US3324337A - High frequency electron discharge device and focusing means therefor - Google Patents

High frequency electron discharge device and focusing means therefor Download PDF

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US3324337A
US3324337A US327369A US32736963A US3324337A US 3324337 A US3324337 A US 3324337A US 327369 A US327369 A US 327369A US 32736963 A US32736963 A US 32736963A US 3324337 A US3324337 A US 3324337A
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beam
high frequency
low reluctance
envelope
reluctance path
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Mccune Earl William
Louis T Zitelli
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Varian Medical Systems Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/02Tubes with electron stream modulated in velocity or density in a modulator zone and thereafter giving up energy in an inducing zone, the zones being associated with one or more resonators
    • H01J25/10Klystrons, i.e. tubes having two or more resonators, without reflection of the electron stream, and in which the stream is modulated mainly by velocity in the zone of the input resonator
    • H01J25/12Klystrons, i.e. tubes having two or more resonators, without reflection of the electron stream, and in which the stream is modulated mainly by velocity in the zone of the input resonator with pencil-like electron stream in the axis of the resonators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J23/00Details of transit-time tubes of the types covered by group H01J25/00
    • H01J23/02Electrodes; Magnetic control means; Screens
    • H01J23/08Focusing arrangements, e.g. for concentrating stream of electrons, for preventing spreading of stream
    • H01J23/087Magnetic focusing arrangements

Description

June 6, 1967 MCCUNE L 3,324,337

HIGH FREQUENCY ELEGTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE AND FOOUSING MEANS THEREFOR Filed D60. 2, 1953 iNV-ENTORS EARL W. MC CUNE LOUIS T. ZITELLI United States Patent 3,324,337 HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRON DISCHARGE DE- VICE AND FOCUSIN G MEANS THEREFDR Earl William McCune, Santa Clara, and Louis T. Zitelli, Palo Alto, Calif, assignors to Varian Associates, Palo Alto, Calif, a corporation of California Filed Dec. 2, 1963, Ser. No. 327,369 4 Claims. (Cl. 3l53.5)

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE It is possible to obtain uniform flux density in solenoidal focused high frequency electron discharge devices such as the klystron and traveling wave tube both along the interaction length and within areas wherein wave transmission means such as waveguides are coupled to the interaction circuit and necessitate an interruption in the solenoid by incorporating an auxiliary solenoid on the other side of the transmission means and providing a re-entrant and surrounding low reluctance magnetic circuit means for the solenoids.

This invention relates generally to high frequency tubes and more particularly'to improvement in klystrons, traveling wave tubes and other similar tube structures operable at relatively high frequencies for the generation or amplification of radio frequency energy via the mechanism of electromagnetic interaction between an electron beam and appropriately established radio frequency fields.

Extremely serious problems are encountered when attempts are made to design high frequency tubes of the designated type for operation at high power levels. As the output radio frequency power level increases, a corresponding increase in the beam power of the tube is requisite. In turn, the high powered electron beam is intercepted by various structural components of the tube wherefore substantial amounts of heat are generated, particularly under conditions of C.W. operation as opposed to intermittent or pulsed operation. By way of example, a multi-cavity klys-tron amplifier arranged for C.W. operation with a radio frequency power output of 100 kw. will require an electron beam power in the neighborhood of 300 kw. Such beam, after traversing the klystron cavities, is conventionally collected by a bucket-like collector structure in which a considerable amount of heat will be generated. One problem then is to provide adequate and efficient cooling of the collector.

