US3282056A - Flexible retaining wall structure - Google Patents

Flexible retaining wall structure Download PDF

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US3282056A
US3282056A US128340A US12834061A US3282056A US 3282056 A US3282056 A US 3282056A US 128340 A US128340 A US 128340A US 12834061 A US12834061 A US 12834061A US 3282056 A US3282056 A US 3282056A
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edge
fill
corrugated
flexible
walls
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Christopher L Fisher
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Armco Inc
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Armco Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01FADDITIONAL WORK, SUCH AS EQUIPPING ROADS OR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PLATFORMS, HELICOPTER LANDING STAGES, SIGNS, SNOW FENCES, OR THE LIKE
    • E01F7/00Devices affording protection against snow, sand drifts, side-wind effects, snowslides, avalanches or falling rocks; Anti-dazzle arrangements ; Sight-screens for roads, e.g. to mask accident site
    • E01F7/04Devices affording protection against snowslides, avalanches or falling rocks, e.g. avalanche preventing structures, galleries
    • E01F7/045Devices specially adapted for protecting against falling rocks, e.g. galleries, nets, rock traps
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D1/00Bridges in general
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D19/00Structural or constructional details of bridges
    • E01D19/02Piers; Abutments ; Protecting same against drifting ice
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D2101/00Material constitution of bridges
    • E01D2101/30Metal

Description

Nov. 1, 1966 c. L. FISHER 3,282,056
FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Filed July 24, 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet l HILLSIDE NOV. 1, 1966 c, FlsHER 3,282,056
FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Filed July .24. 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 2 E I U) LL! 0:
I EI INA Fm CHRISTOPHER L. FISHER ,4 rrOR/VEI Nov. 1, 1966 c. FISHER FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed July .24, 1961 llVVEA/TGQ CHRISTOPHER L. FISHER HrrOPA/E) Nov. 1, 1966 c. FISHER 3,282,056
FLEXI BLE BETA IN IN G WALL S TRUC TURE Filed July .24, 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 IOO M/vsvroe CHRISTOPHER L. FISHER Nov. 1, 1966 c. L. FISHER 3,282,056
FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Filed July 24. 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 MIME/V75 P I r '2 CHRISTOPHEREVL. FISHER Nov. 1, 1966 c. FISHER FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 24. 1961 MIA Ewe CHRISTOPHER L. FISHER United States Patent M 3,282,056 FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURE Christopher L. Fisher, t. Boniface, Manitoba, Canada,
assignor, by mesne assignments, to Armco Steel Corporation, Middletown, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed July 24, 1961, Ser. No. 128,340 12 Claims. (CI. 61-39) The invention relates to new and useful improvements in wall structures, the principal object and essence of the invention being to provide a flexible curved column or wall which, in conjunction with the necessary back fill, will support a compressive load equal to the compressive load supported by a short vertical column of the same thickness.
A further object of the invention is to provide a structure of the character herewithin described which is particularly suitable for use as a retaining wall, as a vertical support for various structures, for use as bridge abutments, and for use in snow shedding structures adjacent to mountain sides and the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide a device of the character herewithin described in which the requisite support can be provided with relatively thin corrugated sections rather than the extremely heavy sections now in use.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a device of the character herewithin described which is easily adaptable to many designs of abutments or retaining wall structures.
A yet further object of the invention is to provide a device of the character herewithin described which is easily erected on the site and which permits the necessary curved sections to be formed readily and easily from corrugated sheeting.
Another object of the invention is to provide a device of the character herewithin described which is extremely simple in construction, economical in manufacture, and otherwise well suited to the purpose for which it is designed.
With the foregoing objects in view, and such other objects and advantages as will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which this invention relates as this specification proceeds, the invention consists essentially in the arrangement and construction of parts all as hereinafter more particularly described, reference being had to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of the principle of the curved column structure, showing the continuous lateral support obtained by back fill.
FIGURE 2 is a schematic view of a short column length of similar thickness to that shown in FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view showing a combination of two curved retaining walls together with a load supporting platform.
FIGURE 4 is a sectional elevation of the device shown as a retaining wall or with a load on the upper surfaces thereof.
FIGURE 5 is another retaining wall structure incorporating the principles of the invention, and showing the load resting on the upper junction of the flexible surfaces.
