US3309878A - Method of forming piles - Google Patents

Method of forming piles Download PDF

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US3309878A
US3309878A US394189A US39418964A US3309878A US 3309878 A US3309878 A US 3309878A US 394189 A US394189 A US 394189A US 39418964 A US39418964 A US 39418964A US 3309878 A US3309878 A US 3309878A
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concrete
rod
forces
anchor
tension
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Bruce A Lamberton
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Construction Techniques Inc
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Construction Techniques Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/58Prestressed concrete piles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/34Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/34Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same
    • E02D5/38Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same making by use of mould-pipes or other moulds
    • E02D5/42Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same making by use of mould-pipes or other moulds by making use of pressure liquid or pressure gas for compacting the concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/54Piles with prefabricated supports or anchoring parts; Anchoring piles

Description

March 21, 1967 B. A. LAMBERTON METHOD OF FORMING FILES Filed Sept. 5, 1964 FIG. I

INVENTOR. BRUCE A. LAMBERTON ATTORNEYS United States Patent Ofi ice Patented Mar. 21, 1967 3,309,878 NIETHGD 0F FORMING FILES Bruce A. Lamberton, Berea, Ohio, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Construction Techniques, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Filed Sept. 3, 1964, Ser. No. 394,189 5 Claims. (Cl. 6153.62)

This invention pertains to the art of concrete structures and more particularly to concrete structures having metallic reinforcing or tensioning members embedded therein.

The invention is particularly applicable to sub-earthsurface concrete structures of the type which are formed in situ, that is, where the concrete is placed in the earth in a plastic state and there allowed to harden, and will be described with particular reference thereto, although it will be appreciated that the invention has broader applications.

A number of different methods are known for forming sub-earth-surface concrete structures in situ, namely: by excavating either with or without a form and pouring concrete into the excavated space; by rotating an anger into the earth to the desired depth and thereafter withdrawing the auger without rotation while simultaneously pumping a concrete under pressure into the space formed by the withdrawal of the anger as is taught in US. Patent No. 2,729,067, issued January 3, 1956, and assigned to the assignee of this application; or by rotating a tool having sidewardly projecting mixing arms into the earth while simultaneously forcing a concrete under pressure into the earth in advance of the rotating tool whereby to mix the concrete and the earth into a homogeneous mixture as is taught in US. Patent No. 2,782,605, issued Feb. 26, 1957, also assigned to the assignee of this application.

All of such concrete structures, when the concrete hardens, have excellent downward or load bearing characteristics because such forces place the concrete under compression where, as is known, it has its maximum strength.

Difiiculty has been experienced in the past, however, with such concrete structures when called upon to resist uplift forces or bending forces. Such forces result in small cracks developing in the concrete thus permitting the entrance of ground Water and the resultant corrosion of the metal tie rods or reinforcing bars.

Uplift forces are normally transferred to the structure by means of a metallic tie-rod embedded either in the upper end of or throughout the entire vertical height of the structure. The structure then transfers the uplift forces to the surrounding soil supposedly in a uniformly distributed manner. However, it has been found that because of the greater rigidity of the concrete relative to the metal tie-rod, these uplift forces are transferred to the concrete structure at or immediately adjacent to the upper point of fastening of the tie-rod thereto. The concrete, which is weak in tension, tends to develop small cracks progressively downward under high uplift forces to relieve the tension and the tie-rod progressively transfers the uplift forces to the concrete at lower and lower points in the structure. However, the small cracks which develop permit the entrance of ground water and the exposure of the tie-rod to corrosion. As the tie-rod is the only effective material in the pile resisting the uplift forces, this attack can be of a very serious nature.

A further cause of these tensions is the location of the principal points of resistance of the soil to these uplift forces. Thus the uplift forces create shearing forces in the surrounding soil. The resistance of the soil to the shearing forces depends on the friction between the adjacent soil particles, which friction increases with depth in the soil because of the increased pressure between the particles. The soil has a maximum resistance to the uplift forces at the lower end of the structure.

