US3318004A - Method of building - Google Patents

Method of building Download PDF

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Publication number
US3318004A
US3318004A US460678A US46067865A US3318004A US 3318004 A US3318004 A US 3318004A US 460678 A US460678 A US 460678A US 46067865 A US46067865 A US 46067865A US 3318004 A US3318004 A US 3318004A
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United States
Prior art keywords
building
indicator
rod
boning
walls
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Expired - Lifetime
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US460678A
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Payne John Glendenning
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BRICK QUICK APPLIANCES Ltd
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BRICK QUICK APPLIANCES Ltd
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Priority to GB2930664 priority
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR OTHER BUILDING AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G21/00Preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ; Other devices or measures for constructional work
    • E04G21/14Conveying or assembling building elements
    • E04G21/16Tools or apparatus
    • E04G21/18Adjusting tools; Templates
    • E04G21/1808Holders for bricklayers' lines, bricklayers' bars; Sloping braces
    • E04G21/1833Line-holders for setting-out builders' work, e.g. foundations

Description

May 9, 1967 J. G. PAYNE METHOD OF BUILDING Filed June 2, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l M VEA H Jomv cvLElVDEM nw PA We May 9, 1967 G PAYNE 3,318,004

METHOD OF BUILDING Filed June 2, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 duHN GLIEMDEMVIMG P4 Y E BY United States Patent 3,318,004 METHOD OF BUILDING John Glendenning Payne, Forawyle, Hermitage, Berkshire, England, assignor to Brick-Quick Appliances Limited, Hermitage, England, a British company Filed June 2, 1965, Ser. No. 460,678 Claims priority, application Great Britain, June 2, 1964, 22,828/ 64 Claims. (CI. 33-85) This invention relates to a method of building and to indicators and marking devices for use in the method and has a particularly important but not exclusive application in the building of houses from bricks and/or blocks.

According to this invention in one aspect there is provided a method of marking out on the ground the limits of a building which is to be built, comprising the step of marking each corner of the building to be built with a block which has on or in its upper surface locating means for receiving removably a guide or other indicator and which is offset a predetermined distance outside the corner. The locating means preferably comprises a socket in the upper surface of the block. It is preferred that the block be cast in situ in the ground.

Preferably where on sloping or uneven ground the levels of the blocks differ, said levels differ by integral multiples of the thickness of a standard course of the building material e.g. bricks or blocks.

According to a preferred feature of the invention, the method comprises the further step of engaging in projection and socket engagement with the locating means at each corner an indicator having arms extending parallel to the two walls which are to form the corner of the build- The invention also provides, for using in casting the block in situ in the ground a device comprising a member having two rod portions projecting therefrom in opposite directions from each other, one of which rod portions is shaped to permit it to be pushed into the ground endwise, said member being of a shape, at least over the portion of its length nearer said one rod portion, to permit the member to provide a core for a mould, and to permit the member to be withdrawn endwise from an article moulded about said portion after the article has set, and said one rod portion being of a shape to permit said one rod portion to be withdrawn through the article with the member.

The invention further provides for use in the method set forth in the last-but-one paragraph an indicator comprising two arms connected together and extending transversely to each other, and a hub portion formed at the junction of the arms which portion provides a projection, or provides a socket, for said projection and socket connection.

In one such indicator the arms are provided with pegs at preselected distances from the junction of the arms, which pegs extend in the opposite direction to said portion. The arms may additionally have respectively secured thereto two further arms which extend parallel to each other and each of which projects at right angles to the arm on which it is mounted. In one such indicator each of the further arms has pegs projecting laterally therefrom at regular intervals along its length, the spacing of the pegs corresponding to the thickness of each course of bricks or blocks.

Still further, the invention provides the combination with an indicator as described above of a boning rod of T-form comprising a leg and a cross-piece, the indicator and the end portion of the leg of the boning rod remote from the cross-piece being formed so that the indicator provides means for locating the boning rod.

3,318,004 Patented May 9, 1967 The invention will now be described in more detail by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 shows a marking device for use in marking specific locations,

FIGURE 2 shows a first indicator for use in marking out the positions of footings and bottom courses of cavity brickwork, I I

FIGURE 3 illustrates in plan the way in which indicators as shown in FIGURE 2 are used,

FIGURE 4 shows a second indicator for use in brick y FIGURE 5 shows an indicator and boning rod for use in marking out the positions of footings and the levels of the foundations, and

FIGURE 6 shows in perspective the manner in which the indicator and boningrods are employed in determining the levels of the foundations.

Referring first to FIGURE 1, the marking device comprises a rod 10 and a conical member 11 topped by a disc 12. The disc has a boss 13 with a set screw 14 which enables the conical member and disc to be secured in any selected position lengthwise of rod 10. The rod 10 has a cross-piece 15 adjacent its upper end.