FIGURE 6 is anothersectional embodiment of the structure showing an upper and lower roadway.
FIGURE 7 is a yet further sectional view of the structure incorporated with diagonally situated bearing piles.
FIGURE 8 shows a modification of the structure adapted to support a roadway above an underpass.
FIGURE 9 is a sectional view of a further embodiment of the principles of the invention showing same used for a twin roadway structure adjacent a mountain side and acting as a snow shed.
FIGURE 10 is an alternative embodiment of the structure shown in FIGURE 9.
3,282,056 Patented Nov. 1, i966 FIGURE 11 is a view showing the principle of the invention utilized as a beam or bridge span and the like.
FIGURE 12 shows an embodiment of the device supporting a flexible arch on the hillside.
FIGURE 13 shows an embodiment of the device utilized as a flexible seawall or retaining wall.
FIGURE 14 shows a schematic section of a flexible curved surface in which the confining influence is inversely proportioned to the radius of curvature.
FIGURE 15 shows a sectional view of a composite design utilizing the invention wherein the apex of the bridge is stabilized against horizontal movement.
FIGURE 16 is a sectional view of an alternative structure to FIGURE 9.
As shown in FIGURE 1, a relatively 'thin flexible curved column 11 in the form of a corrugated sheet, having a radius 12 is supported by back fill 13 so that when load is applied at 14 and resisted at 15, continuous lateral support is provided to the member 11 thus giving the long curved column the compressive strength of a short straight column 16 as shown in FIGURE 2, if same is unsupported laterally and is loaded as at W.
If the bending resistance of the flexible curved column 11 is neglected, the lateral support required at 13 in pounds per square inch equals the compression stress due to the load at 14 (pounds per square inch) over radius of curvature (inches).
FIGURE 3 shows the principle of the invention incorporated as a supporting column for a load W, in which opposed the curved column elements which are preferably made of corrugated sheet material are indicated at 17 and 18. The curved corrugated sheets have their convex sides disposed toward each other as shown. The sheets are anchored at the base or bottom edges thereof as at 19 within a longitudinal concrete support 20. The upper ends of the sheets are spanned by a further member 21 underlying the load W and the space between the sheets' 17, 18 and 21 is filled with a filling material 22 such as sand or packed earth so that the greater the load at W the more the fill is compressed or compacted thus giving greater strength to the supporting members.
Thus a corrugated surfaced structure of triangular configuration can provide a strong structural section which can be employed as a beam or column even although the surfaces be of a relatively thin metal or flexible material, as long as the interior is filled with a filling material such as sand, packed earth or the like.
FIGURE 4 shows the principle of the invention utilized as an abutment on a hillside, once again with an arcuate corrugated sheet 23 and 11a anchored as at 24 to a base abutment 25 from which a roadway 26 may extend, the roadway acting as a retainer for the abutment 25. A second corrugated wall is shown at 27, the lower edge of which is connected to the lower edge of the wall 23 as at 28. The arrows show the direction of lateral support, and it will be observed that one of the flexible retaining walls increases in curvature (B-C) adjacent the base thereof thus giving greater confinement pressure adjacent the base of the structure where it is needed. It will be noted that the upper edges of the walls 23 and 27 are joined by a substantially horizontal element 29 which is notched as at 30 and 31 to receive the upper edges of the retaining walls and 11a, once again forming the desired triangular configuration. It will also be noted that the greater the load at W, the greater the tendency of the structure to engage the hillside rather than overbalancing towards the roadway 26, reference characters i and i etc. illustrating the radial loads in this embodiment. Fill is indicated at 32.
FIGURE 5 shows a slightly different adaptation of the principles of the invention, with the curved corrugated sheet 33 and the sheet 34 being joined adjacent their upper edges as at and confining the fill material 36 therewithin and within the base member 37. In this embodiment the embankment 38 acts as further backing support for the structure and the load W, such as a roadway, rests by one end thereof upon the junction 35 so that the corrugated curved surface 33 in conjunction with the confined fill 36 gives adequate support.
It will be appreciated that the flexible surfaces B-C and BD permit the structure BCD to accumulate support for loads at B over and above those anticipated in the design, and that the embankment, the confined fill, and the surfaces B-D and B-C may adjust slightly to gain this extra stability.