When an ordinary reinforced concrete structure is initially pulled upwardly, it stretches, and in doing so transfers the forces to and shears the soil at the upper end where the soil is weakest. As the pull increases, the stretching continues and the transfer occurs progressively deeper into the soil. However, eventually the soil in the upper layers fails due to movement of the upper end of the structure beyond the ability of the soil to resist. Also, where the soil has not sheared, part of the Weight on the soil below has been lessened causing lower frictional resistance between the particles, and thus a lesser resistance to shearing forces at or adjacent to the lower end of the structure. In any event, the tendency is for the entire structure to be in tension with the principal transfer of forces to the soil ultimately being at or adjacent the lower end.

The present invention contemplates an arrangement which overcomes all of the above-referred to difficulties, and provides for applying the uplift forces to the concrete structure at or adjacent to its lower end only, means being provided for insuring that the tie-rod may stretch and move longitudinally more or less freely relative to the structure above the point of fastening.

Where the concrete structures are called upon to resist lateral or bending forces, the side of the structure is placed in tension. To resist such tension forces, it has been conventional in the past to embed metallic reinforcing members within the structure while the concrete is still plastic. This tension member is provided with means for rigidly fastening itself or preventing longitudinal movement thereof relative to the concrete after the concrete hardens. With such an arrangement, because the tension member has a greater elasticity than the concrete, it does not begin to accept its portion of the load forces until usually the concrete has been stressed beyond its breaking point. Again small tension cracks develop in the heavily loaded areas of the concrete making the tension member accessible to attack by corrosive elements.

The present invention contemplates a concrete structure which can be formed in situ, which avoids all of the above referred to difficulties, and others, which has a maximum strength for a given amount of material against forces in all directions and which can be quickly, easily, and economically put into place.

In accordance with the broadest aspect of the invention, a vertically elongated plastic concrete structure is formed having a metallic tie-rod extending longitudinally therethrough, such tie-rod having anchor means at its lower end for rigidly fastening it to the concrete and means above the lower end for permitting free longitudinal movement of the rod relative to the concrete structure after the concrete has hardened. With such an arrangement, all of the uplift forces are transmitted to the concrete structure at the lower end thereof and portions above the point of force transmittal are placed under compression rather than tension as heretofore. Furthermore, the forces are transmitted to the concrete structure at points below the earth surface where the soil is more compact and has a greater shear resistance and a much greater ability to resist the uplift forces.

Further, in accordance with the invention, after the concrete has hardened, the tie-rod is placed under tension by exerting an uplift force on the upper end thereof, and such upper end is then rigidly fastened to the upper end of the concrete structure. The tie-rod is under tension and the concrete structure is under a permanent state of compression. Thus, bending forces on the concrete structure must first neutralize the compression forces in the concrete before tension forces are developed, thus giving to the concrete structure a substantially increased resistance against lateral bending forces.

Further in accordance with the invention, the tie-rod may be located closer to the side of the concrete structure on which the bending tension forces will exist whereby to place this side of the structure under a greater state of compression than the opposite side. Thus an initial camber may in some instances be introduced into the concrete structure in a direction towards the bending forces.

The principal object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved method of placing sub-earth-surface concrete structure which will have a maximum resistance against uplift or lateral forces.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved method for forming sub-earth-surface concrete structures in situ having tension members extending therethrough which enables the structure when concrete structure which will have a maximum resistance against uplift or lateral forces.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved method of placing sub-earth-surf-ace concrete structures formed in situ under compression or for transmitting uplift forces to the lower end thereof.

The invention may take physical form in certain parts and arrangements of parts and certain steps and combinations of steps, preferred embodiments of which will be described in detail in this specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawing which is a part hereof and wherein,

FIGURE 1 is a cross-sectional view of the earths surface showing a concrete structure formed in situ and illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention for transmitting uplift forces to the lower end of the structure;

FIGUR-E l-a is a cross-sectional view of FIGURE 1 taken from the line lal-a thereof;

FIGURE 2 is a view somewhat similar to FIGURE 1 illustrating an alternative embodiment of the invention wherein the tension member is placed under a permanent state of tension;

FIGURE 3 is a still further alternative embodiment of the invention showing an alternative way of placing the concrete structure; and,

FIGURE 4 is a partial cross-sectional view ilustrating a further modification of the present invention.

