New! View global litigation for patent families

US3352118A - Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies - Google Patents

Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3352118A
US3352118A US47896565A US3352118A US 3352118 A US3352118 A US 3352118A US 47896565 A US47896565 A US 47896565A US 3352118 A US3352118 A US 3352118A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
wall
water
outer
stream
pile
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Joseph A Burkhardt
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co
Esso Products Research Co
Original Assignee
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B17/00Artificial islands mounted on piles or like supports, e.g. platforms on raisable legs or offshore constructions; Construction methods therefor
    • E02B17/0017Means for protecting offshore constructions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T70/00Maritime or waterways transport
    • Y02T70/10Measures concerning design or construction of watercraft hulls
    • Y02T70/12Improving hydrodynamics of hull
    • Y02T70/121Reducing surface friction

Description

Nov. 14, 1967 J. A. BURKHARDT PRCTIONAL DRAG REDUCER FOR IMMERSED BODIES FIC-3.5.

PERMEABLE WEBBING FIG'.

IN VEN TOR.

JOSEPH A. BURKHARDT,

ATTORN E1 United States Patent O 3,352,118 FRICTIONAL DRAG REDUCER FOR IMMERSED BODIES Joseph A. Burkhardt, Houston, Tex., assignor to Esso Production Research Company Filed Aug. 11, 1965, Ser. No. 478,965 8 Claims. (Cl. 61-46) ABSTRACT F lTHE DISCLOSURE A double wall sleeve or sack having permeable elastic webbing connecting the walls to each other surrounds a body immersed in water to reduce frictional drag of such body when it is subjected to Wave and/or current forces by streamlining the outer contour thereof. A constant volume fluid is contained between the two Walls. Under the action of drag forces, the outer Wall deforms and contracts toward the leading edge of the body and elongates from the trailing edge thereof.

The present invention relates to method and means for reducing frictional drag of bodies immersed in a flowing stream. More particularly, the invention concerns method and means for reducing the frictional drag coeflicient of cylindrical piles immersed in a flowing stream. The piles extend above the level of the stream and are imbedded in the ground underlying the water. They are preferably the type used to support offshore oil and gas drilling platforms.

Piles used to support offshore structures are often subjected to strong wave action and currents and, accordingly, must be constructed With sufficient strength to withstand such forces.

The present invention permits reduction in the strength requirements of these piles, and, thereby, a reduction .in the cost of offshore platforms.

Essentially, the invention achieves a reduction in the frictional drag coefficient of bodies .immersed in a flowing stream (or moving in a still stream) by streamlining the outer contour of the body. For the streamlining to be effective, it is essential that the streamline be properly oriented in the stream. In addition, for variable flow such as that which occurs about a fixed column in lthe ocean, the orientation of the streamline must be automatic or self-induced by the flowing stream.

An object, then, of the present invention is to provide apparatus and method which permits the flowing stream to alter the effective contour of an immersed body into a streamlined contour and to present this streamlined contour always in proper orientation to the stream.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description thereof when taken with the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a view in front elevation;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along lines 2--2 of FIG. l;

FIG. 3 is a view taken along lines 3 3; of FIG. 2; and

FIGS. 4 and 5 are similar to FIG. 2, but illustrate the streamlined contour under different directions of the flow stream.

Referring to the drawings in greater detail, in FIG. 1 is shown an elongated member or pile immersed in a body of water 11. Pile 10 is preferably cylindrically congured. It is imbedded in the land 12 underlying water 11 and supports at its upper end a portion of an offshore platform 13.

As seen also in FIGS. 2 and 3, an elongated deformable double-wall sack or sleeve 14 ext-ends from above the level of water 11 a substantial length of pile 10. Sleeve 14 includes an inner nondeformable cylindrical ice wall 15 arranged adjacent the outer wall of pile 10 and attached to an outer, deformable cylindrical wall 16 by an elastic, permeable webbing 17. A constant volume, incompressible, Newtonian fluid, preferably water or oil, is placed within walls 15 and 16 and fills the space therebetween. Thus, outer wall 16 is anchored to inner wall 15 and to pile 10 by the multiplicity of elastic members 17.

