US3270500A - Afterburner fuel control - Google Patents

Afterburner fuel control Download PDF

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US3270500A
US3270500A US347818A US34781864A US3270500A US 3270500 A US3270500 A US 3270500A US 347818 A US347818 A US 347818A US 34781864 A US34781864 A US 34781864A US 3270500 A US3270500 A US 3270500A
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fuel
afterburner
valve
line
nozzle
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Raymond L Williams
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General Electric Co
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General Electric Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K3/00Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan
    • F02K3/08Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan with supplementary heating of the working fluid; Control thereof
    • F02K3/10Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan with supplementary heating of the working fluid; Control thereof by after-burners
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16KVALVES; TAPS; COCKS; ACTUATING-FLOATS; DEVICES FOR VENTING OR AERATING
    • F16K31/00Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices
    • F16K31/12Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices actuated by fluid

Description

Sept. 6, 1966 R, WILLIAMS 3,270,500
AFTERBURNER FUEL CONTROL Filed Feb. 27, 1964 UM U /Z'WUHUHUQUU 42 f '//I//lflznlll i -rlllll/lll//IIIIIIT r/ I .BY gon-M MM C United States Patent O 3,270,500 AFTERBURNER FUEL CONTROL Raymond L. Williams, Evendale, Ohio, assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Filed Feb. 27, 1964, Ser. No. 347,818 Claims. (Cl. 60-35.6)
This invention relates to an afterburner fuel control and more specifically to an afterburner control incorporating `a valve system for optimum operation of the afterburner.
In turbojet powered aircraft, afterburner or reheat systems are frequency employed for increased thrust operation incorporating a fuel system for injecting fuel into the turbojet exhaust stream which in burning reheats the exhaust stream and increases the output thrust of the turbojet. This afterburner fuel. control must assure immediate ignition of the fuel injected into the exhaust stream and for this purpose a pilot burner is provided; however for reasons of fuel economy .and maintenance it is beneficial if this pilot burner is ignited -only during afterburner operation. This invention is directed to an afterburner contr-ol system incorporating a valve in the pilot burner supply which 'assures that the pilot burner is ignited when fuel is being :supplied to the afterburner nozzles yet limits fuel input to the pilot burner only to that time when fuel is being fed to the afterburner nozzles.
It is therefore one object of this invention to provide an improved afterburner fuel control incorporating a pilot burner fuel valve which allows the passage of fuel to the pilot burner only during operation of the afterburner and which assures ignition of the pilot burner when fuel reaches the main afterburner fuel nozzles.
It is `another object of this invention to provide a valve utilizing ra cylinder and piston assembly whereby upon actuation of the valve the fluid within the cylinder is ejected from the valve by actuation of the piston to provide an immediate supply of fluid to a iiuid system.
It is another object of this invention to provide an afterburner pilot burner system incorporating a valve in the fuel supply line having a cylinder and piston assembly with `a reservoir of fluid stored in the cylinder whereby upon actuation of the piston the ports leading to the iiuid outlet of the valve are opened immediately to pass the stored liuid within the Ivalve through the outlet port and into the fuel supply l-ine for an immediate Supply of fluid to the pilot burner.
In carrying out these and other objects of this invention one embodiment of the invention incorporates a valve in the afterburner pilot burner fuel supply system for controlling the :supply of the fuel to the atferburner pilot burner for optimum performance of the pilot bur-ner system. This valve, upon initial fuel flow to the .afterburner nozzles, is actuated to .allow fuel flow to the pilot burner to ensure .ignition of the pilot burner for positive ignition of the afterburner fuel. The Valve incorporates a piston `and cylinder assembly with a reservoir of fuel stored in the cylinder whereby upon actuation this quantity of fuel is injected into the pilot burner fuel line to fill or charge this line and immediately supply fuel to the pilot burner at the time of fuel reaching the afterburner nozzles for ignition of the pilot burner and subsequent ignition of the afterburner.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily `appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the .accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 illustrates a turbojet engine partially in crosssection wtih the fuel .system illustrated schematically,