Referring now to the drawings wherein the showings are for the purpose of illustrating preferred embodiments of the invention only, and not for the purpose of limiting same, FIGURE 1 shows a cross section of the earth-surface 9 having extending vertically downwardly therein a concrete structure it) formed in situ which in turn has a tie-rod 11 extending from a point adjacent the lower end to a point above the upper end of the structure 10. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the concrete structure 10 is formed by a method shown in United States Patent No. 2,729,607 wherein an auger-type drill is sunk into the earth to define the location and depth of a cavity for the structure without removing the earth therefrom, and then a fiuid hydraulic cement grout is forced into the cavity under suflicient force to fill the cavity as the anger is removed.

The earths surface 9 may be of any known characteristic including sand, clay, rock, or a mixture of one or all three, the only requirement being that it be of a nature such that the concrete structure may be formed in situ by any known method.

The concrete structure 10 may have any desired vertical height, any desired horizontal width, thickness or cross-sectional shape and may be formed in any manner such that the concrete when placed in the soil 9 is in a plastic state and is allowed to harden in the soil.

In this respect, concrete as used throughout the specification and claims, is made up of a mixture of a liquid vehicle, a cementitious material and usually, but not necessarily, one or more granular materials. The granular materials may include without limitation, soil, sand, fiy ash or gravel, rock or aggregate of any desired size. The cementitious material may be any of the known cementitious materials such as without limitation, Portland cement or the like which when mixed with or suspended in the liquid vehicle and upon being allowed to stand or cool, or both, will harden and bind the granular material, if any, into a solid rigid body. The liquid vehicle may be of a type such that when mixed with the cementitious material employed will either evaporate or combine with the cementitious material to leave the cementitious material in a hardened state which wiil bind the granular material into a solid rigid body.

The concrete unles otherwise stated, may be either in the plastic or hardened state, it being understood that plastic concrete when allowed to stand for periods of time which may be referred to as the hardening time will change to the hardened state.

The term vertical as used throughout the specification and claims is used in the broader sense of being in any direction leading below the earths surface as fitting within the sense of the particular requirements of the concrete structure being installed.

By the term in situ is meant the forming of the concrete structure from a plastic concrete present in the ultimate position of use of the structure, the concrete being allowed to harden prior to the placing of loads thereon.

The concrete structure 10 is in accordance with the invention, formed in situ in any known or desired manner. Prefer-ably, however, the concrete while in the plastic state is placed under hydraulic pressure so that a plurality of tiny fingers or protrusions 12 extend laterally into the soil 9 beyond the actual limits of the structure 10 itself. Preferably the structure 10 is formed-as is taught in U.S. Patent No. 2,729,067 issued Jan. 3, 1956, or U.S. Patent No. 2,782,605 issued Feb. 26, 1957, and both assigned to the 'assignee of this application. In the first of these patents an auger having a hollow shaft is screwed into the soil to the depth desired by the ultimate structure. The auger is then gradually withdrawn without rotating while simultaneously concrete is pumped under pressure through the hollow shaft to the lower end of the auger, the concrete under pressure forcing itself laterally into the soil 9 to form the fingers 12. In such case the concrete as desired is mixed above the surface of the earth and is pumped through the shaft.

In the second mentioned patent, a hollow shaft having sidewardly projecting mixing arms is rotated vertically into the earth while simultaneously forcing concrete under pressure into the earth in advance of the mixing arms. Normally the concrete contains larger amounts of liquid vehicles than is normal and the arms, as the tool is advanced into the earth, mix the soil with the concrete. The tool is advanced to the desired depth of the concrete structure and is then withdrawn while continuing the rotation. The result is a thoroughly mixed sub-surface structure comprised of a mixture of concrete and the soil 9. In this instance it will be noted that the granular material or at least some of it, is actually the soil. The concrete, however, which is forced through the hollow shaft under pressure, forces itself laterally into crevices in the soil 9 to form the fingers 12.