In a nonmoving stream, the deformable sleeve 14 assumes a shape as seen in FIG. 2 of minimum elastic energy, a circular cylinder concentric with the cylindrical pile 10. As seen in FIGS. 4 and 5, when the stream moves,

, the Vdeformable cylinder consisting of outer Wall 16 is forced by drag forces to contract toward the leading are of the cylindrical surface of the pile 10 and to elongate from the trailing edge. The volume of fluid contained in the space between the deformable and nondeformable walls 16 and 15, respectively, is fixed and as the deformation occurs, the surface area and the elastic energy of the deformable cylindrical Wall 16 increases. Wall 16 is impermeable, and consequently, the flowing stream cannot penetrate the membrane which is a characteristic of a streamline. Under the action of a moving stream, the outer wall 16 is caused to deform and its deformation will assume a contour of minimum elastic energy which will also be a contour of lesser drag within the restraint that the contour must enclose a constant volume. As the velocity of the stream alters, the contour of the deformable wall 16 changes. The elastic force of the membrane is in equilibrium with the drag force of the stream on it. The elastic energy of the membrane 16 will tend to describe a contour of minimum area within the three restraints of 1) constant volume contained by the contour; (2) minimum surface area as related to stress strain behavior of the membrane material; and (3) the drag forces induced by the flowing stream.

Suitable materials that may be employed as the deformable wall membrane 16 and as the nondeformable wall membrane 15 and as the elastic webbing are rubbers, plastics, metals and/or combinations of the three groups of materials as laminates, meshes and/or Webs.

Having fully described the operation, apparatus, objects, and advantages of my invention, I claim:

1. A water-based structure including a pile positioned in a body of water and extending above water level cornprising:

sleeve means adapted to contain a constant volume fluid surrounding said pile and extending from below to above the water level, said sleeve means comprising an inner well, an outer wall deformable by wave and/or current forces, an elestic means interconnecting said inner and outer walls whereby said outer wall is forced by drag forces to contract toward the leading edge and to elongate from the trailing edge of said pile when said wave and/ or current forces act on said pile.

2. A structure as recited in claim 1 in which said elastic means comprises permeable webbing connected to said inner and outer walls.

3. A structure as recited in claim 2 in which said constant volume uid is oil.

4. A structure as recited in claim 2 in which -said constant volume fluid is water.

5. A water-based structure comprising:

a platform supported above a body of water;

a plurality of piles positioned in said water and supporting said platform;

sleeve means surrounding each of said piles and extending from below to above the water level, said sleeve means comprising an inner wall, an outer wall deformable by wave and/or current forces, a constant volume fluid contained between said inner 3 4 and outer walls, and elastic means interconnecting References Cited said inner and` outer walls Awhereby said outer Wall is forced by drag forces to contract toward the lead- UNITED STATES PATENTS ing edge and to elongate from the trailing edge of `said ypile when said wave and/or current forces act 934176 9/1909 H ubbard 61-54 Von Said pik" 3,177,667 4/ 1965 Liddell 61-54 6. A structure as recited in claim 5 in which said elastic rmeans comprises permeable .webbing connected to FOREIGN PATENTS said inner and outer Walls.

7. A structureas'rec'ited in claim 6 in which said con- 10 454661 8/1950 Italy' stam Volume 'll-1d s 011 JACOB SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner.

8. A structure as recited in claim 6 in which said constant volume luid is Water.

Claims (1)

1. A WATER-BASED STRUCTURE INCLUDING A PILE POSITIONED IN A BODY OF WATER AND EXTENDING ABOVE WATER LEVEL COMPRISING: SLEEVE MEANS ADAPTED TO CONTAIN A CONSTANT VOLUME FLUID SURROUNDING SAID PILE AND EXTENDING FROM BELOW TO ABOVE THE WATER LEVEL, SAID SLEEVE MEANS COMPRISING AN INNER WELL, AN OUTER WALL DEFORMABLE BY WAVE AND/OR CURRENT FORCES, AN ELESTIC MEANS INTERCONNECTING SAID INNER AND OUTER WALLS WHEREBY SAID OUTER WALL IS FORCED BY DRAG FORCES TO CONTRACT TOWARD THE LEADING EDGE AND TO ELONGATE FROM THE TRAILING EDGE OF SAID PILE WHEN SAID WAVE AND/OR CURRENT FORCES ACT ON SAID PILE.
US3352118A 1965-08-11 1965-08-11 Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies Expired - Lifetime US3352118A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3352118A US3352118A (en) 1965-08-11 1965-08-11 Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3352118A US3352118A (en) 1965-08-11 1965-08-11 Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3352118A true US3352118A (en) 1967-11-14

