US331576A - Machine for making taper tubes from hollow ingots - Google PatentsMachine for making taper tubes from hollow ingots Download PDF
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- US331576A US331576A US331576DA US331576A US 331576 A US331576 A US 331576A US 331576D A US331576D A US 331576DA US 331576 A US331576 A US 331576A
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- 239000002184 metal Substances 0.000 description 13
- 229910052751 metal Inorganic materials 0.000 description 13
- 239000000203 mixture Substances 0.000 description 7
- 229910000831 Steel Inorganic materials 0.000 description 4
- 238000005096 rolling process Methods 0.000 description 4
- 239000010959 steel Substances 0.000 description 4
- 210000003414 Extremities Anatomy 0.000 description 2
- 230000001276 controlling effect Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000000750 progressive Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000000926 separation method Methods 0.000 description 2
- 239000000126 substance Substances 0.000 description 2
- 230000036536 Cave Effects 0.000 description 1
- 210000003371 Toes Anatomy 0.000 description 1
- 230000001721 combination Effects 0.000 description 1
- 238000010586 diagram Methods 0.000 description 1
- 230000003292 diminished Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 1
- 238000009432 framing Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000009499 grossing Methods 0.000 description 1
- 229910052742 iron Inorganic materials 0.000 description 1
- 230000003340 mental Effects 0.000 description 1
- 238000007493 shaping process Methods 0.000 description 1
- 238000004513 sizing Methods 0.000 description 1
- 239000007787 solid Substances 0.000 description 1
- B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
- B21—MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
- B21B—ROLLING OF METAL
- B21B19/00—Tube-rolling by rollers arranged outside the work and having their axes not perpendicular to the axis of the work
- B21B19/02—Tube-rolling by rollers arranged outside the work and having their axes not perpendicular to the axis of the work the axes of the rollers being arranged essentially diagonally to the axis of the work, e.g. "cross" tube-rolling Diescher mills, Stiefel disc piercers, Stiefel rotary piercers
- B21B19/06—Rolling hollow basic material, e.g. Assel mills
(N0 ModeL) I S. P. M. TASKER.
MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPER TUBES PROM HOLLOW INGOTS.
Patented Dec. 1, 1885.
S E S S E N W W s. mmwuum lmr. Washington. n. c,
' iliviran smart PATENT @ri rca STEPHEN P. M. TASKER, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPER TUBES FROM HOLLOW INGOTS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 331,576, dated December 1, 1885.
Application filed July 21, 1885. Serial No. 172,190. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, STEPHEN P. M. TASKER, a citizen of the United States, residing in the cityand county of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain Improvements in Machines for Making Taper Tubes from Hollow iWIetalIngots, of which the following is a specification.
' taper tube should possess, thereby compacting and consolidating the substance of the metal of the ingot, thinning or reducing the latter in thickness, and elongating it and shaping it, until the desired proportions are attained. The ingots which I employ are conico-cylindric or of a hollow conico-cylindri form structure of any metal, and either open at both ends,c1osed at the smaller end, or closed at the smaller end and provided through such closed end with an aperture for the traction rod of a mandrel.
As my machine is of especial applicability to the making of steel taper tubes, I contemplate, also, the employment of a steel cast conico-cyliudric ingot of acharacter invented by me, two applications for patents for which were filed in the United States Patent Office upon the 14th day of May, 1885, and respectively numbered 165,695 and 165,696.
I-Ieretofore in the art of metal-rolling two or more pairs or sets of equal-sized concave-faced rolls, the two rolls constituting the respective sets or pairs of which being placed the one over the other, have crossed each other-that is to say, have been adjusted in such manner that vertical planes respectively projected from their respective longitudinal axes have intersected each other at other than a right angle-- have been, in successive disposition in the same machine, employed for rounding, straightening, and sizing tubes and rods, the said tubes or rods having been passed through the passes of the successive sets in a direction which may, for the purposes of explanation, be described as right angular to a common imaginary longitudinal axis ofeach pair of rolls, or in a direction much more nearly right angular to than parallel with the longitudinal axis of each individual roll ofeach pair. In such a machine all of the rolls upon a given side of the line of feed of the-rod have, moreover, been arranged in a common frame, with their axes parallel,
cave working-faces have been arranged in a suitable housing, obliquely side by side,
or one over the other, or spirally, as it were,
around a common central imaginary longi-' tudinal axis of the set, so that the axes of the respective rolls forming each set have been" inclined to each other in diiferent planes and each and all at an angle to the said common longitudinal axis-which is that of the article i to be rolled, the said article having been introduced through a pass extending longitudinally between'or through, so to speak, the rolls, (which pass, as is well known, is an extended straight'bearing obtained between the roll-faces in a line bisecting the angle of inclination of the rolls,) and the said machines as such having been employed for rolling, finishing, reducing, straightening, and smoothing rods, tubes, shafting, and other cylindri= cal or tubular articles, which receive a spiral or combined rotary and progressive movement from the rolls, which not only form the article toa true cylindrical shape but at the same time feed it forward.