In a still further alternative arrangement for forming the concrete structure 10 in situ, a cavity may be formed under the earths surface to the desired depth either with or without the use of form members to prevent the sides of the cavity from collapsing. Assuming that forms are employed, concrete is poured into the cavity, the forms are partially withdrawn and known methods of ramming the upper surface of the concrete are employed for the purpose of creating hydraulic pressures thereon which will force the concrete into the crevices of the soil 9 for the purposes of forming the fingers 12.

In any event, it will be seen that a concrete structure is formed below the surface of the earth which because of the laterally protruding fingers 12 will have a maximum area of cont-act with the soil 9 in order that a maximum resistance of vertical movement either upwardly or downwardly of the concrete structure 10 can be developed for a given vertical dimension and for a given characteristic of soil 9.

Also, it should be understood that the concrete structure or column 10 may extend to any desired height above the upper surface of the soil 9. The above-ground portion of the concrete column 10 may be formed by any suitable method. The rod member 11 is anchored at its lower end in the concrete column 10 as in the previously described embodiments. Above its lower end the rod member 11 is freely movable longitudinally with respect to the concrete column 10. The upper end of the rod member 11 is subjected to tension forces. Preferably, the rod member 11 is placed under tension after the concrete column 10 has hardened and the upper end of the rod member 11 is rigidly fastened, such as to the upper end of the concrete column 19 or to a structure which the concrete column 19 supports above ground, such as a bridge beam. Due to such post-tensioning of the rod member 11, the concrete column 10 is thereby placed under compression.

This enables the column to withstand greater lateral or bending stresses because such initial compression of the concrete column, due to the tension on the rod member 11, must first be overcome before any portion of the column can go into tension. This makes the present invention particularly advantageous for bridge columns which are subjected to such shear and bending forces.

In FIGURE 1, immediately following the formation of the plastic concrete structure 19, the tension rod 11 is inserted therein in accordance with the invention.

In FIGURE 1, the tie rod 11 has anchor means at the lower end which in the preferred embodiment consist of a cone-nut 20 rigidly fastened as by welding to the lower end of the member 11. A plurality of circumferentially spaced anchor rods 21 extend outwardly and upwardly from the cone 20, the maximum radial spacing of the upper ends 22 of the arms being generally just less than the maximum diameter or thickness of the concrete structure 10. With this arrangement when the concrete is in a plastic state, the tie rod 11 with the anchor means at the lower end can be forced longitudinally through the structure 10 so that the anchoring means are located adjacent the lower end of the structure 10 and by virtue of the radial spacing of the ends 22 the lower end of the member 11 will be generally equally spaced from the sides of the structure it). After the concrete hardens, the anchor means will be rigidly fastened to the structure 10.

Further in accordance with the invention, means are provided whereby the tension member 11 above the anchor means may move longitudinally relative to the structure 19. While such result may be accomplished in a number of different Ways, in the preferred embodiment of the invention, an elongated sleeve 25 is placed coaxially about the tension member 11 .to form a space 26 therebetween sealed at the lower end against the ingress of concrete by a sealing means 27 and having a length such that when the tension member 11 is placed in position as shown, the sleeve will extend preferably above the upper surface 28 of the concrete structure it). In this way it will be appreciated that the surfaces of the tension member 11 above the sealing means 27 are free from any fastening to the concrete structure It) and thus tension forces on the tension member 11 result in an elongation thereof unimpeded by the more rigid and nonelastic adjacent concrete structure. All of the tension forces on the tension member 11 are transmitted to the lower end of the concrete structure 10.

The sleeve 25 may be of any desired material which will prevent the concrete from coming into physical and immovable contact with the surfaces of the tension memher 11 above the anchor means shown. The sleeve 25 may thus be of steel, paper, or in some cases, may even consist of a thin plastic layer of material such as grease or bituminous preparations which will prevent the adherence of the concrete to the rod 11.

In the event that a steel or paper sleeve is employed where an actual physical space 26 does exist, a plastic compound may be poured into the space subsequent to the final installation to prevent the entrance of moisture thereinto.

Thus in the embodiment shown the concrete structure 10 is formed either by casting in place as is described in Patent No. 2,729,067 or mixed in place as is described in Patent No. 2,782,605. After the withdrawal of the tool in either case, the tension member 11 with its outer surrounding sleeve 25 and its anchor means at the lower end are then forced longitudinally through the still plastic concrete and the concrete is then allowed to harden.

