US3344385A - Flexible resistance element with flexible and stretchable terminal electrodes - Google Patents

Flexible resistance element with flexible and stretchable terminal electrodes Download PDF

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Publication number
US3344385A
US3344385A US423228A US42322865A US3344385A US 3344385 A US3344385 A US 3344385A US 423228 A US423228 A US 423228A US 42322865 A US42322865 A US 42322865A US 3344385 A US3344385 A US 3344385A
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United States
Prior art keywords
flexible
electrodes
resistance element
material
stretchable
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Expired - Lifetime
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US423228A
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Donald M Bartos
Raymond J Price
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Dow Corning Corp
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Dow Corning Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/40Heating elements having the shape of rods or tubes
    • H05B3/54Heating elements having the shape of rods or tubes flexible
    • H05B3/56Heating cables
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B7/00Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form
    • H01B7/06Extensible conductors or cables, e.g. self-coiling cords
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C1/00Details
    • H01C1/14Terminals or tapping points or electrodes specially adapted for resistors; Arrangements of terminals or tapping points or electrodes on resistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C1/00Details
    • H01C1/14Terminals or tapping points or electrodes specially adapted for resistors; Arrangements of terminals or tapping points or electrodes on resistors
    • H01C1/146Terminals or tapping points or electrodes specially adapted for resistors; Arrangements of terminals or tapping points or electrodes on resistors the resistive element surrounding the terminal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C7/00Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material
    • H01C7/001Mass resistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/02Details
    • H05B3/06Heater elements structurally combined with coupling elements or holders
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • H05B3/146Conductive polymers, e.g. polyethylene, thermoplastics
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/40Heating elements having the shape of rods or tubes
    • H05B3/54Heating elements having the shape of rods or tubes flexible
    • H05B3/56Heating cables
    • H05B3/565Heating cables flat cables
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L19/00Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis
    • G10L2019/0001Codebooks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L19/00Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis
    • G10L2019/0001Codebooks
    • G10L2019/0007Codebook element generation

Description

p 1967 D. M. BARTOS ETAL 3,34 ,385

FLEXIBLE RESISTANCE ELEMENT WITH FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE TERMINAL ELECTRODES Filed Jan. 4, 1965 'IIIIIII'II/IIII' Q in INVENTORS. Dona/0M4 fiar/os Y Raymondd Price 3 H TTORNEV United States Patent 3,344,385 FLEXIBLE RESISTANCE ELEMENT WITH FLEX- IBLE AND STRETCHABLE TERMINAL ELEC- TRODES Donald M. Bartos, Midland, and Raymond J. Price, Bay City, Mich, assignors to Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Mich, a corporation of Michigan Filed Jan. 4, 1965, Ser. No. 423,228 2 Claims. (Cl. 338212) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Flexible and stretchable elas-tomeric resistance element, having flexible and stretchable braided, open weave metallic terminal electrodes, which have the capacity to maintain intimate contact with the elastomeric, resist ance element during flexing, bending, and stretching of the element while it is in use. Such intimate contact between an elastomeric resistance element and its terminal electrodes is necessary if current is to flow uniformly through the resistance element.

The present invention relates to electrically conductive flexible or stretchable materials, and more particularly, to the provision of terminal connections for such materials.

Various types of electrically conductive plastic and elastomeric materials have been proposed. Generally, such materials are formed of electrically conductive particles suspended in a-natural or synthetic rubber, or plastic, flexible or stretchable carrier. By proper selection of materials it is now possible to provide flexible and/or stretchable materials having any balance of electrical and physical properties. Such devices have potential application in fields such as resistance elements, heating elements, tapes, pads, blankets, clothing and many others.

A major problem heretofore, with such materials, has been the difliculty in attaching suitable electrodes to the material for connection to an electrical power source. Electrodes must have intimate contact with a resistance element throughout its entire length. The ability to maintain intimate elecrode contact during flexing, bending, and stretching of the element in use is considered by many design engineers to be the most important criterion in selecting such devices for a particular use. This has been particularly true in heating applications wherein a relatively large area is to be uniformly heated. If electrodes are attached only at points on the electrically conductive resistance element, electrical current is distributed nonuniformly through the area resulting in high temperatures (or hot spots) in areas of high current concentration and low temperatures in areas remote from the electrodes. It is therefore desirable to provide an electrode arrangement wherein current is caused to flow uniformly through the resistance element. It is toward this object that the present invention is directed.