In addition, heat will be similarly generated in the cavity forming structures themselves to an extent determined by the amount of beam interception with such cavity structures. Normally, a magnetic solenoid or the like can be utilized to focus the beam to a pencil-like shape which traverses most of the cavities without appreciable interception. However, since the radio frequency power in the final or output cavity of the klystron is normally delivered therefrom through a laterally projecting. output waveguide, constituting the preferable structure for handling radio frequency power at high levels, a physical requirement for termination of the solenoid at the waveguide exists and the beam, in turn, will spread not only as a result of existent space charge forces in the beam itself but also as a result of certain transverse forces exerted on the electrons of the beam by the existent radio frequency fields in the final or output klystron cavity. As a result, substantial heat is commonly generated in the output cavity of high power klystrons, the amount being sufiicient to change the dimensions of the metallic structureforming the cavity to an extent such that detuning of the cavity and reduction in overall efficiency of the amplifier results. Similar problems are encountered in traveling wave tubes wherein space charge forces can and often do cause serious electron beam impingement problems, especially in the vicinity of RR coupling sections such as transversely oriented waveguides.

Accordingly, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a high frequency tube which incorporates means arranged to control the generation of heat by a high power electron beam so that the tube is capable of operation at very high power levels.

It is a feature of the invention to provide a high frequency tube including novel focusing or confining means for the electron beam so that the amount of beam interception with the radio frequency field supporting structure is reduced to substantially a nullity.

Yet more specifically, it is a feature of the invention to provide such a beam focusing structure including several magnetic elements arranged to maintain a constant magnetic field throughout the interaction region of the high frequency tube.

Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent on a perusal of the following specification when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal view showing a multi-cavity klystron amplifier embodying the present invention;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged, longitudinal, fragmentary sectional view along line 22 of FIG. 1, illustrating details of interior construction;

FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary transverse, sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 2; and

FIG. 5 is a longitudinal view showing a traveling wave tube embodying the present invention.

With initial reference to FIG. 1, the klystron amplifier generally includes an elongated tubular metallic envelope arranged to maintain vacuum conditions therewithin. At one end, an electron gun assembly 12 is mounted and arranged to generate and direct a beam of electrons lengthwise through the entire tubular structure to a collector assembly 14 at its remote extremity. In its transit, the beam traverses sequentially four tunable cavity resonators, two of which are indicated at 16, 22, each arranged with re-entrant drift tube portions defining cavity gaps 16a, 22a, which support standing wave radio frequency fields in interacting relationship with the beam.

The radio frequency energy to be amplified is delivered to the first cavity resonator 16 through a coaxial line 24 and an input coupling loop 26, and after amplification the output radio frequency energy is transmitted from the final output cavity 22 through a conventional waveguide 28 which is connected to the final cavity resonator through a suitable coupling iris 30 and projects laterally therefrom. Briefly, the well known amplification mechanism includes an initial velocity modulation of the electron beam by the input radio frequency energy by way of coupling at the first cavity gap 16a. As the beam travels, a bunching or current density modulation results, the effect being further enhanced as the electrons traverse the second and third cavity gaps. The tightly bunched beam of electrons subsequently excites radio frequency fields in the final or output cavity resonator 22 which energy is then delivered through the output waveguide 28 to a suitable load (not shown). Further details of the described structure and its operation are not presented since they are not germane to the present invention and alternate known electron gun and/or interaction structures can be substituted therefor.

The electron beam during its transit has a tendency to spread both as a result of space charge forces existent within the beam itself and also as a result of force components established within the resonator cavities, such forces attaining considerable magnitude in the final or 3 output cavity resonator 22 where a high radio frequency power level has been developed through the described amplification mechanism. In order to maintain the beam in a confined pencil-like trajectory during its transit of the cavity resonators, a beam focusing solenoid 32 of generally tubular configuration surrounds the interaction region of the tube, terminating at one end adjacent the electron gun assembly 12 and at the other end adjacent the laterally projecting output waveguide 28. If the focusing effect of such single solenoid is considered by itself, substantially a constant magnetic focusing field can be established through the first three cavity resonators of the klystron amplifier but since the solenoid 32 terminates adjacent the output waveguide 28, fringing fields would exist in the final or fourth cavity resonator 22 and the focusing effect will thus diminish considerably and allow substantial interception of the electrons with the cavity forming structure.