I am not aware that sets of rolls arranged in the foregoing manner have been arranged in series.
Assuming a set of rolls of the character last above described as a given type, I may assume a set of rolls of thecharacter first above described as another given type, and may define the distinguishing characteristic of the two types to be the direction in which the article to be rolled is passed through the set of rollsthat-is to say, whether it be passed through them in a direction right angular to what I may term their common axis, asin the case of the rolls first described, or parallel or coincident with said common axis, as in the case of the rolls last above described.
I have discovered that a superior merchantable taper tube of metal, but especially that a taper steel tube, can be economically and successfully manufactured, either from a conico'cylindi'ic metal ingot, or especially from a conico-cylindric. steel cast ingot, by employ? ing, in connection with a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, the rolls of each of which sets cross each other and are idle-rolls, a taper mandrel adapted to be entered head or apex first and advanced through the passes of the.
successive sets, the exterior configuration of which is that of the bore of the resultant tube upon which the ingot is placed, which is adapted to be rotated about its longitudinal axis with the ingot upon it, and which is at least of the required length of the tube to be formed from said ingot, and also by employing, in connection with said mandrel and roll, means operating as the mandrel advances, for so controlling the relative angular disposition of the axes of each pair of rolls that said rolls of each set are caused to gradually separate a distance sufficient to occasion the gradual diametric enlargement of the pass of each set as portions of the mandrel of greater diameter progressively enter and advance through the passes of said sets, whereby the substance of the metal of the ingot is compacted and consolidated and the ingot itself thinned or reduced in thickness and elongated and shaped until the required proportions are attained.
Apparatus embodying a good form of my invention is represented in theaccompanying drawings, and described in this specification, the particular subj ect-matter claimed as novel being hereinafter definitely specified.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a topvv plan view of an apparatus conveniently embodying a good form of my improvements, and containing a series of two sets of rolls, an
I ingot having a closed advance end being shown U their retaining-bolts.
in position upon the mandrel and undergoing reduction in its passage through the rolls. in the direction of the arrow upon it. Fig. 2 is a central vertical longitudinal sectional elevation of the apparatus represented in Fig. 1, section being supposed in the plane of the dotted line :0 m of Fig. 1, and sight being taken in the direction of the arrows upon said line, the reduction of the ingot being also illustrated. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of a part of the apparatus of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a partial left-hand end elevational View of the apparatus represented in Fig. 1, one of the rolls alone being shown, and the roll-adj usting bars being shown in section in the plane of Fig. 5 isafragmentary face view of one of the rolls and a sectional elevation through one of its axle-boxings,
showing also a portion of one of the cylindriform segments ofthe housing and of one of the roll-adjusting bars. The view is in the nature of an explanatory diagram, and is neither drawn to scale nor isometrically correct.
Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts.
In the drawings, A represents any suitable bed or foundation for supporting the housings within which the rolls are journaled. M is a taper mandrel, or mandrel which is to the extent of the length of the taper tube to be produced conico cylindrical, and which is adapted to be rotated about its longitudinal axis by any convenient means-as, forinstance, by being swiveled at its rear extremity in the mandrel frame or carriage. B is a conicocylindric ingot upon the mandrel. 0 O are twolongitudinally-extendingparallelhousings vertically erected from the bed or foundation, and either cast solid therewith or bolted or otherwise secured thereto. The housings, in the form of apparatus shown in the drawings-- and it is to be borne in mind'that the series may contain a greater number of sets of rolls than twoeesupport two successively-placed sets of rolls, the rolls of the first set of which are marked D, while the rolls of the second set are marked E. The rolls of each set are of the Same size, but the rolls of the succeding sets may, if desired, be successively more filled in, or of increasing diameter. The two rolls of each set are respectively adjusted one above the other, and their axes, whatever for the time being be the relative angular disposition of the two rolls of a set, must always cross each other at an angle other than a right angle, and which is. such as to cause the concave working-surfaces of the two rolls of a pair. to always present in any angular relationship, not, however, right angular, a pass which, when viewed from the end of the machine is, whatever its diameter, practically circular.
