US3302230A - Toothbrush - Google Patents

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Publication number
US3302230A
US3302230A US498504A US49850465A US3302230A US 3302230 A US3302230 A US 3302230A US 498504 A US498504 A US 498504A US 49850465 A US49850465 A US 49850465A US 3302230 A US3302230 A US 3302230A
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United States
Prior art keywords
bristles
toothbrush
dentifrice
teeth
bristle
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US498504A
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Poppelmann Ake
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Poppelmann Ake
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Priority to SE13124/64A priority Critical patent/SE310646B/xx
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46BBRUSHES
    • A46B9/00Arrangements of the bristles in the brush body
    • A46B9/02Position or arrangement of bristles in relation to surface of the brush body, e.g. inclined, in rows, in groups
    • A46B9/04Arranged like in or for toothbrushes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46BBRUSHES
    • A46B1/00Brush bodies and bristles moulded as a unit
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A46BRUSHWARE
    • A46DMANUFACTURE OF BRUSHES
    • A46D1/00Bristles; Selection of materials for bristles
    • A46D1/02Bristles details
    • A46D1/0238Bristles with non-round cross-section

Description

Fb. 7, 1967 AKE POPPELMAN 3,302,230
TOOTHBRUSH Filed Oct. 20, 1965 FIGA FIGB FIGS KE ,DOPPEL MAN A 7' TOP/VE Y United States Patent O 3,302,230 TOOTHBRUSH ke Poppelmann, Brahegatan 4, Stockholm, Sweden Filed Oct. 20, 1965, Ser. No. 498,504 Claims priority, application Sweden, Oct. 30, 1964, 13,124/ 64 2 Claims. (Cl. 15-167) The present invention relates to a toothbrush made f a thermoplastic material, such as polyethylene or polypropylene and comprising a handle and bristles produced in one unit.
It is known that present day toothbrushes of the usual types to be found in shops, are almost with-out exception furnished with bristles of nylon and similar plastics. The material for bristles of such toothbrushes, is usually made of extruded nylon or some plastic which has similar physical qualities, and which material, at the production of the toothbrushes is cut into bristles of suitable length. In later years, however, one has noticed more and more, vthat bristles obtained by this method show great disadvantages on usage i,e. partly because such bristles have a detrimental effect or a tearing effect on the tissue of the gums, and partly because the pastic material employed, by virtue of its hardness, causes a heavy wearing or grinding effectespeciallyat the necks of the teeth, where the teeth are not coated with hard enamel. This disadvantageous grinding down of the surface material of the teeth and the detrimental effect on the tissue of the gums, has been established by a series of investigations.
Toothbrushes of polyethylene are also .kno-wn, but the bristles of these must be made coarser than the bristles of conventional toothbrushes, 'because of technical reasons.
This has been considered to'signify a disadvantage, inasmuch as these coarse lbristles cannot clean effectively in small cavities or between teeth that are situated very closely to each other.
Therefore, for a great length of time a noticeable need has been present, in the eld of odontology, for a toothbrush that is produced with a bristle material that has none of the said disadvantages.
These disadvantages can be eliminated by the toothbrush according to this invention, which because of its economical cost is, in addition, Very suitable for disposable use e.g. in medical and dental services or at restaurants or hotels and when travelling.
The characterising features of the toothbrush according to the invention, is that its bristles taper or narrow toward the apices, preferably from the base to the apex, and have a cross-section in the shape of a polygon with at least two acute angles, and that the bristles have a coating of dentifrice. The cross-section of the bristles can be, therefore, triangular, rhomb-ic, star shaped or form an irregular polygon, due to this shape of bristle a scraping effect is obtained, which is never achieved by a bristle of for instance circular cross-section, from which only a brushing effect is obtained. By the fact that the bristles narrow toward the apices, they are able to penetrate into the interdental spaces, which is not possible with the usage of the thick bristle hitherto existent e.g. of polyethylene.
Due to the special cross-section of the bristles, a better retention of the tooth cleaning medium is achieved than when bristles of circular cross-section are used.