Another object is the provision of an electrode, which is capable of stretching and yielding with the flexible resistive element for relatively wide stretchable electrical elements. A further object is to provide a method of making a wide flexible conductor having yieldable electrodes made integrally therewith.

In accordance with these and other objects, there is provided by the present invention a yieldable, stretchable, low resistance electrode, which is bonded to a flexible and/or elastomeric electrical resistance element. Resistance elements may be either supported or unsupported. The electrode may, for example, be a stretchable metallic conductor which is processed into the resistance element before the element has been vulcanized or cured. If desired, flexible electrical insulation can be bonded over both the resistance element and the electrodes.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art by a consideration of the following detailed description When read in conjunction with the acccompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a view in perspective of a heating pad made in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the heating pad of FIG. 1 taken on the line 2--2 of F IG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view in perspective of the heating element ofFIG. 1; and

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a method of making insulated elements in accordance with the present invention.

Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference numerals designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, there is shown in FIG. 1 a heating pad shown generally as 10. The heating pad is covered by a layer of insulating material 11, and has a pair of electrodes 12 and 13 embedded therein, and projecting from the pad for connection to an electrical power source. It will be realized that in practice the leads emerging from suitable locations on the pad will also be insulated to prevent short circuiting and danger to the user.

As may be seen from FIGS. 2 and 3, the electrodes are embedded in a layer of flexible conducting material 14 which may be of any known type which is in turn covered by a layer 11 of insulation. Numerous examples of suitable conductive materials are described in copending US. patent application, Ser. No. 408,263, filed Nov. 2, 1964. The material may merely be flexible, or it may be elastomeric in nature. It is preferable that the material be capable of flowing or being made to flow at some time in the manufacturing process and be capable of bonding or adhering to the electrodes.

It is desirable that the electrodes be capable of flexing with the conducting material without loss of bond or intimate contact. For example, if the conducting material is elastomeric in nature, the electrode must be capable of stretching or yielding with that material during flexing or stretching. A suitable type electrode is an open weave or braided metallic conductor such as the type of braid commonly used as a shield in audio equipment such as microphone cables. In a specific embodiment, an electrode consisting of 50 strands of tinned copper wire braided in tubular form was utilized. Before embedding it, the electrode was expanded to render it more stretchable and flattened to conform to the flat pad. The open weave braided electrode is particularly desirable due to the large surface area of the conductors, high current capability, and assurance of excellent bonding since the material of the resistance element can be flowed through the open weave. While it is also possible to use conductive elastomeric materials, the resistance of most such materials is too high due to a voltage drop along the electrode to obtain uniform current distribution.

For uniform heating in a resistance element having substantially uniform resistance per unit of volume, it is desirable to provide current paths of equal length throughout the material. The heat generated by the conducting substantially equal current distribution and substantially equal resistance will thus result in uniform temperature.

Uniform current distribution is accomplished in accordance with the present invention by extending the electrodes 12 and 13 through substantially the entire length of the heating element in parallel directions as shown in FIG. 3. Since the distance between electrodes is substantially uniform, the heat produced will also be substantially uniform.

Patented Sept. 26, 1967- As shown in FIG. 4, insulated heating elements made in accordance with the present invention may easily be mass produced. Assuming that the conductive material used as a resistance element is an elastomeric such as a conductive dispersion in a silicone rubber carrier, a web 14 of uncured or tacky conducting material, which may be supported, if desired, is fed between a first pair of pressure rollers 16 and 17. Electrode material 13, held, for example, on a reel 18 is also fed into the space between pressure rollers 16 and 17 in the positions at which it is to be embedded into the conducting material 14. The pressure rollers force the electrode material into the uncured conductor which, because of its uncured state, is caused to flow into tight adherence with the electrodes. A pair of webs 11 and 11a of insulating material, also preferably, but not necessarily, in uncured form are fed with the conductive web into the space between a second pair of pressure rollers 19 and 20. The insulating jacket could be silicone rubber, for example. The insulation will adhere well to either cured or uncured conductive material. The composite web is then fed through a curing oven 21, where it is cured as necessary, depending on the type of material used, and is then wound on a takeup reel 22, where it may be stored until ready for use. It is to be understood that, while not as desirable in many applications, the materials may be cured before assembly and conductive adhesives may be flowed through the electrodes to secure them to the webs.