FIG. 2 shows the pilot burner lvalve .in cross-section in the cl-osed position,
Patented Sept. 6, 1966 ICC FIG. 3 shows the pilot burner valve in cross-section in an open position, and
FIG. 4 illustrates graphically `aga-inst time the supply of fuel supplied to the pilot burner fuel line.
Referring to FIG. l, `a turbojet engine 10 is illustrated generally comprising a casing 11, an inlet 12, a compressor section 13, a main combustor 14, `a turbine 15 connected by shaft 16 to the compressor, and an exhaust nozzle 17. Fuel nozzles 19 are provided Within the ma-in combustor 14 with a .conduit 20 leading thereto from a pressurizing valve 21 which is connected by a fuel line 22 to a main fuel control 23. Fuel is supplied to the fuel nozzles 19 of the main combustor 14 through conduit 24, pump 25 .and fuel line 26 from a fuel .supply 27, the quantity being regulated by the main fuel contr-ol 23.
The afterburner or reheat section of the turbojet comprises fuel nozzles 30` positioned within the exhaust nozzle 17 of the turbojet with a fuel line 31 leading from the afterburner fuel control 32 which is supplied with fuel through the fuel line 33 and a control valve 34 by action of an afterburner pump 35 receiving fuel from the fuel vsupply 27 through the fuel line 36 and valve 37. A fuel pressure line 38 also leads from the valve 34 to a pilot burner valve 39 while a fuel supply line 40 leads to the pilot burner valve 39 from the main fuel line 20. From the pilot burner valve 39 a fuel line 41 conducts fuel to the pilot burner 42 positioned within the exhaust nozzle of the turbojet. As indicated by the dotted line 45 the actuation of valve 37 and valve 34 are tied together and upon .actuation of the two position valve 34, valve 34 allows pressured fuel from the pump 35 to pass through line 33 and 38, while in the other position rvalve 34 vents the pump 35 .and the line 38 to atmosphere and valve 37 shuts off the supply of fuel to the pump. The internal structuresv of these valves are not illustrated, however there are many known types suitable for performing the function described.
To explain the operation of this fuel system, under normal operating conditions fuel is `supplied from the fuel supply 27 through the main fuel control 23 to the main combustor fuel nozzles 19 within the main combustor 14 for operation of the turbojet in the normal thrust ranges. When afterburning operation is required, valves 37 and 34 are actuated from the position venting the line 38 and 45 t0 atmosphere to the position whereby fuel is supplied from the fuel supply 27 through the pump 35 and to the lines 33 and 38. The pressured fuel within the line 38 causes the pilot burner valve 39 to be actuated as will be explained later to allow fuel from the fuel line 40 to pass through the fuel line 41 to the pilot burner 42 where it is ignited by a suitable means such as a spark discharge device (not shown). Also, the fuel supplied through the -line 33 passes through the afterburner fuel control 32 and the fuel line 31 to the main afterburner fuel nozzles 30 where it is ignited by the .already ignited fuel supplied to the pilot fuel nozzle 42 for operation of the turbojet. It may be seen that fuel is supplied to the pilot burner nozzle 4Z only when the afterburner is in actual operation, however, it is important that the supply of fuel to the pliot burner be immediate so that the pilot burner is ignited when fuel is supplied to the `afterburner fuel nozzles 30 for proper ignition of the afterburner.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the pilot burner valve 39 is illustrated in enlarged cross-section with the attached fuel lines 38, 40 and 41 partially illustrated. The valve itself comprises a housing 46 having an inlet 47 to which is attached the fuel line 40, inlet 48 -to which is attached the fuel line 38 and an outlet 49 to which is attached the fuel line 41 leading to the pilot burner 42. The housing 46 forms an internal elongated cavity 50 in which a piston 51 is positioned to slide lonigtudinally Within the cavity 50 and with the seal 52, divides the cavity into two separate compartments. Compartment 50a connects with the inlet 47 by a passage 54 in which is positioned a filter 55 and an orifice pack 56. The purpose of the filter bviously is to prevent contamination of the valve by any foreign matter carried in the fuel passing from the fuel line 40, and the purpose of the orifice pack 56 is to reduce the flow of the fuel supplied into the compartment 50a since lower fuel flow than that supplied to the main combustor is necessary for proper operation of the pilot burner. A spring 57 serves to bias the piston 51 into the position illustrated in FIG. 2 and while in this position, fuel from fuel line 40 may pass into the cavity 50a and fill the cavity. An extension 58 of the piston 51 extends toward the valve port 59 and includes a passage 61 through which fluid may flow from compartment 50a with holes 62 in this extension leading into the compartment 501). The extension 58 is shaped to close the outlet 49 and prevent fluid flow from passing from the compartment 5012 through the outlet 49 and into the fuel line 41 while in the position illustrated in FIG. 2. Connecting with the inlet 48 is a third compartment 50c within the valve cavity 50 with this compartment formed by the piston 51 in conjunction with the seals 52 and 60 extending between the piston and housing. Naturally pressure fluid supplied through the fuel line 38 will act on the piston to surge it to the position illustrated in FIG. 3 since this fluid pressure is greater than the pressure of the fluid in compartment 50a due to pressure drops in the afterburner fuel control 32.