Because of the relative softness of the 'bristles the toothbrush according to the invention is espe-cially suitable for massage of the gums. It has proved especially suitable to use a thermoplastic material having a Shore ICC C hardness of to 94, preferably 85 to 87, determined according to DIN 53505.
The bristles can, to great advantage, on a toothbrush according to this inventi-om be produced of a thermoplastic material that is relatively soft, such as polyethylene of a density to within the range 0.917 to 0.940, especially 0930-0935, where the density is expressed in g./cm.3 and defined according to DIN 5 3749. The melting index of the polyethylene shall according to the invention, preferably lie within the range 1.5 to 1.7, especially 3.0 to 5 eg. approximately 4, where the melting temperature range is expressed in g./l0 min. and delined according to ASTM D 1238-57T.
The bristles can be given a relatively large cross-secti-onal area, which, however, as before mentioned, should decrease towards the apices, -by which the bristles obtain the required mechanical qualities such as stiffness and ileximility.
It has been proved, that one obtains the best results when brushing the teeth, by the usage of bristles whose cross-section is comprised of a polygon with at least two acute angles and a cross-sectional area at the base of every bristle which lies within the range of from 0.10 to 0.30 mm?, preferably about 0.20 mm.2. Thereby the longitudinal edges have a scraping eiect on the coating on the teeth, which is eflicaceously removed. It has proved to be especially suitable to provide the bristles in transverse rows with different lengths, whereby the least detrimental and the most effective cleaning of the teeth is achieved.
The toothbrush will be more clearly described, with reference to the annexed drawing in which: FIG. 1 shows a sectional elevation of a suitable embodiment of a toothbrush, which has been produced by injection moulding; FIG. 2 shows the bristles in a plan elevation; FIG. 3 shows the bristles in an end elevation along the lines 3 3 of FIG. 1, and FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 show, on a larger scale, a cross-section of a bristle.
In the embodiment shown in the drawing the toothbrush is provided lwith a handle 1, which has longitudinal and transverse strengthening ribs 2. The head of the toothbrush is indicated by 3 and its bristles by 4. In this embodiment, the bristles 4 have a trianglar cross-section as is apparent from FIG. 2 and on a larger scale in FIG. 4.
Preferably, the bristles have such a cross-section as is .shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. In FIG. 5 the cross-section is rhombic and in FIG. 6 star shaped.
The toothbrush is provided with a coating of tooth dentifrice, e.g. in the form of a layer on the bristles or in some other way by which the supply of special toothpaste becomes abundant when brushing the teeth.
The dentifrice can be comprised of a paste which slowly dissolves on contact with moisture, and preferably be situated between the separate bristles and most preferably in proximity to their union with the handle. This paste contains active detergents of the usual, existing types, e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate or sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, taste and smell substances and possibly other additive mediums usual to dental care preparations, such as mild grinding media or polishing media, tooth enamel strengthening additives and substances containing uorides, etc., and as binding agent, a gelating substance that is slowly dissolved by moisture, such as vegetable gums, alginates or cellulose derivatives, e.g. carboxymethylcellulose. Thereby, a disposable toothbrush can be used several times, e.g. 3 to 10 times, without additional dentifrice being necessary. On renewed use a new quantity of dentifrice is dissolved by the moisture supplied.
The dentifrice may be coloured in order to make it easier to observe when it has been consumed.
With such usage the coating of dentifrice is preferably provided with bactericides or fungicides of conventional type. By the addition of saliva secreting agents, eg. in the form of an acid or an acidic salt, preferably vitamin C, the addition of water, when brushing the teeth, becomes unnecessary.
An example of a dentifrice in the form of a solution to be applied to the bristles and thereafter be allowed to dry is the following:
Sodium saccharine; saliva secreting agents, such as ascorbic acid, citric acid and monosodiumphosphate; ethyl alkohol; active detergents, such as sodium laurylsulphate; aromatic substances, such as Gargarisma aromatica conc. (containing i.a. peppermint oil and menthol); gelating substances, such as sodiumalgenate; grinding agents and distilled water.