Thereafter uplift forces on the member 11 are transmitted directly to the bottom of the structure 10 and the concrete in response to such uplift forces is placed under compression throughout its entire length.

It will be appreciated that if desired the member 11 may be offset from the midcenter of the concrete structure 10, such arrangement being accomplished generally by varying the radial spacing of the ends 22 of the arms 21 from the centerline of the rod 11. Furthermore if desired, the axis of the rod 11 may extend at an angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the structure 10.

It will futher be appreciated that one or a plurality of rods 11 may be disposed within the concrete structure 10 particularly if the concrete structure 10 has either a very substantial diameter or if it has a very substantial thickness in one horizontal direction, thus in effect forming a wall beneath the surface.

It will also be appreciated that a plurality of cylindrical concrete structures 10 can be provided either tangentially touching one relative to the other or overlap-ping each other to provide a continuous wall of tangent cylindrical concrete structures.

FIGURE 2 shows an alternative embodiment of the invention particularly adapted to where the concrete structure must resist unidirectional horizontal forces such as where the earth 9 is removed from one side after the concrete structure is placed in position. In the embodiment shown in FIGURE 2 where like characters are employed to indicate like members corresponding to those of FIGURE 1 and similar characters are indicated with the same number with a prime mark added, the soil 9' is shown as flush with the upper surface 28 of the concrete structure if on the left hand side while the opposite or right hand side either has all or some of the soil excavated or removed at least partially below the upper surface 28. The result is that the concrete structure 10 is subjected to substantial horizontal forces 30 toward the right which forces will, as is conventional, tend to exert a bending action on the concrete structure 10 and place the left hand surface thereof in tension.

In accordance with the invention, however, the tierod 11 after being placed as described with reference to the embodiment of FIGURE 1 and after the concrete has had a chance to fully harden, is placed under tension by any suitable means such as a jack, not shown, resting on the upper surface 28 and secured to the projecting end 32 which jack when extended, places the rod member 11 under tension, such tension being resisted by placing the concrete structure 10 into a state of compression. Thereafter the upper end of the rod member 11 is rigidly secured or fastened at least to the upper end of the concrete structure it Such securing may be done in a number of different ways, but in thejpreferred embodiment an end anchor plate 35 is positioned to bear against the upper surface 28 of the concrete structure 10 and is secured to the rod member 11 by means of a wedge 36. Such a fastening means may be employed alone; however,

in accordance with the preferred embodiment, concrete 37 is pumped into the space 26 which concrete, when it hardens, acts as a bond between the rod 11 and the sleeve 25, which sleeve in turn is secured to the concrete structure 10. If desired, the anchor 35 may then be removed or left in place.

Depending upon the amount of tensioning of the rod member 11, the concrete structure will be placed in a corresponding amount of compression. Thus initial forces 30 on the concrete structure 10 will have to neutralize the compression forces in the concrete before the concrete goes into tension. It will thus be appreciated that substantially greater forces can be withstood by the structure 10 than without the post-tensioning operation.

Obviously and desirably, with such a posttensioning, the rod member 11 will be located toward the side of the structure which will normally go into tension when resisting the horizontal forces. With such an arrangement when the rod member 11 is pulled into tension, the concrete structure 10 will develop a slight camber or curve toward the direction of the force which must be resisted. It will thus be seen that the camber of the structure must be completely neutralized before the concrete will go into the undesirable tension state. Also a very substantial portion of the stresses will be taken up by the rod member 11. Thus in FIGURE 2 the arms 21' on the left diverge less than the arms 21 on the right to give such a spacing.

It will be appreciated that the arrangement shown may be used to resist not only horizontal forces as above described, but also, and simultaneously, load bearing forces as well as uplift forces, particularly if the concrete 37 is not employed for the purpose of filling the space 26. Thus uplift forces would result in an increased tensioning on the member 11, all of which would be transmitted to the lower end of the structure 10, resulting in the structure 10 being placed in a further state of compression. Load bearing would be transmitted directly to the upper surface 28 without releasing the tension in the member 11.