In accordance with the present invention, an auxiliary coil 34, as most clearly illustrated in FIG. 2, encompasses the entrance end of the aforementioned collector assembly 14 so as to be positioned on the longitudinally opposite side of the output waveguide 28 from the described solenoid 32. More particularly, this auxiliary coil 34 surrounds a pole piece 34a integrated with the magnetic circuit 65a, 64a, 64b of the main solenoid 32 and functions conjointly therewith so that ultimately a constant magnetic field exists across the entire magnetic gap, which with the addition of the auxiliary coil 34, encompasses all of the cavity resonators. Thus, defocusing of the electron beam in the four cavity resonator 22 is avoided.

Both the solenoid 32 and the auxiliary coil 34 are designed and constructed in accordance with known techniques wherefore details of such construction need not be spelled out. However, in such design and construction, it is preferred that the auxiliary coil 34 be designed with a number of turns such that the requisite magnetic field is obtained with a current flow identical to that in the main solenoid 32 wherefore a single magnet power supply (not shown) can be used and the electrical circuit can constitute a series connection. Additionally, both the main solenoid 32 and the auxiliary coil 34 can be supplied with coolant from an identical source (not shown). Thus, the necessity for additional complexity in both the coolant supply and the power supply for the magnetic focusing structures is obviated. Flux return members 64a and 64b preferably of a high permeability material such as cold rolled steel, iron, etc., extend between and are integrated with annular pole pieces 65a and 34a as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 and transversely displaced from the longitudinal axis of the tube, along which the electron beam propagates. Thus the flux from the main solenoid 32 premeates the pole piece 34a and together with the flux produced by the auxiliary coil 34 results in a constant flux existing across the entire magnetic gap between the spaced pole pieces 34a and 65a, without any transverse magnetic fringe fields existing in the vicinity of the juncture between the envelope 22' and the output waveguide 28 which would, in the absence of the auxiliary coil 34 and the integrated magnetic circuit 34a, 64a, 64b, 65a, cause expansion of the electron beam and consequent detuning of the tube. Flux return members 64a and 64b serve as low reluctance or magnetically shorted paths for the flux produced by the coils. This of course results in an integrated magnetic circuit and reduced leakage and also provides a certain degree of protection from extraneous magnetic fields. FIG. shows a traveling wave tube 91 having a conventional cathode 91a, slow wave circuit 91b and collector 910 members incorporating novel auxiliary coils 92 and 93 and main coil 94, in conjunction with an integrated magnetic circuit including pole pieces 95, 96 and flux return member 97. A matching flux return member is disposed diametrically opposite member 97 in the same manner as shown for the klystron embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2. The slow wave circuit 91b is shown as a helix,

but obviously could be any known circuit such as, for example, a disc loaded guide, ring and bar, etc. The operation of traveling wave tubes is well known and reference to any suitable text will provide an adequate description of same. Transmission lines 98 and 99 in the form of waveguides provide suitable R.F. coupling means for either forward or backward amplifier operation. In the case of BWO operation, waveguide 99 may be eliminated. As in the case of the klystron embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, the flux across the gaps between pole pieces and 96 is constant and substantially devoid of transverse components in the vicinity of the transmission lines 98, 99, which would otherwise result in beam defocusing and electron impingement on the slow Wave circuit and/o1 surrounding vacuum envelope 100.

The described beam focusing arrangement provides for a high percentage of beam transmission to the collector assembly 14 which is arranged to provide for highly eflicient dissipation of the heat generated during beam collection. As best shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the collector assembly 14 is mounted in axial alignment with the remainder of the klystron amplifier and includes a collector bucket 40 composed of a hollow cylindrical tube 42 closed at its remote base end by an internally tapered cup 44, both elements being formed from a good thermal conducting material, such as copper. Additionally, the collector bucket 40 preferably includes, adjacent its open entrance end, an inwardly directed annular flange 46 which serves to minimize re-entry of secondary emission electrons from the collector bucket back into the interaction region of the tube.