In FIGURE 6 the principle is utilized to support a roadway 39in conjunction with an inclined abutment 40 which in turn may be retained by a lower roadway 41. Once again the principle is the same and is particularly adapted for use upon a hillside. The exposed arcuate sheet is shown at 43 and an inner sheet or tie is shown at 44, with fill therebetween at 45.
FIGURE 7 utilizes a plurality of bearing piles 46 situated diagonally and covered with a flexible bearing surface 47 to retain the fill 48 between these piles and the curved retaining wall 49. In this case the platform 50 gives the necessary stability to the device.
FIGURE 8 shows how the principle may be utilized for an overpass construction which may include a roadway or other load 51 supported upon the upper ends of the flexible corrugated sheet members 52 and 53 retained by outer corrugated members 54 and 55 and intermediate fills 56 and 57. This assembly is supported by back fill 58, and has a further roadway 59 located below the roadway 51. In this view, the flexible walls 52 and 53 may be continued clear around underneath the roadway 59 as at 60 if desired, and the upper roadway 51 may be in the form of a tie holding the upper ends 61 and 62 in place.
FIGURE 9 shows the utilization of the principles of the invention in a snow shed construction on mountain sides which are troubled by avalanche conditions.
It will be appreciated that not only do the supports for the tunnels have to support the overburden but also are subjected to extreme drag conditions in the direction of the arrow 63 when avalanche conditions are in existence.
Once again the various flexible sheets are formed from corrugated material and form the necessary triangular configuration for the confinement of the fill at locations A, B and C. A tie means 64 extends tangentially over the tunnel roofs, around the inner tunnel surface to an anchor 65. These tie means consist of a plurality of spaced and parallel rods spanned by a corrugated surface material to confine the fill. The tie means 64 are attached to the highest parts of the arcuate corrugated walls as at 66, 67 and 68.
FIGURE 10 also shows asnow shed embodiment, but in this instance one of the flexible walls 69 continues downwardly as at 70 to be anchored to a restraining element 71. A further flexible curved surface 72 extends upwardly to the tie means 73, and is connected thereto as at 74. The tie means is anchored as at 75. The flexible arches forming part of the structure are backed by fill material as at 76, 77 and 78, such as packed earth or the like.
FIGURE 11 shows the principle used for beams or bridge spans and the like and is similar to FIGURE 3. Three curved corrugated confining surfaces 79, 80 and 81 are joined together at their edges as at 37 respectively shown at 82, 83 and 84, and are supported at the base thereof by member 85. A tube 86 may be inserted along the length of the members 79, 80 and 81 and secured thereto, and the spaces filled with a light weight fill 87. Once again the light weight fill gives the strength to the beam as hereinbefore described.
In FIGURE 12, the principles are utilized for supporting a flexible vertical arch 88 upon a hillside 89 with a A. roadway 90 running therebelow. The tie members 91 comprise a plurality of spaced and parallel tie rods 92 covered by surface material 93. The outer edge of the vertical arch is supported by uprights one of which is shown at 94. The tie means are engaged with the upper edge of a rear metallic element 95.
FIGURE 13 shows the principle of the invention adapted for use as a flexible sea wall or retaining wall and utilizing the two curved corrugated surfaces 96 and 97 connected to a reinforced concrete pad 98 which in turn is connected by tie 99 to an anchor 100.
The base curved area of the sheet metal wall 96 is maintained against the anchor 101 and of course, the usual fill 102 is placed between the two curved corrugated sheet surfaces.
FIGURE 14 shows a schematic sectional view showing how a flexible curved wall surface 103 has a confining influence (i i i etc.) inversely proportioned to the radii of curvature indicated by R R R etc. In other words, the greater the radius of curvature the smaller the confining influence so that R i equals R i equals R3l etc.
FIGURE 15 illustrates a cross sectional view of the structure adapted for use to form a bridge having a roadway 104 running thereover. The curved surfaces 105, 106, 107 and 108, formed from corrugated sheets .as hereinbef-ore described, confine filling material 109 and 110.
therebetween and include the tie back surface 111 constructed as her'einbefore described.
The apex C of the two stnuctures is illustrated at the center of the archway so that the load W from the roadway 104 gives lines of thrust illustrated by arrows 112 and 113 thus eliminating special footings. Furthermore this particular type of design, restrains horizontal movement of point C which may cause failure of long span flexible arohes.