Obviously, the insulated heating elements need not be produced in rolls as shown in FIG. 4. However, the same basic steps are involved in making single small elements. The braid electrodes are forced into an uncured sheet of conductive material. The conductive material may, if desired, be provided with fabric reinforcement. Insulation, if desired, is placed over the conducting material and cured as necessary.

Many other modifications and variations of the present invention will become obvious to those skilled in the art. Therefore, it is to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

That which is claimed is: 1. A flexible resistance element comprising an elastomeric body of flexible electrically conductive material, and a system of flexible and stretchable low resistance electrodes embedded therein, said embedded electrodes each having a length in said material corresponding substantially to the length of said material in the direction in which said electrodes are embedded, and said embedded electrodes being each formed as a braided open weave metallic conductor. 2. A resistance element as defined in claim 1, but including further a layer of insulating material surrounding said elastomeric body of flexible electrically conductive material and said low resistance electrodes.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,406,367 8/1946 Griffith et al. 244l34 2,473,183 6/1949 Watson 219549 X 2,559,077 7/1951 Johnson et al. 219-549X 2,885,461 5/1959 Cafiero 3159-222X 2,952,001 9/1960 Morey 3382l0 3,022,412 2/ 1962 Waters 219-549 3,060,303 10/1962 Skoglund et al. 219-549 3,281,579 10/1966 Glicksman 219-535 FOREIGN PATENTS 975,264 11/ 1964 Great Britain.

RICHARD M. WOOD, Primary Examiner.

V. Y. MAYEWSKY, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A FLEXIBLE RESISTANCE ELEMENT COMPRISING AN ELASTOMERIC BODY OF FLEXIBLE ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL, AND A SYSTEM OF FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE LOW RESISTANCE ELECTRODES EMBEDDED THEREIN, SAID EMBEDDED ELECTRODES EACH HAVING A LENGTH IN SAID MATERIAL CORRESPONDING SUBSTANTIALLY THE LENGTH OF SAID MATERIAL
US423228A 1965-01-04 1965-01-04 Flexible resistance element with flexible and stretchable terminal electrodes Expired - Lifetime US3344385A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US423228A US3344385A (en) 1965-01-04 1965-01-04 Flexible resistance element with flexible and stretchable terminal electrodes

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US423228A US3344385A (en) 1965-01-04 1965-01-04 Flexible resistance element with flexible and stretchable terminal electrodes
FR41118A FR1457137A (en) 1965-01-04 1965-12-07 extensible conductor connection
NL6517229A NL6517229A (en) 1965-01-04 1965-12-31
BE674612D BE674612A (en) 1965-01-04 1965-12-31
AT1266A AT277405B (en) 1965-01-04 1966-01-03 Flexible resistive element
GB127/66A GB1111393A (en) 1965-01-04 1966-01-03 Flexible resistance elements
DE19661590277 DE1590277A1 (en) 1965-01-04 1966-01-03 Flexible resistive element
CH6366A CH445668A (en) 1965-01-04 1966-01-04 A flexible electrical resistance element

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US3344385A true US3344385A (en) 1967-09-26

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US (1) US3344385A (en)
AT (1) AT277405B (en)
BE (1) BE674612A (en)
CH (1) CH445668A (en)
DE (1) DE1590277A1 (en)
FR (1) FR1457137A (en)
GB (1) GB1111393A (en)
NL (1) NL6517229A (en)

