US3222730A - Methods and apparatus for producing textile fabrics - Google Patents

Methods and apparatus for producing textile fabrics Download PDF

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US3222730A
US3222730A US15187661A US3222730A US 3222730 A US3222730 A US 3222730A US 15187661 A US15187661 A US 15187661A US 3222730 A US3222730 A US 3222730A
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movement
conveyor
web
fibrous web
permeable
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Kalwaites Frank
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Johnson and Johnson
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/70Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres
    • D04H1/74Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres the fibres being orientated, e.g. in parallel (anisotropic fleeces)
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01GPRELIMINARY TREATMENT OF FIBRES, e.g. FOR SPINNING
    • D01G25/00Lap-forming devices not integral with machines specified above
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/70Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres
    • D04H1/72Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres the fibres being randomly arranged

Description

D 1965 F. KALWAITES METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING TEXTILE FABRICS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed NOV. 13, 1961 INVENTOR FAA/V/K K14 W14! 75 5 ATTORNEY L 138 1965 F. KALWAITES METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING TEXTILE FABRICS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Tia-El. 6

11 m w% 3 l 0 4 V o N d e l 1 F lNVENTOR Ham/K A444 14 4/72":

Y x @m 64W ATTORNEY I nited States Patent ice 3,222,730 METHQDS AND APPARATUS FUR PRUDUCING TEXTILE FABRIQS Frank Kalwaites, Somerviile, Ni, assignor, by mesne asalignments, to Johnson 31 Johnson, New Brunswick, N .J a corporation of New Jersey Filed Nov. 13, 1961, Ser. No. 151,876 6 Claims. (Cl. ]l9163) The present invention relates to improved methods and apparatus for making cross-laid fibrous structures. More particularly, the present invention is concerned with improved methods and apparatus for making cross-laid fibrous webs in which better physical control is exercised over the fibrous web during the cross-laying operation and wherein better selvage or edge control is exercised over the fibrous web during and after the cross-laying operation.

Cross-laid fibrous structures have been known and used in the textile and related industries for many years but, for various reasons, they have never realized their full potential. The main reasons for their lack of more complete commercial acceptance are the difficulties encountered in physically handling and controlling the individual web being cross-laid at any moment and the difficulties of controlling the selvages or edges of the web as it is being cross-laid and after it has been so cross-laid.

The conventional apparatus for cross-laying these webs is often called a camel-back cross-layer or a cross-layer folder and normally comprises a pair of verticallymovable, oscillating belt conveyors which carry the web downwardly with a to-and-fro movement in a direction generally transverse to the direction of movement of a horizontally-movable conveyor passing directly below the pair of vertically-movable, oscillating belt conveyors. The to-and-fro movement of the vertically-movable, oscillating belt conveyors deposits the web on the horizontallymovable conveyor in a back-and-forth overlapping laminated structure which is drawn out by the continuous forward movement of the horizontally-movable conveyor so that a zig-zag angularly overlapping laminated structure of continuous length is formed.

Unfortunately, during the downward movement of the web on the oscillating conveyors, the web occasionally hangs by its own weight and is often irregularly drawn out or attenuated, thus undesirably yielding a non-uniform web with thick and thin places. And, during the actual deposition of the Web on the horizontally-movable conveyor, extreme care is required to precisely limit the extremities of the to-and-fro movement of the oscillating conveyors not only to reduce the irregularities of the newly formed selvage of the continuous cross-laid structure, but also to carefully match the internal edges of the web which extend diagonally in zig-zag fashion between the newly formed selvages. All in all, sufficient control has not been available hitherto and the results have been irregular selvages and overlapped or underreached diagonal edges within the laminated structure.

Also, it has been observed that, even if the selvage is properly laid where it should be, it is often moved inwardly by the web as it reverses direction and moves away from the newly formed selvage and drags the newly formed selvage with it. Efforts to anchor the newly formed selvage at its original place of deposition have been generally unsuccessful as being too complicated and cumbersome and as slowing down the operational speed of the cross-laying device.

It has now been discovered that the difficulties encountered with respect to the pair of vertically-movable, oscillating conveyors may be overcome by merely using one conveyor and by providing that conveyor with a surface friction-applying means, such as a textile pile fabric surface, whereby the web carried thereon is physically 3,222,73d Patented Dec. 14:, 1965 controlled during its vertical movement. And, it has been further discovered that the difficulties encountered with respect to the horizontally-movable conveyor may be overcome and excellent selvage and internal edge control may be realized by providing the horizontally-movable conveyor with vacuum or suction-applying means located at the extremities of the to-and-fro movement of the vertically-movable conveyor whereby the web is guided and held in precisely defined and carefully controlled positions.