Family

ID=23902118

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3352118A Expired - Lifetime US3352118A (en) 1965-08-11 1965-08-11 Frictional drag reducer for immersed bodies

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3352118A (en)

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3410096A (en) * 1966-12-07 1968-11-12 Atlantic Richfield Co Streamlined riser pipe
US3680516A (en) * 1969-08-03 1972-08-01 Constantine Loverdos Stelakato System absorbing shocks on vessel and improving its motion
US3934422A (en) * 1974-11-11 1976-01-27 Fredrickson Larry E Pile splicing apparatus and method
US4058985A (en) * 1976-07-19 1977-11-22 Liddell Orval E Protection of metallic structural elements against corrosion
US4078605A (en) * 1977-02-25 1978-03-14 Cameron Iron Works, Inc. Riser pipe string
US4300466A (en) * 1978-10-14 1981-11-17 Plessey Handel Und Investments Ag Hydrodynamic devices
US4365574A (en) * 1980-06-23 1982-12-28 Fleet Industries One-piece snap-on foil-shaped low-drag fairing for long underwater cables
US4474129A (en) * 1982-04-29 1984-10-02 W. R. Grace & Co. Riser pipe fairing
US4557319A (en) * 1982-07-02 1985-12-10 Arnold Alanson J Marine keel cooler
US4676692A (en) * 1983-10-31 1987-06-30 Thomas Henderson Underwater growth inhibition
US4909327A (en) * 1989-01-25 1990-03-20 Hydril Company Marine riser
US5044826A (en) * 1986-11-26 1991-09-03 Shell Offshore Inc. Method and apparatus for umbilical hydraulic control lines in floating production systems
US5410979A (en) * 1994-02-28 1995-05-02 Shell Oil Company Small fixed teardrop fairings for vortex induced vibration suppression
US5421413A (en) * 1993-11-02 1995-06-06 Shell Oil Company Flexible fairings to reduce vortex-induced vibrations
US5520270A (en) * 1992-03-06 1996-05-28 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Ag Tank structure for holding liquid especially in a spacecraft
US6019549A (en) * 1996-06-11 2000-02-01 Corrosion Control International Llc Vortex shedding strake wraps for submerged pilings and pipes
WO2002040875A3 (en) * 2000-11-15 2002-08-01 Crp Group Ltd Protection of underwater elongate members
US20070003372A1 (en) * 2005-06-16 2007-01-04 Allen Donald W Systems and methods for reducing drag and/or vortex induced vibration
WO2007008053A1 (en) * 2005-07-12 2007-01-18 Gris Robie Bonilla Covering element for protecting structures against scouring and drag force
US20080131210A1 (en) * 2005-01-03 2008-06-05 Sea-Horse Equipment Corporation Catenary Line Dynamic Motion Suppression
US7467913B1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2008-12-23 Shell Oil Company Faired truss spar
WO2016069484A1 (en) * 2014-10-27 2016-05-06 Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd. Buoyant structure
WO2016124967A1 (en) * 2015-02-02 2016-08-11 Cgg Services Sa Water-fillable cable fairing and method

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US934176A (en) * 1909-03-08 1909-09-14 Rebecca J Nelson Pile-protector.
US3177667A (en) * 1962-03-29 1965-04-13 Orval E Liddell Submerged wooden pile protecting barrier sheet and seal

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US934176A (en) * 1909-03-08 1909-09-14 Rebecca J Nelson Pile-protector.
US3177667A (en) * 1962-03-29 1965-04-13 Orval E Liddell Submerged wooden pile protecting barrier sheet and seal