It will be appreciated that in all instances the concrete structure 10 has been shown as extending to the upper surface of the soil 9. Obviously this is not necessary and the upper surface 28 may terminate at any point below the upper surface of the soil 9. Furthermore, the concrete structure 10 need not be continuous under the surface of the soil.

FIGURE 3 shows the invention as applied to a more conventional way of forming sub-surface concrete structures than that above described. Thus with the embodiment of FIGURE 3, a cavity 40 is formed in the soil defined by a casing 41. A rod member 11 having an anchor plate 42 welded to the lower end thereof and a protecting coaxial sleeve sealed at its lower end to the rod 11 by means of packing 27, is positioned within the cavity with the anchor plate 42 preferably spaced slightly from the lower end of the cavity 40. Concrete 45 is then poured into the lower end of the cavity 40 to a desired depth. The casing 41 is then removed to a point adjacent the upper end of the concrete 45. Thereafter heavy weights 46 suspended by cables 47 are dropped into the cavity 40 in such a manner as to strike the upper surface of the concrete 45 while it is still in a plastic state. The weights are then lifted by the cables 47 and again dropped. This operation continues repetitively in order to drive the concrete 45 radially outwardly into the cracks and fissures of the soil to form the fingers 12 as above described. Thereafter the weights 46 are removed, more concrete is poured into the opening, the casing 41 further removed and the operation continued until the entire concrete structure is completed.

The concrete is then allowed to harden and the rod member 11 is placed under tension as described with reference to the embodiment of FIGURE 1.

Referring now to FIGURE 4, the member 11 is pro- 8 vided with a lower spiralled blade 50 so that the member 11 may be easily inserted into the structure 10 by rotating the member. Consequently less force is required than is required when the member must be forced downwardly into the unsolidified concrete of structure 10.

It will be appreciated that any of the processes for forming the concrete structures may be so modified as to form a continuous wall below the surface of the earth 9.

The invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments only. Obviously modifications and alterations will occur to others upon a reading and understanding of this specification and it is my intention to include all such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. A method of forming a one-piece concrete pile formed in situ extending below the earths surface and adapted to withstand uplift forces, comprising the steps of forming a substantially vertical hole in the earths surface With an upper opening, inserting a reinforcing rod with a body portion and a lower anchor means into said hole with said anchor means near the bottom of said hole, said rod having a protective sleeve extending from a po sition near said anchor to a position above the upper opening of said hole for preventing said concrete mixture from contacting said body portion of said reinforcing rod along a substantial portion of the length thereof, filling said hole with a plastic, hardenable concrete mixture, causing a hydraulic pressure on said mixture to force said mixture outwardly into said earth, allowing said concrete mixture to harden to form a concrete pile having an upper and a lower portion, supporting a rod receiving member near the upper portion of said concrete pile, placing said reinforcing rod under tension between said rod receiving member and said lower anchor means, and securing said rod in a tensioned condition so the complete length of said concrete pile between said upper and lower portions is compressed.

2. A method of forming in situ a one-piece concrete pile extending below the earths surface and adapted to withstand uplift forces, comprising the steps of forming a substantially vertical hole in the earths surface, filling said hole with a plastic, hardenable concrete mixture, providing a reinforcing rod having a body portion and a lower anchor, securing a protective sleeve around said body portion and extending from a position near said lower anchor to a point substantially above said anchor, fluid sealing said sleeve from said position to said point, inserting said reinforcing rod and sleeve into said concrete mixture before said concrete mixture hardens with said anchor near the bottom of said hole and said point above the top of the concrete mixture whereby said sealed sleeve prevents the concrete mixture from contacting said rod from said position to said point, allowing said concrete to harden to form a concrete pile having an upper and a lower portion, supporting a rod receiving member near the upper portion of said concrete pile, placing said reinforcing rod-under tension between said rod receiving member and said lower portion of said concrete pile, and securing said rod in its tensioned condition so the complete length of said concrete pile between said upper and lower portion is compressed.