The exterior surface of the hollow cylindrical collector tube 42 is milled to form a plurality of longitudinally extending, circumferentially spaced slots which are covered by a cylindrical copper partition 48 which is mounted in tightly pressed engagement over the slotted collector tube to thus form coolant channels 50. At its one end, the cylindrical partition 48 is secured to the perimetral edge of an annular flange 52 spaced from the base of the collector bucket 40 as formed by the described cup 44, the inner edge of the flange 52, in turn, being secured to the extremity of a smaller cylindrical tube 54 that is axially aligned with the collector bucket 40 and is arranged to deliver coolant to the channels 50, as will be explained in detail hereinafter.

At its other extremity, the cylindrical copper partition 48 terminates a short distance from an outwardly projecting portion 46a of the previously described annular flange 46 at the entrance end of the collector bucket 40. In a manner somewhat similar to that of the cylindrical collector tube 42 itself, the cylindrical partition 48 is milled on its exterior surface to provide a plurality of longitudinally extending and circumferentially spaced slots and is tightly encompassed by a copper sleeve 55 which is secured at its opposite extremities respectively to the exterior edge of the annular flange 46a at the entrance end of the collector bucket 40 and to another annular flange 56 that is slightly spaced from the partition supporting flange 52, thus forming return coolant channels 58. The inner edge of this sleeve supporting flange 56 is internally secured to a tube 60 concentrically mounted about the described inlet tube 54 for coolant so as to provide an annular outlet passage for the coolant received from the return channels 58. As illustrated by the arrows in FIG. 2, coolant, preferably in the form of distilled water supplied from the inner tube 54, first moves radially outward adjacent the base of the collector bucket 40, thence longitudinally through the channels 50 exterior to the collector tube 42 and thereafter through the return channels 58 and into the annular outlet passage in tube 60.

It is to be expressly observed that the coolant flowing through the channels 50, 58 in both directions is encompassed by copper elements all of which are in direct metallic contact with the collector tube 42 itself, as best shown in FIG. 4. Since it is well established that the greatest impediment to efficient heat transfer exists at an interface between liquid and solid surfaces, the described arrangement wherein only one such interface exists between all coolant channels and the metal '(i.e., the collector tube 42) from, which heat is to be extracted, the efficiency of heat transfer is optimized.

At its entrance end, the collector assembly 14 is held in spaced, thermally and electrically isolated relation from the remainder of the tube by a ceramic ring 62 positioned between the collector flange 46 and a collector mounting flange 64 disposed adjacent the final cavity resonator 22. At its remote end, the described collector bucket 40 and coolant structure is provided with an axially flexible connection, generally indicated at 66, and which incorporates another ceramic ring 68, for mounting to an encompassing cylindrical shield 70 which surrounds the entire collector structure and is brazed or otherwise secured to the exterior of the pole piece 340 at the terminal end of the interaction region of the tube.

The flexible connection 66 allows axial motion which results because of the difference in thermal expansion between the copper collector and the steel shell 70. The flexi'ble connection does not allow radial motion and therefore keeps the collector located concentrically within the steel .shell 70. The shell 70 is made of steel to provide a strong vacuum envelope and also to shield the collector region from undesirable magnetic fields. X-nadiation is effectively stopped by the copper collector. Any small amount of radiation emanating from the copper collector would be further attenuated by the steel shell.