Thejournaling or housing of each set of rolls and the means for controlling the set of each pair of rolls are preferably precisely similar throughout any number of sets which may be employed. I will therefore describe the same with reference to but one set of rolls. Each housing in the region ofits support ofa set ofrolls has preferably the form of a segment of a vertical cylinder, the said cylindrical segments being marked 0 0 in the drawings; or, at least, the said housings are vertically cylindrically concaved on their adjacent faces, the curvature being the same in each, while the inner faces of said-cylindrical segments of the housings are separated from each other a distance equal to the diameter of a circle an arc of which corresponds with the arc of their inner curved cylindrical facesthat is to say, a circle whose circumference is equal to that of the base of a supposed cylinder introduced vertically so as to fill the space between the cylindrical segments of the housing; The curved inner walls of both the segmental portions 6 and 0*, therefore, have a common central vertical axis which is midway between them. The axles cl of the rolls are preferably passed through or housed or journaled within adjustable boxings or bearings F,which are respectively fitted with respect to and adapted tohave a movement within reverselydisposed segmental ways H, formed in opposite pairs in the respective cylindrical segments of the housings, and two of which are as to each housing projected, in what may be termed diagonally-quartered relationship, upon a common radius from a common center which is concentric with what I have characterized the common longitudinal axis of the rolls of the set under consideration, and is conveniently about midway of the vertical depth of the said cylindrical segments, as
.will be more clearly understood by a reference to the drawings. By virtue of these pairsof reversely disposed segmental ways within which either the axles of the rolls or their boxings are, as shown, entered, the movement of the rolls of each pair for increasing or di-' minishing the diameter of their pass becomes both certain and easy.
A suitable arrangement or disposition of the segmental ways for the axle boxings or the axles with respect to the cylindriform segments of the housings is represented in the drawings, and will be easily understood by reference thereto. The corresponding seg mental ways in opposite cylindrical segments are, of course, diagonally opposite. The ends of the axles, or, when boxings are employed, a part of the boxings, project through their boxings beyond the outside faces of the cylin drical segments, and it is obvious, therefore, that if control is had of the said ends of the axles the set of the rolls of each pair with respect to each other and the set of the axleboxings with respect to their segmental ways can be controlled at will and the passes between the pairs of rolls be, in consequence,
increased or diminished in dianietric extent.
In order to simultaneously effectuate the predetermined movements of the rolls of all of the sets of rolls I have devised the following convenient means for simultaneous adjustment: I I are a pair of whatI term traveling standards, being vertically-erected framing-posts conveniently provided with laterally-projecting base plates or toes it, which take under and have a movement with respect tolongitudinallyextending overhung grooves, channels, or lateral gutters (666 along the sides of the bed or foundation. Each pair of traveling standards is preferably connected by a top crossbar, I, so that each pair of standards is connected by the crossbar to form a transverse traveling frame, and both of these frames are connected together, or, when more than two frames are employed,each frame connected with its neighbor by longitudinally-extending drive-bars J J which are of any desired length and preferably of thelength of the mandrel, and which are connected together by a traction-head, K, with respect to-which the traction rod on is swiveled. The traveling standards, connecting top crossbars, drive bars, and tractionhead together constitute simply a convenient movable mandrel frame or carriage, which is adapted by any suitable means to be caused as a connected whole to travel lengthwise of the bed or foundation and with respect to the housings and rollsin either direction.
In the drawings no representation is made? of any means for occasioning the advance or retraction of the mandrel-frame, for the reason that I assume such representation to be unnec-- essary, because the various appliances in common use for actuating mandrels and-mandrelr frames are well known to iron masters. I assume it, however, to be understood that any suitable mechanism is to be applied to the said carriage to occasion its advance and retreat at any predetermined speed.