FIGURE 16 shows an alternative snow shed design to that illustrated in FIGURE 9 in which the main supporting portion 114 also contains the two curved corrugated surfaces 115 and 116 anchored upon a footing 117 and including tie back surfacing material 118 constructed as hereinbefore described. Fill material 119 is contained therewithin; and this particular construction is of interest in that the greater the load upon the upper surfaces of the structure the greater the tendency of the structure to remain against the mountain slope illustrated by the dotted line 120. Once again the tie back surface 118 is tangential to the upper points or curved surfaces 121 .and 122 of the two archways or tunnels 123 and 124. It will also be noted that columns 125 and 126 are provided to support points 127 and 128 of the structure, these portions acting in a manner similar to the .stnucture hereinbe'fore described and illustrated in FIGURE 3.
In all of the above structures, particularly the snow shed structures illustrated in FIGURES 9, 10 and 16, it is necessary to relate the radius (or radii) of the curved compression surface to the active vertical load, which produces compression to the confined fill in order to ensure stability.
However, under certain circumstances of vertical loading, some of the surfaces are thrown into tension and these controlled tensile stresses in the curved corrugated surface could be permitted if within the working stresses of the steel.
In all cases it will be appreciated that the ends of the sections should b'e closed by covers of concrete or the like (not illustrated) in order to retain the fill material 11'.
Summing up therefore, it will be seen that the principle of the invention is to create a shape such that the confining influence of the surfaces and the force of gravity or supenimposed loads result in composite action between the surfac'es and the fill material.
In the claims whidh follow, the term compacted fill material is intended to designate such materials as sand, earth, gravel and the like which are initially loose, particul-ate or fragmentary, but which have a packing characteristic so that they may be compacted against the wall, as distinguished from a completely rigid material such as hardened cement or concrete. The term upper portion as applied to a corrugated sh'eet metal wall means the highest portion of the wall whether this be an upper edge or the highest part of a continuously curved wall as in an arch.
Since various modifications can be made in the invention as hereinabove described, and many apparently widely diiferent embodiments of same made within the spirit and scope of the claims without departing from such spirit and scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the accompanying specification shall be interpreted as illustrative only and not in a limiting sense.
What I claim as my invention is:
1. A load bearing structure comprising a corrugated sheet metal wall which is arcuate about a horizontal axis,
said wall having an elongated substantially horizontallower edge portion and an elongated upper portion substantially paralleling said lower edge portion, the corrugations in said wall running continuously from said lower edge portion thereof to: said upper portion thereof, said corrugated wall by reason of its arcuate curvature having a concave side which is exposed and a convex side against which compacted fill material is positioned, means holding the said lower edge portion of said wall against movement downwardly and away from said fill in a horizontal direction, means for holding said upper portion of the wall against movement laterally of said upper portion and away from said fill, said last mentioned means comprising tying means attached to said upper wall portion and extending away from the conv'ex side of said wall and anchoring means holding said tying means against movement in a direction away from the anchoring means.
2. The structure claimed in claim 1, including a second corrugated sheet metal wall having an elongated substantially horizontal lower edge portion and an elongated upper portion substantially paralleling said lower edge portion, a corresponding portion of each of said walls lacing attached together, said Walls otherwise diverging from each other, there being compacted fill material located between said walls.
3. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein the lower edge portions of adjacent areuate corrugated sheet metal walls in said structure are fastened together.
4. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein said tying means are prolonged beyond the upper portion of one of said arcuate sheet metal walls and are anchored.
5. The structure claimed in claim 2, in which each of said walls is an arcuate wall, said walls being con nected together at their lower edge portions, the convex sides of said walls facing each other, a third corrugated wall extending between the upper port-ions of said first mentioned walls and having edge portions attached thereto, compacted fill material being located in the space between the said walls.
6. The structure claimed in claim 2, in which each of said walls is an arcuate wall, said walls being connected together at their lower edge portions, the convex sides of said walls facing each other, means for preventing movement of said lower edges away from each other, means for preventing horizontal movement of the upper portions of said walls, said last mentioned means comprising tying means extending between the upper portions of said walls and attached to the said upper portions thereof, and compacted fill material located between the convex portions of said walls and exerting pressure thereagainst.