To facilitate ingress and egress of coolant to and from the collector assembly 14, the mentioned inlet tube 54 projects beyond the encompassing outlet tube 60 and both tubes are provided with circular openings 54a, 60a in their side walls adjacent their extremities which are closed respectively by a circular cap 72 and an annular cap 74. The stepped projecting tubular structure defined by the tubes 54, 60 constitutes the male member arranged for pressed connection into the female stepped receptacle formed in .a dual coolant manifold 76. Such manifold 76 constitutes a genenally cylindrical structure having a smaller bore 78 extending susbtantially half-way therethrough and arranged to encompass the projecting smaller inlet tube 54 and a larger bore 80' extending through the other half thereof and appropriately dimensioned to encompass the terminal portion of the larger foreshortened outlet tube 60. Each of the bores 78, 80 are centrally enlarged at a position such that the respective openings 54a, 60a in the wall of the inlet and outlet tubes are encompassed to establish liquid communication through inlet and outlet stubs 82, 84 which are arranged for appropriate connection to the coolant supply lines (not shown). To avoid leakage, circular O-rings 79, '81 are supported in sealing relationship between the bores 78, 80 and the encompassed tubes 54, 60 on opposite sides of both the inlet and outlet openings 54a, 60a.

As can be readily visualized, the dual manifold 76 as illustrated, can be simply pressed over the projecting tubes 54, 60 to establish connection to the coolant supply. Furthermore, the entire manifold 76 can be rotated about the axis defined by the tubes 54, 60 to facilitate positional arrangement of the coolant connections. Once assembled, the manifold 76 can be held in position on the tubes by a washer 86 that is held in engagement 'with the manifoldby a thumb bolt 88 arranged for threaded connection into the end cap 72 on the central tube 54. In view of the fact that all coolant pressures existent within the manifold 76 and the associated inlet and outlet tubes 54, 60 for the coolant are exerted radially, substantially no pressure tending to unseat the manifold 76 from its support on the tubes will exist.

The aforementioned collector assembly is claimed in copending US. patent application, Ser. No. 307,989, now Patent No. 3,305,742 entitled High Frequency Electron 6 Discharge device and Cooling Means Therefor by Earl W. McCune filed Sept. 10, 1963.

By the way of example, a klystron amplifier substantially as illustrated and having an overall length of substantially three feet has been successfully operated at a frequency of approximately two gigacycles with a C.W. radio frequency output power of 100 kw. and a beam power of 300 kw. The described collector assembly 14 has effectively handled the heat generated under such continuous wave operation with a coolant flow of ap proximately 40 gal/min. The described focusing arrangement, supplying a magnetic field of approximately 2000 gauss, has substantially eliminated beam interception within the cavities, such result being clearly demonstrated by the fact that no observable differences in cavity dimensions between operation at kw. and kw. were found.

While the focusing and beam collection arrangement have been specifically described relative to a klystron amplifier wherein standing waves exist within resonant cavities, it will be apparent that the same heating problems would be encountered in traveling wave structures, such as for example, a disc loaded waveguide involving traveling wave interaction at high power levels.

Since many changes can be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

This application is a continuation-in-part of US. patent application Ser. No. 308,880, now abandoned by Earl W. McCune and Louis T. Zitelli, filed Sept. 13, 1963 and assigned to the same assignee as the present invention.

What is claimed is: p

1. A high frequency tube which comprises an elongated, evacuated tubular envelope, an electron gun arranged to produce and direct a beam of electrons longitudinally therethrough, an interaction structure arranged to support high frequency fields in interacting relation with said electron beam, means for transmitting high frequency energy from said envelope adjacent one end of said interaction structure, and at least two beam focusing structures interconnected through a low reluctance path and surrounding said envelope and positioned on longitudinally opposite sides of said energy transmitting means, said focusing structures being arranged to conjointly produce substantially constant focusing forces on the beam of electrons within the entire interaction structure, said focusing structures together with said low reluctance path being arranged to produce magnetic fields which are characterized by an absence of transverse components of flux in the vicinity of the juncture between said envelope and said energy transmitting means, said one of said at least two beam focusing structures being a main solenoid means disposed internally of the low reluctance path and extending along substantially the entire interaction structure, said other of said at least two beam focusing structures being an auxiliary solenoid means disposed internally of the low reluctance path, said low reluctance path having a re-entrant portion which extends within the interior of said auxiliary solenoid, said main solenoid means contributing to the magnetic field in the interior portion'of the main solenoid and in the region of the juncture between said envelope and said energy transmitting means.