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3410096A (en) * 1966-12-07 1968-11-12 Atlantic Richfield Co Streamlined riser pipe
US3680516A (en) * 1969-08-03 1972-08-01 Constantine Loverdos Stelakato System absorbing shocks on vessel and improving its motion
US3934422A (en) * 1974-11-11 1976-01-27 Fredrickson Larry E Pile splicing apparatus and method
US4058985A (en) * 1976-07-19 1977-11-22 Liddell Orval E Protection of metallic structural elements against corrosion
US4078605A (en) * 1977-02-25 1978-03-14 Cameron Iron Works, Inc. Riser pipe string
US4300466A (en) * 1978-10-14 1981-11-17 Plessey Handel Und Investments Ag Hydrodynamic devices
US4365574A (en) * 1980-06-23 1982-12-28 Fleet Industries One-piece snap-on foil-shaped low-drag fairing for long underwater cables
US4474129A (en) * 1982-04-29 1984-10-02 W. R. Grace & Co. Riser pipe fairing
US4557319A (en) * 1982-07-02 1985-12-10 Arnold Alanson J Marine keel cooler
US4676692A (en) * 1983-10-31 1987-06-30 Thomas Henderson Underwater growth inhibition
US5044826A (en) * 1986-11-26 1991-09-03 Shell Offshore Inc. Method and apparatus for umbilical hydraulic control lines in floating production systems
US4909327A (en) * 1989-01-25 1990-03-20 Hydril Company Marine riser
US5520270A (en) * 1992-03-06 1996-05-28 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Ag Tank structure for holding liquid especially in a spacecraft
US5421413A (en) * 1993-11-02 1995-06-06 Shell Oil Company Flexible fairings to reduce vortex-induced vibrations
US5410979A (en) * 1994-02-28 1995-05-02 Shell Oil Company Small fixed teardrop fairings for vortex induced vibration suppression
US6019549A (en) * 1996-06-11 2000-02-01 Corrosion Control International Llc Vortex shedding strake wraps for submerged pilings and pipes
US7467913B1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2008-12-23 Shell Oil Company Faired truss spar
GB2386662A (en) * 2000-11-15 2003-09-24 Crp Group Ltd Protection of underwater elongate members
GB2386662B (en) * 2000-11-15 2004-07-28 Crp Group Ltd Protection of underwater elongate members
WO2002040875A3 (en) * 2000-11-15 2002-08-01 Crp Group Ltd Protection of underwater elongate members
US20090133612A1 (en) * 2005-01-03 2009-05-28 Krzysztof Jan Wajnikonis Dynamic motion suppression of riser, umbilical and jumper lines
US20080131210A1 (en) * 2005-01-03 2008-06-05 Sea-Horse Equipment Corporation Catenary Line Dynamic Motion Suppression
US20070003372A1 (en) * 2005-06-16 2007-01-04 Allen Donald W Systems and methods for reducing drag and/or vortex induced vibration
WO2007008053A1 (en) * 2005-07-12 2007-01-18 Gris Robie Bonilla Covering element for protecting structures against scouring and drag force
US20090052989A1 (en) * 2005-07-12 2009-02-26 Robie Bonilla Gris Covering Element for Protecting Structures Against Scouring and Drag Force
US7628569B2 (en) 2005-07-12 2009-12-08 Bonilla Gris Robie Covering element for protecting structures against scouring and drag force
WO2016069484A1 (en) * 2014-10-27 2016-05-06 Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd. Buoyant structure
WO2016124967A1 (en) * 2015-02-02 2016-08-11 Cgg Services Sa Water-fillable cable fairing and method

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3433024A (en) Versatile marine structure
US3555831A (en) Composite foundation member and method
Lanesky et al. A new approach to portable vibracoring underwater and on land: method paper
US6768216B1 (en) Wave energy converters utilizing pressure differences
US4204406A (en) Wave energy module 2
US5704732A (en) Deep water piling and method of installing or removing
US4224005A (en) Truss rig
US2771747A (en) Offshore drilling barge
Dalrymple Wave‐induced liquefaction: a modern example from the Bay of Fundy
US4648751A (en) Method and apparatus for erecting offshore platforms
US3347052A (en) Method of and apparatus for transporting, erecting, and salvaging off-shore structures
US3879951A (en) Underwater drilling pollution control curtain
US3299846A (en) Stable floating support columns
US3467013A (en) Submarine fluid transmission system and conduit therefor
US4773221A (en) Apparatus for recovering the kinetic energy of sea waves
US4848967A (en) Load-transfer system for mating an integrated deck with an offshore platform substructure
US4169424A (en) Tension leg buoyancy structure
US5443330A (en) Deep water platform with buoyant flexible piles
US2938353A (en) Submersible drilling barge
US6953308B1 (en) Offshore platform stabilizing strakes
US3751930A (en) Articulated marine structure with prepositioned anchoring piles
US4031919A (en) Articulated riser
US2986889A (en) Anchoring systems
US5516235A (en) Method and apparatus of raising objects from the sea bed
US4674918A (en) Anchoring floating structural body in deep water