The sodium saccharine and the saliva secreting agents can each be included in a quantity of about 20 percent by Weight, the active detergent can be added in a quantity of about percent by weight, and the distilled water is added up to 100 percent by weight.
What I claim is:
1. A toothbrush of thermoplastic material comprising a back having bristles in which the bristles taper toward the apices and have a cross section in the shape of a polygon with at least two acute angles and in which the bristles are provided with a coating of a dentifrice, each of said bristles tapering from the base to the apex, and the cross section at the base is approximately 0.2 mm2, each said bristle having a Shore C hardness of 85 to 87 and a density of 0.930-0935 where density is expressed in g./cm.3, and having a dentifrice containing a slowly dissolving gelatinous substance which dissolves upon contact with water, said dentifrice further containing a saliva secreting agent.
2. A toothbrush as claimed in claim 1 in which the coating of dentifrice contains as the saliva secreting agent, a compound selected from the group consisting of ascorbic acid, citric acid and monosodiumphosphate.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,773,969 8/1930 Dreyfus et al. 18-159.1 2,225,331 12/1940 Campbell 15--188 2,317,485 4/1943 Rider l5-159.1 X 2,845,649 8/1958 Hutson 15-167 2,876,477 3/1959 Stewart 15-1591 2,915,767 12/1959 Vaughan 15-167 3,103,935 9/1963 Woodrow 15k187 X 3,105,260 10/1963 Smith et al. 15-187 X 3,125,776 3/1964 Lilley 15-159.1
FOREIGN PATENTS 549,168 11/1957 Canada.
571,724 3/1933 Germany.
203,802 6/ 1939 Switzerland.
CHARLES A. WILLMUTH, Primary Examiner.
P. F ELDMAN, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A TOOTHBRUSH OF THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL COMPRISING A BACK HAVING BRISTLES IN WHICH THE BRISTLES TAPER TOWARD THE APICES AND HAVE A CROSS SECTION IN THE SHAPE OF A POLYGON WITH AT LEAST TWO ACUTE ANGLES AND IN WHICH THE BRISTLES ARE PROVIDED WITH A COATING OF A DENTIFRICE, EACH OF SAID BRISTLES TAPERING FROM THE BASE TO THE APEX, AND THE CROSS SECTION AT THE BASE IS APPROXIMATELY 0.2 MM.2, EACH SAID BRISTLE HAVING A SHORE C HARDNESS OF 85 TO
US498504A 1964-10-30 1965-10-20 Toothbrush Expired - Lifetime US3302230A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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SE13124/64A SE310646B (en) 1964-10-30 1964-10-30

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US3302230A true US3302230A (en) 1967-02-07

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AT (1) AT283581B (en)
BE (1) BE671636A (en)
CH (1) CH445444A (en)
DE (1) DE1532799B2 (en)
FI (1) FI42821B (en)
GB (1) GB1083369A (en)
NL (1) NL6514044A (en)
NO (1) NO117072B (en)
SE (1) SE310646B (en)

Cited By (52)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3378870A (en) * 1967-03-22 1968-04-23 Matsunaga Kenji Toothbrush
US3589823A (en) * 1969-09-02 1971-06-29 Orrin W Hendrickson Disposable toothbrush
US4565205A (en) * 1983-03-18 1986-01-21 Super Brush Co., Inc. Molded mascara applicator
WO1994009677A1 (en) * 1992-11-02 1994-05-11 Gillette Canada Inc. Toothbrush
US5339482A (en) * 1992-07-21 1994-08-23 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products, Inc. Toothbrush having non-slip surface
WO1995013412A1 (en) * 1993-11-10 1995-05-18 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
WO1995017116A1 (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-06-29 Benlidi Holdings Pty. Ltd. Toothbrushes, particularly for one-time use