2. A high frequency tube according to claim 1 wherein said main and auxiliary solenoids are electrically arranged for energization by the same current.

3. A high frequency tube which comprises an elongated, evacuated tubular envelope, means forming a plurality of longitudinally spaced cavity resonators in said envelope with aligned field supporting gaps, an electron gun arranged to produce and direct a beam of electrons successively through said cavity resonators in interacting relation with fields established in said gaps, means for supplying high frequency wave energy to the first of said cavity resonators to effect velocity modulation of the electron beam, a laterally projecting output waveguide coupled to the last of said cavity resonators to conduct high frequency wave energy therefrom, a beam focusing solenoid encompassing said envelope and terminating adjacent one side of said output waveguide, and auxiliary beam focusing means encompassing said envelope on the remote side of said output waveguide and functioning conjointly with said solenoid and interconnected with said solenoid through a low reluctance path to maintain a substantially constant focusing force on said beam throughout all of said cavity resonators said beam focusing solenoid and said auxiliary beam focusing means together with said low reluctance path being arranged to produce magnetic fields which are characterized by an absence of transverse components of flux in the vicinity of the juncture between the last of said cavity resonators and said laterally projecting output waveguide, said beam focusing solenoid and said auxiliary beam focusing solenoid being disposed internally of said low reluctance path, said low reluctance path having a re-entrant portion which extends within the interior of said auxiliary coil, said beam focusing solenoid contributing to the magnetic field in the interior portion of the beam focusing solenoid and in the vicinity of the juncture between the last of said cavity resonators and said laterally projecting output waveguide.

4. High frequency traveling wave tube which comprises an elongated, evacuated tubular envelope, an electron gun arranged to produce and direct a beam of electrons longitudinally therethrough, an interaction structure arranged to support high frequency fields in interacting relation with said electron beam, means for transmitting high frequency energy from said envelope adjacent one end of said interaction structure, and at least two beam focusing structures surrounding said envelope and positioned on longitudinally opposite sides of said energy transmitting means, said focusing structures being interconnected through a low reluctance path and arranged to conjointly produce substantially constant focusing forces on the beam of electrons within the entire interaction structure said focusing structures together with said low reluctance path being arranged to produce magnetic fields which are characterized by an absenceof transverse components of flux in the vicinity of the juncture between said envelope and said energy transmitting means, said one of said at least two beam focusing structures being a main solenoid means disposed internally of the low reluctance path and extending along substantially the entire interaction structure, said other of said at least two beam focusing structures being an auxiliary solenoid means disposed internally of the low reluctance path, said low reluctance path having a re-entrant portion which extends within the interior of said auxiliary solenoid, said main solenoid means contributing to the magnetic field in the interior portion of the main solenoid and in the region of the juncture between said envelope and said energy transmitting means.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,619,611 11/1952 Norton et al. 315-5.35 2,687,490 8/1954 Rich et al. 315-5.34 2,918,593 12/1959 Rogers 31384 2,945,154 7/1960 Bittman et al. 313-84 X 2,974,246 3/ 1961 Beck et al. 3 13-84 3,076,116 1/1968 Drieschman et al. 315-535 HERMAN KARL SAALBAOH, Primary Examiner.