Adj ustably supported conveniently with respect to the traveling standards arefour rolladjusting bars, L, as I term them,two ofwhich' are applied at each side of themachine. These roll-adjusting bars are in effect grooved bars, they being provided with inturned flanges Z at top and bottom, so that each bar presentsas to its entire longitudinal extent a groove, within which is entered the projecting extremity of certain axles of the rolls or a part of the axle-boxings. Thus all of the axles, or the boxings thereof, of the upper rolls are respectively entered within the grooves of the two upper roll-adjustingbars, and all of the axles, or the boxings thereof, of thelower rolls are respectively entered within the grooves of the two lower roll-adjusting bars, substantially as shown in the drawings. The bars upon their side or back faces are provided with opposing pairs of lugs Z between which are contained,
as in a housing, adj usting-nnts a,threaded upon adjustingrods N, which are outwith both a right and a left handed screw-thread, andwhich are housed in threaded sockets 2 conve-- niently formed as a part ofor connected with the traveling standards. Each of the roll-adjusting bars is conveniently maintained against the inner side faces of the traveling standardsupon the side of the frame upon which said bar happens to be by means of retaining-bolts O, which pass through vertical slots I, formed in said standards. The roll-adjusting bars, in whatever adjusted position that may be set,
are a fixture with the traveling carriage and similarly given an opposite pitch or upward I inclination from front to rear, (which inclinations can readily be imparted by the adjust ment of the adjustingnuts a and retaining I bolts 0,) and if the said inclinations happen to correspond with the diametrically-opposite surface-planes of the mandrel,the operation of said roll-adj usting bars upon the axles of the rolls will be such as in their advance with the mandrel frame or carriage to occasion the gradual separation of the two rolls of each pair or, each set of rolls throughout the series, so that the pass of each set is automatically and gradually increased in diametric extent as the thicker portions of the mandrel advance through said passes. In the drawings I have represented such a convergence or inclination of the roll-adj usting bars as corresponds to the taper of the mandrel. It is obvious, however, that a greater or less inclination can be imparted at the will of the operative. By the original set of the roll-adjusting bars the initial diametric extent of the passes of the sets can be not only quickly and simultaneously as to all the sets, but also accurately determined. The housings constitute a most convenient framing, but the segmentalways may be formed independently of or supportedseparately from the said housings.
Having now described what I believe to be a convenient embodiment of my invention and at the same time described the operation of the machine, it is proper for me to add that I believe myself to be the first to use a conicocylindrit'orm mandrel the exterior contour of which is that of the desired bore of the tube,
- and which is of the length of the tube to be produced, and also capable of rotation about its longitudinal axis,in conjunction with a series of sets of angularly disposed or crossing concave-faced idler-rolls, and in conjunction also with means for causing the gradual and predetermined approach and recession of the rolls of each pair or set and the consequent gradual predetermined variance of diametric area of the passes of the successive sets by occasioning a predetermined variance of their relative angular disposition, by which arrangement it is possible to reduce the external diameter of a tapering ingot placed upon the mandrel until said ingot becomes a tapering tube of the desired thickness of wallsubstance, which, it is to be observed, need not be uniform throughout the tube and of no greater .length than the mandrel.
It. is of course obvious that while the housing for containing and the specific means for occasioning the simultaneous adjustment of the rolls which I have represented and described are well adapted for the purpose, yrt they are not essential to my invention. The especial adjusting devices described or others operating to substantially the same re sult, however. permit of the simultaneous adj ustment of the passes of all of the sets of rolls by a single movement or adjustment of the roll-adjusting bars, so as to accommodate the rolls to any size of ingot within their range of separation.
While it is preferable that the passes of the succeeding sets should successively diminishthat is to say, diminish in strict consecution, set by set, and without variance, omission, or alternationyet all the results which flow from consecutive diminution may be obtained by making, for instance, two consecutive or adjoining sets of a given and the same diameter of pass by making the two immediately succeeding consecutive or adjoining sets of a lesser but of the same diameter of pass, and by making the two further immediately succeeding consecutive or adjoining sets of a still lesser but of the same diameter of pass. This arrangement, or one kindred to it, the number or series of sets of similar diameter of pass employed not being vital, is not desirable, but it is manifestly embraced within my invention, and the terms successive or gradual diminution herein employed are not to be understood as employed with literal exactness.
The mandrel may be driven at any predetermined speed and by any power, and may, of course, be driven independently of the carriage or frame which drives th'eroll-adjusting bars. WVnen driven with the ingot upon it, it occasions the actuation of the rolls, all of which are idler-rolls in that they are not positively driven, but are simply caused to rotate by the friction of the ingot. 1 I
The ingots may be rolled down either hot or cold. The spiral or rotary progressive motion' to which the ingot on the mandrel, and
with it the mandrel to. which it for the time being adheres is subjected, prevents finning or irregularities of any kind, and therefore tends to produce a uniformlytapering and very marketable tube.
The mandrel may be extracted from the tube after rolling by stretching the tube by loosening the mandrel and by extracting the latter by any suitable means.
It is obvious that, if desired, the rolls may be set with passes of predetermined diameters, and the mandrel be operated independently of the carriage to which the roll-adjusting bars are connected, the latter being maintained in any fixed position, and the entire machine be thus employed for rolling cylindriform tubes.
It is proper for me to add that my machine without the mandrel is well adapted for reducing the diameters of tapering tubes or rods, and, if desired, by a suitable adjustment of its several passes for rounding, straightening, and finishing such products, it being simply necessary for any such employment of said machine that the mandrel should be removed and the product to be operated upon be manipulated in its, stead through the passes between the rolls.