To explain the operation of the valve when fluid flows through line 38 into the valve the force of the fluid acting on piston 51 is sufli'cient to overcome the :biasing force of the fluid within the compartment 50a and the force of the spring 57 acting on the piston, therefore the piston 51 will be surged towards that position illustrated in FIG. 3 thereby causing the extension 58 to move away from the valve port 59 further effecting the expulsion of fluid from the compartment 50a out through the passage 61, the holes 62 and the fluid outlet 49 for passage through the line 41. The fluid will be expelled in this direction since this fluid path offers much lower resistance to fluid flow than the path back through the orifice pack 56. The flow of fluid from compartment 50a may also serve to decrease the fluid pressure within the compartment thereby decreasing the fluid force on the piston resulting from that fluid pressure to allow the piston to more easily move to the position illustrated in FIG. 3. Movement of the piston 51 to the position illustrated in FIG. 3 thereafter allows fluid flow through the valve by passage from the fuel supply line 40, through the orifice pack 56, the compartment 50a, the passage 61, the holes 62 and the outlet 49 into the fuel line 41. The pressure of this fluid will be reduced by passage through the orice pack 56 for the purposes earlier explained. Also fluid from pressure line 38 will remain static in compartment 50c since this is a sealed compartment. Fuel flow from fuel line 40 through the valve and through the fuel line 41 will continue so long as the fuel pressure is maintained in the line 38 and compartment 50c.
To explain the operation of the afterburner fuel control with the valve 39, when afterburner operation is signalled by actuation of valves 37 and 34, the actuation of which is generally effected through the main fuel control, pressured fuel is supplied through the line 38 to pass into the compartment 50c. This pressured fuel is of sufficient pressure to cause the fuel piston to move to the left to lthe position illustrated in FIG. 3 as explained heretofore. The movement of the piston 51 accomplishes two purposes, namely, to allow fluid flow through the valve port 59 by movement of the extension 5S away from the valve seat with further movement of the piston 51 causing an immediate expulsion of the fluid fuel from the compartment 50a through the passage 61, holes 62 and the fluid outlet 49 into the fuel line 41. By this action of the valve an immediate charge of fuel fills the fuel line 41 which normally is evacuated as explained heretofore by reason of the drainage of fuel from the fuel line 41 due to both its configuration and to vaporization of fuel due to exposure to the high temperature exhaust gas stream of the turbojet. However since the pilot burner valve 39 closes when valve 34 closes, fuel remains in the compartment 50a of valve 39.
FIG. 4 is provided to illustrate graphically against time the flow of fuel through the fuel line 41 as supplied through the outlet 49 of the pilot burner valve 39. Illustrated here is a graph with time as the horizontal axis and quantity of fuel flow from the valve as the vertical axis. Under normal operation from zero to point A on the horizontal axis no fuel flow passes through the outlet 49 of the pilot burner valve since the valves 37 and 34 are positioned to prevent fuel flow through the fuel lines 33 and 38. However at point A actuation of the afterburner system is signalled causing actuation of thet valves 37 and 34 to allow fuel flow through the lines 33 and 38 with flow from line 38 entering the compartment 50c of the valve to cause a rapid actuation of the piston 51 to the position illustrated in FIG. 3, at which time the quantity of fuel within the compartment 50a is forced through the passage 61 of the extension 58, through the holes 62 and out through the outlet 49 and into the fuel line 41 as illustrated from point A to point B on the graph to kbe an immediate high quantity charge of fluid.