3. A method of forming a one-piece concrete pile formed in situ extending below the earths surface and adapted to withstand uplift forces, comprising the steps of rotating an auger drill into the earth to the desired depth of said pile to form a cavity, forcing a fluid hydraulic cement grout into said cavity, below said drill and at a sufficient pressure to fill said cavity as said drill is removed, removing said drill, before said grout hardens, inserting a reinforcing rod with a body portion and a lower anchor means into said cavity with said anchor means near the bottom of said cavity, preventing said grout from contacting said body portion of said reinforcing rod along a substantial portion of the length of said concrete pile whereby the rod is spaced from said grout from a position adjacent said anchor means to the top of said pile, allowing said cement grout to harden to form a concrete pile having an upper and a lower portion, supporting a rod receiving member near the upper portion of said concrete pile, placing said reinforcing rod under tension between said rod receiving member and said lower anchor means, and securing said rod in a tension condition so the complete length of said concrete pile between said upper and lower portions is compressed.

4. A method of forming a one-piece concrete pile formed in situ extending below the earths surface and adapted to Withstand uplift forces, comprising the steps of rotating an auger drill into the earth to the desired depth of said pile to form a cavity, forcing a fluid hydraulic cement grout into said cavity, below said drill and at a sufiicient pressure to fill said cavity as said drill is removed, removing said drill, before said grout hardens, rotating a reinforcing rod with a body portion and a lower spiral blade into said cavity with said spiral blade pulling said rod into said grout until said blade is near the bottom of said cavity, preventing said grout from contacting said body portion of said reinforcing rod along a substantial portion of the length of said concrete pile whereby the rod is spaced from said grout from a position adjacent said spiral blade to the top of said pile, allowing said cement grout to harden to form a concrete pile having an upper and a lower portion, supporting a rod receiving member near the upper portion of said concrete pile, placing said reinforcing rod under tension between said rod receiving member and said lower spiral blade, and securing said rod in a tension condition so the complete length of said concrete pile between said upper and lower portions is compressed.

5. A method of forming a one-piece concrete pile formed in situ extending below the earths surface and adapted to withstand uplift forces, comprising the steps of rotating an auger drill into the earth to the desired depth of said pile to form a cavity, forcing a fluid hydraulic cement grout into said cavity, below said drill and at a sufiicient pressure to fill said cavity as said drill is removed, removing said drill, providing a reinforcing rod with a lower anchor means, a body portion having a shielding structure over a substantial length thereof and extending from a position adjacent said anchor means to a position at the top of said rod, before said grout hardens, inserting said reinforcing rod into said cavity with said anchor means near the bottom of said cavity whereby the reinforcing rod is spaced from said grout by said shielding structure from a position adjacent said anchor means to the top of said pile, allowing said cement grout to harden to form a concrete pile having an upper and a lower portion, supporting a rod receiving member near the upper portion of said concrete pile, placing said reinforcing rod under tension between said rod receiving member and said lower anchor means, and securing said rod in a tension condition so the complete length of said concrete pile between said upper and lower portions is compressed.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,805,265 5/1931 Taussig 6l-53.62 3,114,245 12/1963 Jennings et a1. 6153.62

FOREIGN PATENTS 862,914 3/ 1961 Great Britain. 568,343 12/ 1956 Italy.

76,799 12/ 1954 Netherlands.

ROBERT F. WHITE, Primary Examiner.