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3558858A (en) * 1969-06-30 1971-01-26 Delta Control Inc Flexible planar heating unit adapted for mounting on complex curved surfaces
US3597591A (en) * 1969-09-25 1971-08-03 Delta Control Inc Bonded flexible heater structure with an electric semiconductive layer sealed therein
US3657515A (en) * 1970-08-21 1972-04-18 Westinghouse Electric Corp Diving suit
US3678435A (en) * 1970-11-09 1972-07-18 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Electrical resistor
US3683361A (en) * 1970-02-20 1972-08-08 Hoechst Ag Process for the manufacture of flat heating conductors and flat heating conductors obtained by this process
US3737621A (en) * 1971-11-09 1973-06-05 S Elkins Water-immersible electrical heating device
US3740529A (en) * 1971-11-01 1973-06-19 Gen Electric Heating unit
US3749886A (en) * 1971-12-06 1973-07-31 Dale Electronics Electrical heating pad
US4058704A (en) * 1974-12-27 1977-11-15 Taeo Kim Coilable and severable heating element
US4074222A (en) * 1974-03-29 1978-02-14 Shin Kiyokawa Planar heating element
US4247756A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-01-27 Victor Cucinotta Heated floor mat
US4309596A (en) * 1980-06-24 1982-01-05 Sunbeam Corporation Flexible self-limiting heating cable
US4314231A (en) * 1980-04-21 1982-02-02 Raychem Corporation Conductive polymer electrical devices
US4330704A (en) * 1980-08-08 1982-05-18 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymers
US4334148A (en) * 1974-08-30 1982-06-08 Raychem Corporation PTC Heaters
US4398084A (en) * 1981-06-15 1983-08-09 Raychem Corporation End seal for strip heaters
US4575617A (en) * 1984-04-12 1986-03-11 Cooperheat Heat tracing tape and power control system
US4641423A (en) * 1974-10-21 1987-02-10 Fast Heat Element Manufacturing Co., Inc. Method of making electrically heated nozzles and nozzle systems
US4695091A (en) * 1985-12-17 1987-09-22 I.G. Bauerhin Gmbh Elektro-Technische Fabrik Heat conductor connections between seats and backrests of vehicles
US4764664A (en) * 1976-12-13 1988-08-16 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4841124A (en) * 1982-03-25 1989-06-20 Cox & Company, Inc. Strain-resistant heated helicopter rotor blade
US4866253A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-09-12 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4876440A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-10-24 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4954695A (en) * 1972-09-08 1990-09-04 Raychem Corporation Self-limiting conductive extrudates and methods therefor
US20080010815A1 (en) * 2006-07-17 2008-01-17 W.E.T. Automotive Group Ag Heating tape structure
US20130001840A1 (en) * 2010-04-08 2013-01-03 Siegfried Reck Elastomer product, in particular an air spring having a bellows, having an electrical component

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2616855C3 (en) * 1976-04-15 1981-11-12 Wacker-Chemie Gmbh, 8000 Muenchen, De
EP0042448A1 (en) * 1980-06-19 1981-12-30 Gebrüder Rensing Heating blanket or cushion with a flexible heat conductor
GB8310747D0 (en) * 1983-04-20 1983-05-25 Cooperheat Heat tracing tape and controller
NO853341L (en) * 1985-08-26 1985-11-29 Odd Stephan Irgens Device for energy-saving heating in car and boat.
DE3635286A1 (en) * 1986-10-16 1988-04-21 Lentia Gmbh Surface heating element and process for producing it
DE10212042C1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2003-08-14 Sidler Gmbh & Co Low-cost, injection-molded adjustable resistor with cooling fins and mountings, has contacts inlaid in conductive plastic with bridging sections which can be cut to select resistance

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2406367A (en) * 1944-11-10 1946-08-27 Honorary Advisory Council Sci Prevention and removal of ice or frost on aircraft parts
US2473183A (en) * 1947-07-16 1949-06-14 Bates Mfg Co Electrically conductive fabric
US2559077A (en) * 1946-07-01 1951-07-03 Carl G Westerberg Resistance element and method of preparing same
US2885461A (en) * 1958-02-05 1959-05-05 Michael J Cafiero Expansion and deflection conduit coupling
US2952001A (en) * 1958-08-04 1960-09-06 Linton Summit Coal Company Inc Electrical heating tape and method of making
US3022412A (en) * 1958-09-26 1962-02-20 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Deicer
US3060303A (en) * 1958-07-29 1962-10-23 George A Skoglund Heating element
GB975264A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-11-11 Sanders Associates Inc Conductor cables,particularly for printed circuits
US3281579A (en) * 1964-04-21 1966-10-25 Multi Flex Seats Inc Conductive rubber heating mantle