I do not claim. or seek herein to cover the provision of positive mechanism for driving the sets of rolls; nor yet do I claim, broadly, the provision of a conico cylindric mandrel, in connection with a single pair of crossing concavefaced rolls; nor yet the provision of segmental ways, within which the axles of a pair of rolls are entered and have movement; nor,
again, the rolladjusting contrivances per 30,
as all of the foregoing features form the subect-matter of other applications which I have telx ecuted and filed contemporaneously with Having thus described my invention, I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1. In amachineformakingtapertubcsfrom hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the C0111- bination of a series of sets ofconcave-faced rolls each of which sets consists of a pair of concavefaced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, and a conico-cylindric mandrel, at least as long as the tube to be formed, and which is passed through the passes formed by the rolls of the successive sets in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, substantially as set forth.
2. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the comblnation of a series of sets ofconcave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, and a conico-cylindric mandrel adapted to be rotated about its l0ngitudinal axis at least as long as the tube to be formed, and which is passed through the passes formed by the rolls in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pairor set of rolls, substantially as set forth.
3. In a machine for makingtaper tubes from hollow conico cylindric metal ingots, the com bination of a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of eoncave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, aconico-cylindric mandrel,at least as long as the tube to be formed, and which is passed through the passes formed by the rolls of the successive sets in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, and means for automatically occasioning variances in the angular disposition of the rolls, and consequently variances in the diametric extent of theirreducing passes, substantially as set forth.
4. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conico-cylindric mandrel adapted to be rotated aboutits longitudinal axis, at least as long as the tube to be formed, and which is passed through the passes formed by the rolls in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, and means for automatically occasioning Variances in the angular disposition of the rolls and consequently variances in the diametric extent of their reducing passes, substantially as set forth.
5. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concavefaced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conicocylindric mandrel adapted to be rotated about its longitudinal axis, at least as long as the tube to be formed, and adapted to be passed through the passes formed'by the rolls in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, means for automatically occasioning variances in the angular disposition of the rolls, and consequently variances in the diametric extent of their reducing passes, and means for causing the advance and retraction of the mandrel, substantially as set forth.
6. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindricmetal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concavefaced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conico-cylindric man drel, at least as long as the tube to be formed, and which is .passed through the passes formed by the rolls of the successive sets in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, housings for supporting said rolls, reversely-disposed segmental ways for the axles of the rolls, roll-adjusting bars, and means for moving said roll adjusting bars with respect to the housing, substantially as set forth.
7. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conico-cylindric mandrel, at least as long as the tube to be formed,
and which is passed through the passes formed by the rolls of the successive sets in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, housings for supporting said rolls, reversely-disposed segmental ways for the axles of the rolls, roll-adjusting bars, and a movable frame or carriage for carry-ing said roll-adjusting bars, substantially as set forth.
8. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conico-cylindric metal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concavefaced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conico-cylindric mandrel, at least as long as the tube to be formed, and adapted to be passed through the passes formed by the rolls of the successive sets in a direction right angular to the common axis of each pair or set of rolls, housings for supporting said rolls, reversely-disposed segmental ways for the axles of the rolls, roll-adjusting bars, a movable frame or carriage for carrying said roll-adjusting bars, and means for simultaneously actuating the mandrel and the carriage or frame for the roll-adj usting bars, substantially as set forth.
9. In a machine for making taper tubes from hollow conicocylindric metal ingots, the combination of a series of sets of concave-faced rolls, each of which sets consists of a pair of concave-faced rolls arranged with their axes inclined to each other, a conico-cylindric manand which is passed through the passes formed drel, at least as long as the tube to be formed, adjustment of the roll-adjusting bars with re- IO vspect to the movable frame or carriage, subby the rolls of the successive sets in a direcstantially as set forth.
tion right angular to the common axis of each In testimony WhereofI have hereunto signed pair or set of rolls housings for supporting I my name this 6th day of July,. A. D. 1885.
said rolls, reversely-disposed segmental Ways STEPHEN P. M. TASKER.
for the axles of the rolls, roll-adjusting bars, I In presence of a movable frame or carriage for carrying said J. BONSALL TAYLOR, roll-adjusting bars, and means for seouringthe WM. 0. STRAVVBRIDGE.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US331576A true US331576A (en)||1885-12-01|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US331576D Expired - Lifetime US331576A (en)||Machine for making taper tubes from hollow ingots|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US331576A (en)|
Cited By (1)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2432566A (en) *||1944-09-08||1947-12-16||Nat Tube Co||Tapering metal tubes|
- US US331576D patent/US331576A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
Cited By (1)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2432566A (en) *||1944-09-08||1947-12-16||Nat Tube Co||Tapering metal tubes|
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