US5522174A (en) * 1994-11-21 1996-06-04 Wagner; Vida A. Sanitary bug catcher
US5605756A (en) * 1993-09-14 1997-02-25 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
USD386005S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-11-11 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
USD386312S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-11-18 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
USD386906S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-12-02 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
WO1998004167A1 (en) * 1996-07-25 1998-02-05 Whitehill Oral Technologies, Inc. Toothbrush with improved cleaning and abrasion efficiency
US5806127A (en) * 1992-08-03 1998-09-15 Colgate-Palmolive Company Coded toothbrush
WO1998057570A1 (en) 1997-06-16 1998-12-23 Unilever N.V. Unitarily molded toothbrush
WO1998057569A1 (en) 1997-06-16 1998-12-23 Unilever N.V. Unitarily molded toothbrush
US5987688A (en) * 1995-11-09 1999-11-23 Gillette Canada Inc. Gum-massaging oral brush
US6138315A (en) * 1998-01-13 2000-10-31 Chesebrough-Pond's Usa Co., Divison Of Conopco, Inc. Antimicrobial active compounds
US6295733B1 (en) 1994-08-03 2001-10-02 Warner-Lambert Company Changeable color shaving aid
US20030115707A1 (en) * 1996-05-29 2003-06-26 Buford Edward T. Grooved brush bristle
US20030167582A1 (en) * 2002-03-07 2003-09-11 Ultradent Products, Inc. Powered tongue cleaning device
US20050000043A1 (en) * 2003-04-23 2005-01-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Electric toothbrushes
US20050060822A1 (en) * 2003-09-19 2005-03-24 Chenvainu Alexander T. Toothbrushes
US20050172435A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2005-08-11 Michele Bernini Tooth-cleaning device
US20060080799A1 (en) * 2004-10-18 2006-04-20 Frank Lucente Toothbrush featuring bristles with raised annular portions
US20060242778A1 (en) * 1999-06-14 2006-11-02 Solanki Sanjay A Toothbrush
WO2007092823A2 (en) * 2006-02-07 2007-08-16 Whitehill Oral Technologies, Inc. Sialagogue coatings for interproximal devices
US20070251040A1 (en) * 2003-03-14 2007-11-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Toothbrush head
US20070289078A1 (en) * 2006-06-16 2007-12-20 Georges Driesen Toothbrush, toothbrush head and tooth cleaning bristle
US20080163500A1 (en) * 2005-02-03 2008-07-10 Bic-Violex Sa Razor Handle Having Ergonomic Gripping Areas
US20080181716A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Gatzemeyer John J Oral Care Implement Housing an Oral Care Agent
US20090044357A1 (en) * 2007-08-16 2009-02-19 The Procter & Gamble Company Electric toothbrushes
US20090282628A1 (en) * 2003-02-11 2009-11-19 The Gillette Company Toothbrushes
US20100055233A1 (en) * 2008-08-29 2010-03-04 A. Schulman, Inc Optimized Flavored Polymeric Compositions
US20100162499A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2010-07-01 Braun Phillip M Vibrating Toothbrush
US20100306944A1 (en) * 2009-03-04 2010-12-09 Braun Gmbh Toothbrush bristle and method for manufacturing such a bristle
US20110030160A1 (en) * 2009-08-06 2011-02-10 Mcneil-Ppc, Inc. Bristle configuration
US20110061189A1 (en) * 2009-09-15 2011-03-17 Mark Stephen Meadows Oral care products and methods of using and making the same
US20110230587A1 (en) * 2008-08-29 2011-09-22 A. Schulman, Inc. Flavored polymeric articles
US8042217B2 (en) 2004-11-02 2011-10-25 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush and method of making the same
WO2012015422A1 (en) * 2010-07-30 2012-02-02 Mycone Dental Supply Company, Inc. Toothbrush with reactive composition for remineralization of teeth
