19

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BE (1) BE685541A (en)
CH (1) CH443189A (en)
DE (1) DE1534254B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1099640A (en)
NL (1) NL6611623A (en)
SE (1) SE322473B (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3427851A (en) * 1967-02-17 1969-02-18 Bliss Co High energy rate metal forming machine
FR2496731A1 (en) * 1980-12-22 1982-06-25 Gustin Fils Sa Lightweight hydro-mechanical driver for piles - has jack compressing spring to give drive effort when released by cam
US4867253A (en) * 1988-10-14 1989-09-19 Caterpillar Inc. Dampener for impacting mechanism
US5662177A (en) * 1995-10-06 1997-09-02 Bosma; Marinus A. Trigger mechanism for impacting device
US5813479A (en) * 1995-10-06 1998-09-29 Bosma; Marinus A. Trigger mechanism for impacting device
KR101069817B1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2011-10-04 삼성중공업 주식회사 Hammer Apparatus
US20130082073A1 (en) * 2011-10-04 2013-04-04 The Gsi Group, Llc External impactor for bulk storage containers
WO2018032590A1 (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-02-22 李建尧 Drill rod having peeling function

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3122979C2 (en) * 1981-06-10 1989-10-05 Hilti Ag, Schaan, Li
CN109505221B (en) * 2018-12-17 2020-11-03 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Building concrete hits garrulous robot fast

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1244386A (en) * 1917-05-09 1917-10-23 Dane Spehar Hammer-drill.
US1356556A (en) * 1919-01-27 1920-10-26 Walter S Payne Electric power-hammer and drilling-machine combined
US2110957A (en) * 1936-07-20 1938-03-15 George L Kollock Power hammer
US2225531A (en) * 1937-08-04 1940-12-17 Gas Tool Patents Corp Drill rotating device
US2772858A (en) * 1955-04-25 1956-12-04 Joseph C Novack Power hammers
US3276760A (en) * 1964-03-02 1966-10-04 Gen Motors Corp Anti-surge coil spring assembly

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1387574A (en) * 1963-03-11 1965-01-29 Mechanical hammer

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1244386A (en) * 1917-05-09 1917-10-23 Dane Spehar Hammer-drill.
US1356556A (en) * 1919-01-27 1920-10-26 Walter S Payne Electric power-hammer and drilling-machine combined
US2110957A (en) * 1936-07-20 1938-03-15 George L Kollock Power hammer
US2225531A (en) * 1937-08-04 1940-12-17 Gas Tool Patents Corp Drill rotating device
US2772858A (en) * 1955-04-25 1956-12-04 Joseph C Novack Power hammers
US3276760A (en) * 1964-03-02 1966-10-04 Gen Motors Corp Anti-surge coil spring assembly

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3427851A (en) * 1967-02-17 1969-02-18 Bliss Co High energy rate metal forming machine
FR2496731A1 (en) * 1980-12-22 1982-06-25 Gustin Fils Sa Lightweight hydro-mechanical driver for piles - has jack compressing spring to give drive effort when released by cam
US4867253A (en) * 1988-10-14 1989-09-19 Caterpillar Inc. Dampener for impacting mechanism
WO1990003870A1 (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-04-19 Caterpillar Inc. Dampener for impacting mechanism
US5662177A (en) * 1995-10-06 1997-09-02 Bosma; Marinus A. Trigger mechanism for impacting device
US5813479A (en) * 1995-10-06 1998-09-29 Bosma; Marinus A. Trigger mechanism for impacting device
KR101069817B1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2011-10-04 삼성중공업 주식회사 Hammer Apparatus
US20130082073A1 (en) * 2011-10-04 2013-04-04 The Gsi Group, Llc External impactor for bulk storage containers
US9493300B2 (en) * 2011-10-04 2016-11-15 The Gsi Group Llc External impactor for bulk storage containers
WO2018032590A1 (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-02-22 李建尧 Drill rod having peeling function

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB1099640A (en) 1968-01-17
BE685541A (en) 1967-02-16
DE1534254B1 (en) 1970-10-22
NL6611623A (en) 1967-02-20
CH443189A (en) 1967-09-15
SE322473B (en) 1970-04-06

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