S. CHATMON, JR., Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A HIGH FREQUENCY TUBE WHICH COMPRISES AN ELONGATED, EVACUATED TUBULAR ENVELOPE, AN ELECTRON GUN ARRANGED TO PRODUCE AND DIRECT A BEAM OF ELECTRONS LONGITUDINALLY THERETHROUGH, AN INTERACTION STRUCTURE ARRANGED TO SUPPORT HIGH FREQUENCY FIELDS IN INTERACTING RELATION WITH SAID ELECTRON BEAM, MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING HIGH FREQUENCY ENERGY FROM SAID ENVELOPE ADJACENT ONE END OF SAID INTERACTION STRUCTURE, AND AT LEAST TWO BEAM FOCUSING STRUCTURES INTERCONNECTED THROUGH A LOW RELUCTANCE PATH AND SURROUNDING SAID ENVELOPE AND POSITIONED ON LONGITUDINALLY OPPOSITE SIDES OF SAID ENERGY TRANSMITTING MEANS, SAID FOCUSING STRUCTURES BEING ARRANGED TO CONJOINTLY PRODUCE SUBSTANTIALLY CONSTANT FOCUSING FORCES ON THE BEAM OF ELECTRONS WITHIN THE ENTIRE INTERACTION STRUCTURE, SAID FOCUSING STRUCTURES TOGETHER WITH SAID LOW RELUCTANCE PATH BEING ARRANGED TO PRODUCE MAGNETIC FIELDS WHICH ARE CHARACTERIZED BY AN ABSENCE OF TRANSVERSE COMPONENTS OF LUX IN THE VICINITY OF THE JUNCTURE BETWEEN SAID ENVELOP AND SAID ENERGY TRANSMITTING MEANS, SAID ONE OF SAID AT LEAST TWO BEAM FOCUSING STRUCTURES BEING A MAIN SOLENOID MEANS DISPOSED INTERNALLY OF THE LOW RELUCTANCE PATH AND EXTENDING ALONG SUBSTANTIALLY THE ENTIRE INTERACTION STRUCTURE, SAID OTHER OF SAID AT LEAST TWO BEAM FOCUSING STRUCTURES BEING AN AUXILIARY SOLENOID MEANS DISPOSED INTERNALLY OF THE LOW RELUCTANCE PATH, SAID LOW RELUCTANCE PATH HAVING A RE-ENTRANT PORTION WHICH EXTENDS WITHIN THE INTERIOR OF SAID AUXILIARY SOLENOID, SAID MAIN SOLENOID MEANS CONTRIBUTING TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE INTERIOR PORTION OF THE MAIN SOLENOID AND IN THE REGION OF THE JUNCTURE BETWEEN SAID ENVELOPE AND SAID ENERGY TRANSMITTING MEANS.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4207494A (en) * 1977-03-24 1980-06-10 Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. Microwave tubes provided with permanent magnet type magnetic circuits

Citations (6)

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US2619611A (en) * 1951-05-29 1952-11-25 Eitel Mccullough Inc Electron tube apparatus
US2687490A (en) * 1949-09-22 1954-08-24 Sperry Corp High-frequency beam tube device
US2918593A (en) * 1953-03-26 1959-12-22 Int Standard Electric Corp Traveling wave tubes
US2945154A (en) * 1957-01-18 1960-07-12 Sperry Rand Corp Travelling wave tube
US2974246A (en) * 1949-08-12 1961-03-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Electron gun for electron discharge tube
US3076116A (en) * 1959-09-21 1963-01-29 Eitel Mccullough Inc Klystron apparatus

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2974246A (en) * 1949-08-12 1961-03-07 Int Standard Electric Corp Electron gun for electron discharge tube
US2687490A (en) * 1949-09-22 1954-08-24 Sperry Corp High-frequency beam tube device
US2619611A (en) * 1951-05-29 1952-11-25 Eitel Mccullough Inc Electron tube apparatus
US2918593A (en) * 1953-03-26 1959-12-22 Int Standard Electric Corp Traveling wave tubes
US2945154A (en) * 1957-01-18 1960-07-12 Sperry Rand Corp Travelling wave tube
US3076116A (en) * 1959-09-21 1963-01-29 Eitel Mccullough Inc Klystron apparatus

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4207494A (en) * 1977-03-24 1980-06-10 Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. Microwave tubes provided with permanent magnet type magnetic circuits

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