7. The stnucture claimed in claim 1 in which said wall continues beyond its upper portion to form an arch, the said continuation having a lower edge portion, and means for holding said .last mentioned lower edge portion against horizontal movement.
8. The structure claimed in claim 1 in which said wall continues beyond its upper portion to term an arch, the said continuation having a lower edge portion, and means for holding said last mentioned lower edge portion against horizontal movement, in combination with a second corrugated sheet metal wall having a convex side facing the convex side of the said first wall, the said second corrugated wall being arcuate in configuration and having a lower edge portion and an upper portion, the corrugations in said second wall extending from the lower edge portion thereof to the upper portion thereof, said tying means being prolonged to extend between the upper ortion of said first wall and the upper portion of said second wall, said tying means being attached to the upper portions of both walls, and compacted fill material located between the facing convex portions of the said walls.
9. The structure claimed in claim 1 in which said wall continues beyond its upper portion to form an arch, the said continuation having a lower edge portion, and means for holding said last mentioned lower edge portion against horizontal movement, in combination with a second corrugated she'et metal wall forming a second arch having a convex side facing the convex side of said continuation of said first wall, said second corrugated sheet metal wall having an arcuate configuration, a lower edge portion and an upper portion, said tying means being prolonged to extend between the upper portion of said first wall and the upper portion of said second wall and being attached to both upper portions.
10. The structure claimed in claim 1 in which said Wall continues beyond its upper portion to form an arch, the said continuation having a lower edge portion, and means for holding said last mentioned lower edge portion against horizontal movement, in combination with a second corrugated sheet metal wall forming a second arch having a convex side facing the convex side of said continuation of said first wall, said second corrugated sheet metal wall having an arcuate configuration, a lower edge portion and an upper portion, said tying means being prolonged to extend between the upper portion of said first wall and the upper portion of said second wall and being attached to both upper portions, the said continuation of said first wall and an adjacent portion of said second wall having lower edge portions which are fastened together, there being compacted fill material located between the facing convex portions of said wall continuation and said second arch.
11. The structure claimed in claim 1 in which said means for preventing horizontal movement of the lower edge portion of said sheet metal wall is a concrete foundation to which said tying means is also attached.
12. The structure claim'ed in claim 1 in which said wall continues beyond its upper portion to form an arch, the said continuation having an .arcuate configuration, and a lower edge portion, the corrugations in said continuation extending from said lower edge portion to the upper portion of said continuation, and means for holding the lower edge portion of said continuation against horizontal movement, in combination with a second corrugated sh'eet metal wall forming a second arch, said second wall having a convex side facing the convex side of the continuation of said first wall, said tying means being prolonged to extend hetween the upper portion of said first wall and the upper portion of said second arch, said tying means heing attached to both said upper portions, the continuation of said first wall and the adjacent portion of said second arch having lower edge portions which are fastened together, there being compacted fill material located between the facing convex portions of said first wall continuation and said second arch, and a third arcuate corrugated sheet metal wall extending beyond said second arch, said last mentioned wall having a lower edge portion which is anchored, and an upper portion to which said tying means are prolonged and attached, and compacted fill material located at least be- References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Porter 61-52 Pierce 14-20 Judson 61-39 Pratt 61-16 X McDonnell 61-42 Luten 14-26 Brannen 61-16 Scully et a1. 61-16 H-olf 61-43 Coke-Hill 61-39 X Weber 61-39 Lane 61-35 8 2,184,462 12/1939 Milliken 61-39 X 2,566,748 9/1951 Ringrose 61-39 X FOREIGN PATENTS 12,864 1910 Denmark. 830,584 1938 France. 604,264 1/ 1935 Germany.
2,165 1797 Great Britain. 496,475 11/ 1938 Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES Armco Drainage and Metal Products, Handbook of Drainage and Construction Products, 1958, pages 12-15, 105, 106, 124, 398, 399, 442, 446451, and 485.
Engineering News, vol. 72, No. 26, pages 1252 and 1253, December 24, 1914.