J. A. FINLAYSON, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF FORMING A ONE-PIECE CONCRETE PILE FORMED IN SITU EXTENDING BELOW THE EARTH''S SURFACE AND ADAPTED TO WITHSTAND UPLIFT FORCES, COMPRISING THE STEPS OF FORMING A SUBSTANTIALLY VERTICAL HOLE IN THE EARTH''S SURFACE WITH AN UPPER OPENING, INSERTING A REINFORCING ROD WITH A BODY PORTION AND A LOWER ANCHOR MEANS INTO SAID HOLE WITH SAID ANCHOR MEANS NEAR THE BOTTOM OF SAID HOLE, SAID ROD HAVING A PROTECTIVE SLEEVE EXTENDING FROM A POSITION NEAR SAID ANCHOR TO A POSITION ABOVE THE UPPER OPENING OF SAID HOLE FOR PREVENTING SAID CONCRETE MIXTURE FROM CONTACTING SAID BODY PORTION OF SAID REINFORCING ROD ALONG A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF THE LENGTH THEREOF, FILLING SAID HOLE WITH A PLASTIC, HARDENABLE CONCRETE MIXTURE, CAUSING A HYDRAULIC PRESSURE ON SAID MIXTURE TO FORCE SAID MIXTURE OUTWARDLY INTO SAID EARTH, ALLOWING SAID CONCRETE MIXTURE TO HARDEN TO FORM A CONCRETE PILE HAVING AN UPPER AND A LOWER PORTION, SUPPORTING A ROD RECEIVING MEMBER NEAR THE UPPER PORTION OF SAID CONCRETE PILE, PLACING SAID REINFORCING ROD UNDER TENSION BETWEEN SAID ROD RECEIVING MEMBER AND SAID LOWER ANCHOR MEANS, AND SECURING SAID ROD IN A TENSIONED CONDITION SO THE COMPLETE LENGTH OF SAID CONCRETE PILE BETWEEN SAID UPPER AND LOWER PORTIONS IS COMPRESSED.
US394189A 1964-09-03 1964-09-03 Method of forming piles Expired - Lifetime US3309878A (en)

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NL6511545A NL6511545A (en) 1964-09-03 1965-09-03
GB3774065A GB1087187A (en) 1964-09-03 1965-09-03 Reinforced concrete piles formed in situ in holes

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3503213A (en) * 1967-08-14 1970-03-31 Rotary Oil Tool Co Method of and apparatus for installing reinforcing members in boreholes
US3717966A (en) * 1970-01-30 1973-02-27 Stump Bohr Ag Anchor tie construction and method of setting an anchor tie in the ground
US3742717A (en) * 1971-06-30 1973-07-03 G Wey Process for ground consolidation and reinforcement of stressed anchorage piling increasing the load capacity
US3946570A (en) * 1973-10-02 1976-03-30 S.E.F.I. Sondages-Etanchements-Forages-Injections Support and foundation composite pile for various works and method for manufacturing the same
US4715745A (en) * 1984-07-13 1987-12-29 Stump Bohr Gmbh Ground anchor system
US6773208B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2004-08-10 Dewitt Wayne Method for casting a partially reinforced concrete pile in the ground
US20120014755A1 (en) * 2009-03-20 2012-01-19 Yrjo Raunisto Method for placing a pile or anchoring pile into ground

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL76799C (en) * 1900-01-01
US1805265A (en) * 1926-02-17 1931-05-12 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Screw conveyer pile
GB862914A (en) * 1958-02-25 1961-03-15 Tor Isteg Steel Corp Prestressed concrete piles
US3114245A (en) * 1958-04-03 1963-12-17 Intrusion Prepakt Inc Earth pile anchorage

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL76799C (en) * 1900-01-01
US1805265A (en) * 1926-02-17 1931-05-12 Raymond Concrete Pile Co Screw conveyer pile
GB862914A (en) * 1958-02-25 1961-03-15 Tor Isteg Steel Corp Prestressed concrete piles
US3114245A (en) * 1958-04-03 1963-12-17 Intrusion Prepakt Inc Earth pile anchorage

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3503213A (en) * 1967-08-14 1970-03-31 Rotary Oil Tool Co Method of and apparatus for installing reinforcing members in boreholes
US3717966A (en) * 1970-01-30 1973-02-27 Stump Bohr Ag Anchor tie construction and method of setting an anchor tie in the ground
US3742717A (en) * 1971-06-30 1973-07-03 G Wey Process for ground consolidation and reinforcement of stressed anchorage piling increasing the load capacity
US3946570A (en) * 1973-10-02 1976-03-30 S.E.F.I. Sondages-Etanchements-Forages-Injections Support and foundation composite pile for various works and method for manufacturing the same
US4715745A (en) * 1984-07-13 1987-12-29 Stump Bohr Gmbh Ground anchor system
US6773208B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2004-08-10 Dewitt Wayne Method for casting a partially reinforced concrete pile in the ground
US20120014755A1 (en) * 2009-03-20 2012-01-19 Yrjo Raunisto Method for placing a pile or anchoring pile into ground

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NL6511545A (en) 1966-03-04
GB1087187A (en) 1967-10-11

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