In marking out the position of a rectangular building, for example, four such marking devices are used, one for each corner of the building, and are disposed so that imaginary lines interconnecting the marking devices define a rectangle of which each side is 2' outside the corresponding wall of the building. Thus the distance between each adjacent pair of the marking devices is 4 greater than the length of the wall which extends generally between the two devices. The height of the rod is adjusted by pushing it further into or pulling it further out of the ground, the cross-pieces 15 being employed to determine the necessary levels.

When approximate position of the marking device is decided, a small hole is dug round the position, and may for example be about 9 deep. The markers are then placed in position and the height of the disc 12 and conical member 11 is adjusted by means of the set screw 14 so that the disc 12 is flush with the general ground level. The space between the conical member 11 and the sides and bottom of the hole is then filled with concrete 16, which is allowed to set before the marking device is withdrawn.

In the next stage of building, an indicator as shown in FIGURE 2 is located in each of the four concrete blocks. The indicator comprises a conical hub portion 20 which is shaped to fit in the hollow left in the concrete block 16 by the conical member 11 of the marking device and which has two laterally extending arms 21 disposed at right angles to each other. In the present construction each of these arms is 3'8" long, measuring from the axis of the hub portion and has four pegs 22, 23, 24, 25 disposed respectively at distances of 1'6", 2', 2'11 and 3'5" from the axis of the hub portion 20.

The arrangement of the indicators in the blocks 16 is as shown in FIGURE 3, the two arms 21 of each indicator extending respectively parallel to the two Walls which extend away from the indicator. Lines or cords 26, 27 are then laid out to extend parallel to the four walls of the building, employing the pegs 22, 25 on the arms ie the pegs respectively nearest to and furthest from the hub. These lines indicate the side limits of the concrete footings. When the concrete of the footings has dried the lines are moved to positions indicated at 28, 29 extending between the second and third pegs 23, 24 on the arms of the indicators so as to define the position of lines of bricks for 11" cavity brickwork. When the first course of bricks has been placed in position the 3 indicators shown in FIGURE 2 are removed and are replaced by guides or indicators as shown in FIGURE 4.

The indicator shown in FIGURE 4 has a conical hub portion 30, and two horizontal arms 31, 32 at right angles to each other, similarly to the indicators shown in FIGURE 3. Two vertical arms 33, 34 are respectively fixed to the two horizontal arms 31, 32 and each of the vertical arms has pegs 35 extending laterally therefrom at intervals of 3 along its length. Assuming that only one course of bricks has been laid, a cord or line is disposed between the second pegs from the bottom of the vertical arms in the same way as indicated in FIGURE 3 so that the lines or cords extend parallel to the walls. Each line or cord thus provides a level for the next course of bricks. As each course of bricks is laid, the lines or cords are moved upwards to the next pegs. It will be understood therefore that, for standard brickwork, the pegs will be disposed 3" apart along the length of the vertical arms.

The height of the vertical arms may be 8 so as to guide construction up to first floor level, and extension pieces may be added as required. Metal hoops may be knocked into the ground so as to straddle the horizontal arms of the indicators where it becomes necessary to prevent the indicators from being accidentally disturbed.

The preceding description relates to sites where the ground is level.

On a site of which the level is irregular, the heights of blocks 16 may differ relative to each other. For example where the site slopes from one end of the proposed building to the other, the height of the blocks relative to each other will differ by 3" or by multiples of 3" where standard brickwork is to be constructed, 3" being the height occupied by each course of standard brickwork. Since it is uneconomic to have the top of the concrete foundation at a constant level over its full area on such a site, the top of the foundation is stepped as is common practice, again in steps 3" or multiples of 3", to minimise the digging-out of earth.

In the present method the heights of these steps can be set and checked accurately with reference to the heights of the blocks 16. For this purpose each arm 21 of each indicator has, between its pegs 23 and 24, locating means for the bottom of a boning rod 40. In the present instance the locating means comprises a slide 41 and the boning rod has a base 42 which can be secured in the slide. The boning rod has a telescopically extensible leg 43 of which the lower part is fixed to the base 42. The upper part of the leg is formed with holes 44 at 3" intervals along its length, and a releasable catch 45 on the lower part has a projection which extends through a hole in the lower part and registers in one or other of the holes 44 in the upper part, so that the length of the leg can be adjusted in steps of 3". The cross-piece 46 of the boning rod is rotatably mounted on the leg for swivelling movement about the lengthwise axis of the leg. The boning rod 40 can be used on either arm of the indicator.