EARL J. WITMER, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE COMPRISING A CORRUGATED SHEET METAL WALL WHICH IS ARCUATE ABOUT A HORIZONTAL AXIS, SAID WALL HAVING AN ELONGATED SUBSTANTIALLY HORIZONTAL LOWER EDGE PORTION AND AN ELONGATED UPPER PORTION SUBSTANTIALLY PARALLELING SAID LOWER EDGE PORTION, THE CORRUGATIONS IN SAID WALL RUNNING CONTINUOUSLY FROM SAID LOWER EDGE PORTION THEREOF TO SAID UPPER PORTION THEREOF, SAID CORRUGATED WALL BY REASON OF ITS ARCUATE CURVATURE HAVING A CONCAVE SIDE WHICH IS EXPOSED AND A CONVEX SIDE AGAINST WHICH COMPACTED FILL MATERIAL IS POSITIONED, MEANS HOLDING THE SAID LOWER EDGE PORTION OF SAID WALL AGAINST MOVEMENT DOWNWARDLY AND AWAY FROM SAID FILL IN A HORIZONTAL DIRECTION, MEANS FOR HOLDING SAID UPPER PORTION OF THE WALL AGAINST MOVEMENT LATERALLY OF SAID UPPER PORTION AND AWAY FROM SAID FILL, SAID LAST MENTIONED MEANS COMPRISING TYING MEANS ATTACHED TO SAID UPPER WALL PORTION AND EXTENDING AWAY FROM THE CONVEX SIDE OF SAID WALL AND ANCHORING MEANS HOLDING SAID TYING MEANS AGAINST MOVEMENT IN A DIRECTION AWAY FROM THE ANCHORING MEANS.
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3482406A (en) * 1966-08-18 1969-12-09 Heierli & Co Overfilled arch-shaped load support structure
US4211504A (en) * 1976-06-24 1980-07-08 Sivachenko Eugene W High strength corrugated metal plate and method of fabricating same
EP0065191A1 (en) * 1981-05-15 1982-11-24 BASF Aktiengesellschaft Inhibitors against H2S and CO2 induced corrosion in water-in-oil emulsions
US4558969A (en) * 1984-03-19 1985-12-17 Bebo Of America Hinge for use with large pre-cast overfilled load support structures
US4607985A (en) * 1982-09-15 1986-08-26 Taizo Nozawa Block construction for preventing outflow of ballasts
FR2663666A1 (en) * 1990-06-22 1991-12-27 Matiere Marcel STRUCTURE COVERED IN PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS.
EP0679768A1 (en) * 1994-04-22 1995-11-02 Norio Nakayama Retaining wall structure and method of constructing same

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FR830584A (en) * 1937-12-09 1938-08-03 Further training in the construction of metal retaining structures
US2138037A (en) * 1937-12-29 1938-11-29 Orley B Lane Earth retainer
GB496475A (en) * 1938-07-15 1938-11-30 Eugen Moessmer Improvements in and relating to the jointing of steel sheets for use as a lining for walls, subterranean spaces or the like
US2184462A (en) * 1939-01-05 1939-12-26 Milliken Foster Bulkhead, sea wall, and similar structures
US2566748A (en) * 1946-05-22 1951-09-04 Ringrose Robert Hall Restraining wall decking

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3482406A (en) * 1966-08-18 1969-12-09 Heierli & Co Overfilled arch-shaped load support structure
US4211504A (en) * 1976-06-24 1980-07-08 Sivachenko Eugene W High strength corrugated metal plate and method of fabricating same
EP0065191A1 (en) * 1981-05-15 1982-11-24 BASF Aktiengesellschaft Inhibitors against H2S and CO2 induced corrosion in water-in-oil emulsions
US4607985A (en) * 1982-09-15 1986-08-26 Taizo Nozawa Block construction for preventing outflow of ballasts
US4558969A (en) * 1984-03-19 1985-12-17 Bebo Of America Hinge for use with large pre-cast overfilled load support structures
FR2663666A1 (en) * 1990-06-22 1991-12-27 Matiere Marcel STRUCTURE COVERED IN PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS.
EP0463925A1 (en) * 1990-06-22 1992-01-02 Marcel Matière Construction method adjacent to mountain side, of a semi-buried structure and thus realized structure
US5199819A (en) * 1990-06-22 1993-04-06 Marcel Matiere Semi-buried structure formed on a mountainside
EP0679768A1 (en) * 1994-04-22 1995-11-02 Norio Nakayama Retaining wall structure and method of constructing same
US5549420A (en) * 1994-04-22 1996-08-27 Nakayama; Norio Retaining wall structure and method of constructing same

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