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2406367A (en) * 1944-11-10 1946-08-27 Honorary Advisory Council Sci Prevention and removal of ice or frost on aircraft parts
US2559077A (en) * 1946-07-01 1951-07-03 Carl G Westerberg Resistance element and method of preparing same
US2473183A (en) * 1947-07-16 1949-06-14 Bates Mfg Co Electrically conductive fabric
US2885461A (en) * 1958-02-05 1959-05-05 Michael J Cafiero Expansion and deflection conduit coupling
US3060303A (en) * 1958-07-29 1962-10-23 George A Skoglund Heating element
US2952001A (en) * 1958-08-04 1960-09-06 Linton Summit Coal Company Inc Electrical heating tape and method of making
US3022412A (en) * 1958-09-26 1962-02-20 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Deicer
GB975264A (en) * 1961-03-28 1964-11-11 Sanders Associates Inc Conductor cables,particularly for printed circuits
US3281579A (en) * 1964-04-21 1966-10-25 Multi Flex Seats Inc Conductive rubber heating mantle

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3558858A (en) * 1969-06-30 1971-01-26 Delta Control Inc Flexible planar heating unit adapted for mounting on complex curved surfaces
US3597591A (en) * 1969-09-25 1971-08-03 Delta Control Inc Bonded flexible heater structure with an electric semiconductive layer sealed therein
US3683361A (en) * 1970-02-20 1972-08-08 Hoechst Ag Process for the manufacture of flat heating conductors and flat heating conductors obtained by this process
US3657515A (en) * 1970-08-21 1972-04-18 Westinghouse Electric Corp Diving suit
US3678435A (en) * 1970-11-09 1972-07-18 Allis Chalmers Mfg Co Electrical resistor
US3740529A (en) * 1971-11-01 1973-06-19 Gen Electric Heating unit
US3737621A (en) * 1971-11-09 1973-06-05 S Elkins Water-immersible electrical heating device
US3749886A (en) * 1971-12-06 1973-07-31 Dale Electronics Electrical heating pad
US4954695A (en) * 1972-09-08 1990-09-04 Raychem Corporation Self-limiting conductive extrudates and methods therefor
US4074222A (en) * 1974-03-29 1978-02-14 Shin Kiyokawa Planar heating element
US4334148A (en) * 1974-08-30 1982-06-08 Raychem Corporation PTC Heaters
US4641423A (en) * 1974-10-21 1987-02-10 Fast Heat Element Manufacturing Co., Inc. Method of making electrically heated nozzles and nozzle systems
US4058704A (en) * 1974-12-27 1977-11-15 Taeo Kim Coilable and severable heating element
US4764664A (en) * 1976-12-13 1988-08-16 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4876440A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-10-24 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4866253A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-09-12 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4247756A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-01-27 Victor Cucinotta Heated floor mat
US4314231A (en) * 1980-04-21 1982-02-02 Raychem Corporation Conductive polymer electrical devices
US4309596A (en) * 1980-06-24 1982-01-05 Sunbeam Corporation Flexible self-limiting heating cable
US4330704A (en) * 1980-08-08 1982-05-18 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymers
US4398084A (en) * 1981-06-15 1983-08-09 Raychem Corporation End seal for strip heaters
US4841124A (en) * 1982-03-25 1989-06-20 Cox & Company, Inc. Strain-resistant heated helicopter rotor blade
US4575617A (en) * 1984-04-12 1986-03-11 Cooperheat Heat tracing tape and power control system
US4695091A (en) * 1985-12-17 1987-09-22 I.G. Bauerhin Gmbh Elektro-Technische Fabrik Heat conductor connections between seats and backrests of vehicles
US20080010815A1 (en) * 2006-07-17 2008-01-17 W.E.T. Automotive Group Ag Heating tape structure
WO2008009389A1 (en) * 2006-07-17 2008-01-24 W.E.T. Automotive Systems Ag Heating tape structure
US20130001840A1 (en) * 2010-04-08 2013-01-03 Siegfried Reck Elastomer product, in particular an air spring having a bellows, having an electrical component

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NL6517229A (en) 1966-07-05
BE674612A (en) 1966-06-30
GB1111393A (en) 1968-04-24
CH445668A (en) 1967-10-31
AT277405B (en) 1969-12-29
DE1590277A1 (en) 1970-07-09
FR1457137A (en) 1966-10-28

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