US20120324664A1 (en) * 2011-06-24 2012-12-27 Don Allen Carpenter Flexible toothbrush with rigid handle support
USRE44819E1 (en) 2000-03-16 2014-04-01 Procter & Gamble Business Services Canada Company Toothbrush
US9107491B2 (en) 2009-07-31 2015-08-18 Colgate-Palmolive Company High cleaning dentifrice compositions
US20150273517A1 (en) * 2012-12-14 2015-10-01 Henkel Ag & Co. Kgaa Application tool
USD745283S1 (en) 2014-12-12 2015-12-15 Live-Right, Llc Combined baby toothbrush and teether
US9750334B2 (en) 2011-01-04 2017-09-05 Trisa Holding Ag Toothbrush with injection-moulded bristles and method and apparatus for producing the same
US10251470B1 (en) 2017-10-10 2019-04-09 The Procter & Gamble Company Head for an oral care implement and oral care implement
US10299577B2 (en) 2012-07-02 2019-05-28 Trisa Holding Ag Method for producing brushes, in particular interdental brushes, and brush, in particular interdental brush, and product group comprising a plurality of brushes
US10306975B2 (en) 2017-06-01 2019-06-04 Colgate-Palmolive Company Oral care implement
US10588397B2 (en) 2011-01-12 2020-03-17 Colgate-Palmolive Company Oral care implement
US10856646B2 (en) 2014-07-15 2020-12-08 The Procter & Gamble Company Oral-care implement having color-communicative element

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DE3240637A1 (en) * 1982-11-04 1984-05-10 Makowsky Herbert Dr Med TOOTHBRUSH
GB2184003A (en) * 1985-10-24 1987-06-17 Forsheda Ab A brush, especially a tooth brush
DE3743140A1 (en) * 1987-12-18 1989-06-29 Pai Tien Fa TOOTHBRUSH WITH SOFT BRISTLES
US5272784A (en) * 1991-08-12 1993-12-28 Levin Samuel N Toothbrush handle
GB2266048A (en) * 1992-04-08 1993-10-20 Yancey Huang A brush
US5398367A (en) * 1993-12-27 1995-03-21 Lu; Guixian Toothbrush with both soft and hard bristles
EP0663162A1 (en) * 1994-01-17 1995-07-19 THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY Toothbrush with non-circular cross section filaments
GB2297489B (en) * 1995-02-04 1998-10-07 Michael William Hindmarch A tooth-cleaner
DE19706296A1 (en) * 1996-10-31 1998-05-07 Petr Zivny toothbrush

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Cited By (93)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3378870A (en) * 1967-03-22 1968-04-23 Matsunaga Kenji Toothbrush
US3589823A (en) * 1969-09-02 1971-06-29 Orrin W Hendrickson Disposable toothbrush
US4565205A (en) * 1983-03-18 1986-01-21 Super Brush Co., Inc. Molded mascara applicator
US5339482A (en) * 1992-07-21 1994-08-23 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products, Inc. Toothbrush having non-slip surface
US6033733A (en) * 1992-08-03 2000-03-07 Colgate-Palmolive Company Method for controlling dentifrice usage
US5806127A (en) * 1992-08-03 1998-09-15 Colgate-Palmolive Company Coded toothbrush
WO1994009677A1 (en) * 1992-11-02 1994-05-11 Gillette Canada Inc. Toothbrush
US5783249A (en) * 1993-09-14 1998-07-21 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
US5605756A (en) * 1993-09-14 1997-02-25 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
US5888578A (en) * 1993-09-14 1999-03-30 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
WO1995013412A1 (en) * 1993-11-10 1995-05-18 Gmz Holding Company Disposable toothbrush having mint flavored toothpaste composition bonded to bristles thereof
WO1995017116A1 (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-06-29 Benlidi Holdings Pty. Ltd. Toothbrushes, particularly for one-time use
US6295733B1 (en) 1994-08-03 2001-10-02 Warner-Lambert Company Changeable color shaving aid