Subsequent to this high quantity flow through line 41, fuel may pass from the fuel line 40 through the valve and out through the fuel line 41 as previously described and as illustrated from point B to point C on the graph. From that time on, normal operation of the afterburner pilot burner requires only that this lesser amount of fuel be supplied to the pilot burner 42. Meanwhile fuel flow through fuel line 33 has passed through the afterburner fuel control 32 and the fuel line 31 to the afterburner main fuel nozzles 30. Due t0 the immediate charging of the fuel line 41 however the fuel flow to the pilot burner has already occurred enabling ignition of the pilot burner for immediate ignition of the main afterburner fuel flow through fuel line 31 as soon as it reaches the afterburner fuel nozzles 30. At point C the afterburner is shut off allowing the venting of line 38 to atmosphere through actuation of Valve 34 causing the movement of the piston under the fluid pressure within the compartment 50a and the spring 57 to move to that position illustrated in FIG. 2 closing off fluid flow through the outlet 49 by closing the valve port 59 by the extension 58 of the piston. Therefore the pilot burner is in operation only during afterburner operation thereby effecting a savings in fuel and operation of the system.
While a particular embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention and it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed as new and desired to `be secured by Letters Patent `of the United States is:
1. A fuel system for an yafterrburning gas turbine engine comprising a main combustion system including a combustor and conduit Ameans lfor the delivery of fuel thereto,
an afterburner combustion system comprising at least one aftenburner nozzle and `an afterburner pilot nozzle,
means for selectively supplying fuel to said after burner nozzle and stopping flow of fuel thereto, and means for simultaneously supplying fuel to the after- Iburner pilot nozzle and igniting same when fuel is supplied to lsaid afterburner nozzle and stopping flow of lfuel thereto when the flow of fuel to the rafterburner nozzle is stopped, said means initially supplying a substantially large amount of fuel to said afterburner pilot nozzle and then :a lesser amount of fuel during continued operation of the after-burner nozzle.
Z. A -fuel system as in claim 1 wherein the means for supplying fuel to the afterburner nozzle lcomprise conduit -means leading from a pressurized fuel source to said afterburner nozzle and valve means interposed in said conduit means and operable -to stop the flow of fuel to said 4afterburner nozzle and further wherein the means for supplying fuel to and stopping flow of fuel to said afterburner pilot nozzle is connected to said afterburner conduit means and responsive to pressurization thereof.
3. A fuel `system as in claim 2 wherein the means for supplying fuel to and stopping ilow of fuel to said after- Iburner pilot nozzle comprise conduit means leading from said main combustion system to said afterburner pilot nozzle and a pressure actuated valve interposed in the last named conduit means.
4. A fuel system as in claim 3 wherein the pressure actuated valve comprises `a housing having inlet and outlet passageways respectively connected to the conduit means from the main combustion system :and leading to the Aafterburner pilot nozzle,
a piston reciprocahle in said housing and having a passageway therethrough, said piston in one position sealing the outlet from said housing, said piston being maintained, at least in part, in said one position Xby the force thereon of the fuel from the niain combustion system, said piston Abeing displaced by pressurization of the conduit means leading to said afterlburner nozzle to a second position wherein fuel may flow through the piston and be discharged through said passageway to said afterburner pilot nozzle.
5. A -fuel system `as in claim 4 wherein the piston is hollow and the housing inlet opening is restricted as compared with the outlet opening thereby providing said relatively large amount of fuel upon displacement of said piston and the lesser amount thereafter.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,640,316 `6/1953' Neal 60-35.6 2,804,241 S/l957 McDoWall et al 222-335 2,829,489 4/1958 Meyer 60-35.6 3,019,598 2/1962 Hocutt et `al 60-35.6 3,052,382 9/1962 Gawthrop 222-335 3,062,005 1l/l962 Davies et al 60-35.6
JULIUS E. WEST, Primary Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A FUEL SYSTEM FOR AN AFTERBURNING GAS TURBINE ENGINE COMPRISING A MAIN COMBUSTION SYSTEM INCLUDING A COMBUSTOR AND CONDUIT MEANS FOR THE DELIVERY OF FUEL THERETO, AN AFTERBURNER COMBUSTION SYSTEM COMPRISING AT LEAST ONE AFTERBURNER NOZZLE AND AN AFTERBURNER PILOT NOZZLE, MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY SUPPLYING FUEL TO SAID AFTERBURNER NOZZLE AND STOPPING FLOW OF FUEL THERETO, AND MEANS FOR SIMULTANEOUSLY SUPPLYING FUEL TO THE AFTERBURNER PILOT NOZZLE AND IGNITING SAME WHEN FUEL IS SUPPLIED TO SAID AFTERBURNER NOZZLE AND STOPPING FLOW OF FUEL THERETO WHEN THE FLOW OF FUEL TO THE AFTERBURNER NOZZLE IS STOPPED, SAID MEANS INITIALLY SUPPLYING A SUBSTANTIALLY LARGE AMOUNT OF FUEL TO SAID AFTERBURNER PILOT NOZZLE AND THEN A LESSER AMOUNT OF FUEL DURING CONTINUED OPERATION OF THE AFTERBURNER NOZZLE.
US347818A 1964-02-27 1964-02-27 Afterburner fuel control Expired - Lifetime US3270500A (en)