There is also provided a boning rod 50 (see FIGURE 6) which has an extensible leg 51 similar to that of each boning rod 49, the lower part of leg being mounted on a block or shoe 52. The length of leg 51 can be adjusted in steps of 3".

In use of the apparatus, referring to FIGURE 6, the blocks 16 are at different heights as previously described dependent on the nature of the site, the levels differing only in steps of 3". The boning rods 40 are extended so that the cross-pieces of all of the boning rods 40 are at the same level and define a horizontal plane. Then for any stretch of the foundations between two indicators, the boning rods 59 are employed in conjunction with the boning rods 40 on the indicators to set and check the levels of the steps. In practice when the footing for a section 54 between two steps has been dug out, which section is to be say, 3" higher than the section 55 extending to the block 16, a peg (not shown) is knocked into the ground in the trench for section 54, and boning rod 50, adjusted to have a length 3" less than that of the left hand boning rod 40 shown in FIGURE 4, is rested on the top of the peg. The peg is tapped into the ground until the tops of the three boning rods are exactly in a common plane to an observer standing in alignment with the three rods. The boning rod 50 is then removed and the section 54 is filled with concrete up the level of the top of the peg. More than one peg may "be employed if desired. The process is repeated for each step, the level of each step being checked directly with the levels set by boning rods 40.

Since the cross-piece of each boning rod 40is rotatable about the lengthwise axis of the leg, the boning rods 40 can also be employed to check levels at points other than between adjacent indicators, for example diagonallyof the site. It will be understood that instead of having swivel mountings between the cross piece and leg of the boning rod 40, the whole boning rod may be rotatable relative to the indicator, or the leg may comprise rela= tively rotatable parts.

After the footings have been constructed as described above and the brickwork has been built up to a common level between two corner blocks, the indicators shown in FIGURE 4 can be employed as before.

It will be understood that the use of the markers and indicators as described above will permit brickwork to be laid accurately by relatively unskilled bricklayers.

It will also be clear that the socket and projection co1i= nection between the indicators or markers and the concrete blocks may be reversed, i.e. the blocks may provide the projection .and the indicators or' markers the sockets, although such an arrangement may be les convenient than that described above.

The method has been described above in relation to 11" cavity brickwork, that is to double walls each constructed from bricks 9" long by 4 /2" wide by 2 /2" thick with a 2" wide cavity between the two walls, but it will be un derstood that the method can be applied to the setting out of buildings constructed from any material and to the construction of buildings from blocks of any predeteb mined standard size.

I claim:

1. A method of building including the steps of pro viding a datum position and datum level at the corners of the building to be erected by casting in situ in the ground at the corners of the building reference blocks each with locating means for receiving an indicator de= vice, indicating the positions of the trenches for founda= tions of the building by mounting on each reference block an indicator device extending perpendicular to the build ing walls to be erected substantially at ground level and mounting extended guide members between the indicator devices parallel to but spaced from the walls, and indi cating the lines of the various courses as the building walls are built up by mounting extended guide members parallel to the walls to be erected at progressively increasing heights between upstanding arms of indicator devices mounted on the reference blocks.

2. A method as claimed in claim 1 in which the datum level and position of each reference block is determined by use of a device comprising a socket forming member slidably mounted on a rod, in which method a hole is formed in the ground at the approximate position of each reference block, one said rod is positioned accurately in each hole a predetermined distance outside the lines of the walls of the building and the lower end of the rod forced into the ground, the socket forming member is moved along the rod until the member is at the required level, and a reference block is formed by filling the hole around the device upto a predetermined level on the socket forming member with a setting material .and re-' moving the said device when the material has set.-

3. A method as claimed in claim 2 in which the indicator device for indicating the trenches comprises a hub member, for fitting in the socket in the upper surface of the reference block with two horizontal arms extending perpendicular to each other, and parallel to, but spaced from, walls of the building, so that the end of each arm remote from the hub lies inside the line of one wall, which method includes the step of securing between the parallel arms of two adjacent indicator devices two parallel spaced guide members one outside the line of the wall and one inside the line of the wall thereby marking the space for the foundation trench between them.

4, A method as claimed in claim 3 in which the indicator device for indicating the various brick lines as the walls are built up comprises a hub member, for fitting in the socket in the upper surface of the reference block, two horizontal arms extending perpendicular to each other and parallel to, but spaced from, the walls of the building, and further vertically extending members mounted on said horizontal arms and having a plurality of fixing means spaced apart up their length at intervals corresponding to successive building courses, in which meth- 0d the lines of the various courses are indicated by mounting extended guide members parallel to the walls of the building between the vertically extending members of adjacent indicator devices and progressively moving the ends of the guide members upwardly from one fixing means to the next as the wall gets higher.