US5522174A (en) * 1994-11-21 1996-06-04 Wagner; Vida A. Sanitary bug catcher
US6151745A (en) * 1995-11-09 2000-11-28 Gillette Canada, Inc. Gum-massaging oral brush
US20060085931A1 (en) * 1995-11-09 2006-04-27 The Gillette Company, A Delaware Corporation Gum-massaging oral brush
US8156600B2 (en) 1995-11-09 2012-04-17 The Gillette Company Gum massaging oral brush
US20050086753A1 (en) * 1995-11-09 2005-04-28 Gillette Canada, A Canadian Corporation Gum massaging oral brush
US5987688A (en) * 1995-11-09 1999-11-23 Gillette Canada Inc. Gum-massaging oral brush
US20090013484A1 (en) * 1995-11-09 2009-01-15 Michael Roberts Gum Massaging Oral Brush
US20070234496A1 (en) * 1995-11-09 2007-10-11 Gillette Canada Inc., A Canadian Corporation Gum massaging oral brush
US20040087882A1 (en) * 1995-11-09 2004-05-06 Gillette Canada Company, A Canadian Corporation Gum massaging oral brush
USD386906S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-12-02 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
USD386312S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-11-18 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
USD386005S (en) * 1996-04-04 1997-11-11 Colgate-Palmolive Company Toothbrush
US20030115707A1 (en) * 1996-05-29 2003-06-26 Buford Edward T. Grooved brush bristle
US6086373A (en) * 1996-07-25 2000-07-11 Schiff; Thomas Method of cleaning teeth with a toothbrush with improved cleaning and abrasion efficiency
US6138314A (en) * 1996-07-25 2000-10-31 Whitehill Oral Technologies, Inc. Toothbrush with improved cleaning and abrasion efficiency
WO1998004167A1 (en) * 1996-07-25 1998-02-05 Whitehill Oral Technologies, Inc. Toothbrush with improved cleaning and abrasion efficiency
EP0955836A1 (en) * 1996-07-25 1999-11-17 Thomas Schiff Toothbrush with improved cleaning and abrasion efficiency
EP0955836A4 (en) * 1996-07-25 1999-11-17
US5908038A (en) * 1997-06-16 1999-06-01 Chesebrough-Pond's Usa Co. Unitarily molded toothbrush
WO1998057570A1 (en) 1997-06-16 1998-12-23 Unilever N.V. Unitarily molded toothbrush
WO1998057569A1 (en) 1997-06-16 1998-12-23 Unilever N.V. Unitarily molded toothbrush
US5926900A (en) * 1997-06-16 1999-07-27 Chesebrough-Pond's Usa Co. Unitarily molded toothbrush
US6138315A (en) * 1998-01-13 2000-10-31 Chesebrough-Pond's Usa Co., Divison Of Conopco, Inc. Antimicrobial active compounds
US7707676B2 (en) 1999-06-14 2010-05-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Toothbrush
US20060242778A1 (en) * 1999-06-14 2006-11-02 Solanki Sanjay A Toothbrush
USRE44819E1 (en) 2000-03-16 2014-04-01 Procter & Gamble Business Services Canada Company Toothbrush
US20030167582A1 (en) * 2002-03-07 2003-09-11 Ultradent Products, Inc. Powered tongue cleaning device
US6895624B2 (en) 2002-03-07 2005-05-24 Ultradent Products, Inc. Powered tongue cleaning device
US20050172435A1 (en) * 2002-04-24 2005-08-11 Michele Bernini Tooth-cleaning device
US7895695B2 (en) * 2002-04-24 2011-03-01 S K G Italia S.P.A. Tooth-cleaning device
US20090282628A1 (en) * 2003-02-11 2009-11-19 The Gillette Company Toothbrushes
US7934284B2 (en) 2003-02-11 2011-05-03 Braun Gmbh Toothbrushes
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Also Published As

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NL6514044A (en) 1966-05-02
GB1083369A (en) 1967-09-13
DE1532799A1 (en) 1969-07-24
NO117072B (en) 1969-06-30
FI42821B (en) 1970-08-03
SE310646B (en) 1969-05-12
AT283581B (en) 1970-08-10
DE1532799B2 (en) 1977-01-27
BE671636A (en) 1966-02-14
CH445444A (en) 1967-10-31

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