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US347818A US3270500A (en) 1964-02-27 1964-02-27 Afterburner fuel control
DE1965G0042914 DE1300354B (en) 1964-02-27 1965-02-23 Fuel supply control device for ignition burners of afterburning devices in gas turbines
BE660204D BE660204A (en) 1964-02-27 1965-02-24
GB813265A GB1029603A (en) 1964-02-27 1965-02-25 Improvements in flow control valves
US3472480D US3472480A (en) 1964-02-27 1966-02-23 Flow control valve

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3595021A (en) * 1968-10-10 1971-07-27 Snecma Fuel feed system for reheat-combustion in gas turbine power plants
US4856274A (en) * 1987-03-23 1989-08-15 Rolls-Royce Plc Method and apparatus for evaluating the working line characteristics of a compressor of a gas turbine engine
US4973026A (en) * 1988-08-01 1990-11-27 Saurwein Albert C High pressure water jet cutting nozzle on-off valve
US5020314A (en) * 1989-06-19 1991-06-04 Williams International Corporation Multiple fluid speed systems
US20100108721A1 (en) * 2006-10-02 2010-05-06 Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. Dispensing device for liquids
US20130192244A1 (en) * 2012-02-01 2013-08-01 Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Hybrid apu start fuel system
CN103832427A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-06-04 深圳嘉贸气动器材有限公司 Automotive pneumatic control device

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2640316A (en) * 1949-11-07 1953-06-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ignition apparatus for turbojet afterburners
US2804241A (en) * 1951-09-15 1957-08-27 Gen Motors Corp Flow control meter
US2829489A (en) * 1952-11-15 1958-04-08 United Aircraft Corp Repeating cycle igniter control
US3019598A (en) * 1958-07-23 1962-02-06 Gen Motors Corp Afterburner fuel igniter
US3052382A (en) * 1958-11-10 1962-09-04 Neotechnic Eng Ltd Metering dispenser for aerosol with fluid pressure operated piston
US3062005A (en) * 1959-08-26 1962-11-06 Rolls Royce Coordinated variable area nozzle and reheat fuel control for a gas turbine engine

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CH290429A (en) * 1949-11-14 1953-04-30 Rolls Royce Post-heating fuel supply device in gas turbine systems.
DE1045733B (en) * 1954-08-31 1958-12-04 United Aircraft Corp Automatic control system of the flame ignition device for after-burners of turbine jet engines
GB928018A (en) * 1960-11-15 1963-06-06 Rolls Royce Reheat apparatus for a gas turbine engine

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2640316A (en) * 1949-11-07 1953-06-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ignition apparatus for turbojet afterburners
US2804241A (en) * 1951-09-15 1957-08-27 Gen Motors Corp Flow control meter
US2829489A (en) * 1952-11-15 1958-04-08 United Aircraft Corp Repeating cycle igniter control
US3019598A (en) * 1958-07-23 1962-02-06 Gen Motors Corp Afterburner fuel igniter
US3052382A (en) * 1958-11-10 1962-09-04 Neotechnic Eng Ltd Metering dispenser for aerosol with fluid pressure operated piston
US3062005A (en) * 1959-08-26 1962-11-06 Rolls Royce Coordinated variable area nozzle and reheat fuel control for a gas turbine engine

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3595021A (en) * 1968-10-10 1971-07-27 Snecma Fuel feed system for reheat-combustion in gas turbine power plants
US4856274A (en) * 1987-03-23 1989-08-15 Rolls-Royce Plc Method and apparatus for evaluating the working line characteristics of a compressor of a gas turbine engine
US4973026A (en) * 1988-08-01 1990-11-27 Saurwein Albert C High pressure water jet cutting nozzle on-off valve
US5020314A (en) * 1989-06-19 1991-06-04 Williams International Corporation Multiple fluid speed systems
US20100108721A1 (en) * 2006-10-02 2010-05-06 Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. Dispensing device for liquids
US20130192244A1 (en) * 2012-02-01 2013-08-01 Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Hybrid apu start fuel system
US9316157B2 (en) * 2012-02-01 2016-04-19 Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Fuel system for starting an APU using a hybrid pump arrangement
CN103832427A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-06-04 深圳嘉贸气动器材有限公司 Automotive pneumatic control device
CN103832427B (en) * 2014-03-18 2016-09-14 深圳嘉贸气动器材有限公司 A kind of automobile-used Pneumatic controller

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BE660204A (en) 1965-06-16
GB1029603A (en) 1966-05-18
DE1300354B (en) 1969-07-31

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