5. A method as claimed in claim 1 for building on sloping land in which method the upper surface of the foundation between two adjacent corners of the building corners of the building is stepped and the levels of the steps are determined by positioning a boning rod, of T- form comprising a leg and a cross piece the height of which can be adapted in steps on an indicator device mounted on each reference block, and positioning further such boning rods on each stepped section of the foundations and aligning the levels of the cross pieces of each boning rod.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,336,004 4/1920 Victoria 33-85 2,872,733 2/1959 Chew 33 1 3,250,009 6/1966 Oseka 33-85 FOREIGN PATENTS 589,049 6/1947 Great Britain.

710,139 6/1954 Great Britain.

25 LEONARD FORMAN, Primal Examiner.

H. N. HAROIAN, Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF BUILDING INCLUDING THE STEPS OF PROVIDING A DATUM POSITION AND DATUM LEVEL AT THE CORNERS OF THE BUILDING TO BE ERECTED BY CASTING IN SITU IN THE GROUND AT THE CORNERS OF THE BUILDING REFERENCE BLOCKS EACH WITH LOCATING MEANS FOR RECEIVING AN INDICATOR DEVICE, INDICATING THE POSITIONS OF THE TRENCHES FOR FOUNDATIONS OF THE BUILDING BY MOUNTING ON EACH REFERENCE BLOCK AN INDICATOR DEVICE EXTENDING PERPENDICULAR TO THE BUILDING WALLS TO BE ERECTED SUBSTANTIALLY AT GROUND LEVEL AND MOUNTING EXTENDED GUIDE MEMBERS BETWEEN THE INDICATOR DEVICES PARALLEL TO BUT SPACED FROM THE WALLS, AND INDICATING THE LINES OF THE VARIOUS COURSES AS THE BUILDING WALLS ARE BUILT UP BY MOUNTING EXTENDED GUIDE MEMBERS PARALLEL TO THE WALLS TO BE ERECTED AT PROGRESSIVELY INCREASING HEIGHTS BETWEEN UPSTANDING ARMS OF INDICATOR DEVICES MOUNTED ON THE REFERENCE BLOCKS.
US460678A 1964-06-02 1965-06-02 Method of building Expired - Lifetime US3318004A (en)

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GB2282864 1964-06-02
GB2930664 1964-07-17

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BE (1) BE664816A (en)
ES (1) ES313709A1 (en)
FR (1) FR1452639A (en)
NL (1) NL6507013A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4095343A (en) * 1977-04-20 1978-06-20 Mcphail J C Building layout templates
US4651495A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-03-24 Auto Leads, Inc. Block leveling and foundation making methods
DE3721930A1 (en) * 1986-09-11 1988-03-24 Otis Elevator Co Method for installing an elevator hall door
US4924579A (en) * 1988-05-24 1990-05-15 Carol Berendsen Layout system for construction foundation placement

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2469031B (en) * 2009-03-30 2013-09-11 Deer Park Engineering Ltd Building construction device

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1336004A (en) * 1919-08-11 1920-04-06 Henry J Victoria Building-stake
GB589049A (en) * 1944-08-01 1947-06-10 William Robertson Improvements in or relating to line holders for the use of bricklayers
GB710139A (en) * 1951-11-15 1954-06-09 Stanley Winslade Jordan Improvements in or relating to guides for use during building operations
US2872733A (en) * 1956-03-13 1959-02-10 Clarence W Chew Layout instrument
US3250009A (en) * 1964-01-07 1966-05-10 John A Oseka Line holder

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1336004A (en) * 1919-08-11 1920-04-06 Henry J Victoria Building-stake
GB589049A (en) * 1944-08-01 1947-06-10 William Robertson Improvements in or relating to line holders for the use of bricklayers
GB710139A (en) * 1951-11-15 1954-06-09 Stanley Winslade Jordan Improvements in or relating to guides for use during building operations
US2872733A (en) * 1956-03-13 1959-02-10 Clarence W Chew Layout instrument
US3250009A (en) * 1964-01-07 1966-05-10 John A Oseka Line holder

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4095343A (en) * 1977-04-20 1978-06-20 Mcphail J C Building layout templates
US4651495A (en) * 1984-10-22 1987-03-24 Auto Leads, Inc. Block leveling and foundation making methods
DE3721930A1 (en) * 1986-09-11 1988-03-24 Otis Elevator Co Method for installing an elevator hall door
US4924579A (en) * 1988-05-24 1990-05-15 Carol Berendsen Layout system for construction foundation placement

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Publication number Publication date
ES313709A1 (en) 1966-02-16
NL6507013A (en) 1965-12-03
BE664816A (en) 1965-10-01
FR1452639A (en) 1966-09-16

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