Although the present invention will be described with particular reference to a card web as the web to be crosslaid, it is to be appreciated that this is for illustrative purposes only and that other webs may be used. Examples of such other webs would include, for example, randomlaid fibrous webs, paper, warp sheets or other parallel yarn or filament sheets, scrim, gauze, or other textile fabrics, particularly light, open-weave fabrics, and the like.

Additionally, it is also to be noted that the cross-laid structure maybe used as the final product itself, or it may be combined with other cross-laid structures, or with parallel-laid or unidirectional structures, such as card webs or with random-laid or isotropic structures, or even with fabricated structures such as woven, knitted, felted or braided fabrics, etc., to provide specially built-in characteristics and properties.

The weight of the cross-laid sturcture may be as low as about 50 grains per square yard, particularly when it is to be usedmerely as a component of a combined or composite structure, or it may be 300 or more grains per square yard, particularly when the cross-laid structure is to be u-sed alone, when greater strength and body are required or desired. When combined with other crosslaid structuresor other materials, the total weight of the composite product may possess substantially any desired weight, say, up to 4000 or more grains per square yard.

The length of the cross-laid structure may be endless inasmuch as the process is continuous. The width of the cross-laid structure is naturally dependent upon the extent or throw of the to-and-fro movement of the vertically-movable conveyor and upon the width of the horizontally-movable conveyor upon which it is deposited. Any desired width is, of course, theoretically possible. However, within the more commercial aspects of the present invention, widths of from about 36 inches to about 84 inches are contemplated, with widths of from about 54 inches to about 66 inches being most common.

In the accompanying drawings and following specification, there are illustrated and described preferred methods and apparatus for making the cross-laid structures of the present invention. Such, however, are illustrative only and are not to be construed as limitative of the broader aspects of the present invention. Referring to the accompanying drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of apparatus suitable for carrying out the improved methods of the present invention, with some parts being cut away or omitted for purposes of clarity;

FIGURE 2 is fragmentary detail showing of a portion of the apparatus of FIGURE 1, showing the construction and drive of the lay-down rolls;

FIGURE 3 is an end elevation of the apparatus of FIGURE 1, looking in the direction of the arrow 3 of FIGURE 1, again with some parts being cut away or omitted for purposes of clarity;

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary cross section of a portion of the pile fabric covering on the angularly inclined conveyor, taken on the lines 44 of FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 4a is a fragmentary cross-section of a portion of the pile fabric covering on the oscillating conveyor, taken on the line 4a4a of FIGURE 3; and

FIGURE 5 is a plan view of the apparatus of FIGURE 1, taken on the lines 55 of FIGURE 1, again with some parts being cut away or omitted for purposes of clarity,

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in the drawings and with particular reference to FIGURE L a conventional textile card is used and comprises a mam card cylinder and a doffing cylinder 12 which is rotatable on its axis 14 mounted in bearings in the card frame 16. The card web formed on the peripheral surface of the dofiing cylinder 12 is removed therefrom by a worker roll 18 mounted for rotation in hearings in the card frame 16 and covered with conventional metallic card clothing or fillet card clothing.

The linear peripheral speed of the worker roll 18 1S usually equal to the linear peripheral speed of the dofiing cylinder 12 but may be decreased so that it rotates with a lesser linear peripheral speed to provide a compacted fibrous web having more isotropic properties. In a similar way, if a more highly oriented fibrous web is desired, the linear peripheral speed of the worker roll may be increased so that it rotates with a greater linear peripheral speed than that of the dofiing cylinder.

The card web on the rotatable worker roll 18 is removed therefrom by a pair of cooperating, smooth-faced nip-rolls 20 and 22, each mounted in bearings in the card frame 16 and rotating with approximately the same linear peripheral speed as that of the worker roll 18.

The card web is forwarded between the nip rolls, goes over the smooth-faced nip-roll 20, and is advanced onto the surface of an angularly-inclined conveyor 24 which comprises a movable, endless rubber or canvas belt or apron 26 mounted on two rotatable rolls 28 and 30. These rolls 28 and 30 are driven with approximately the same linear peripheral speed as that of the smooth-faced niprolls 20 and 22 and their direction of rotation is such that the card web is advanced upwardly along the exposed upper or outer reach of the angularly inclined conveyor 24.

The angularly inclined conveyor 24 may be angularly adjusted to any desired angular relationship with respect to the card so that the card web can be advanced upwardly to greater or lesser heights, as desired. This is accomplished by pivoting the entire conveyor 24 about the axis of the driving roll 28, and then looking or otherwise se curing the angularly inclined conveyor 24 in the desired or required angular position.

The endless belt or apron 26 is provided with a pile fabric cover 25 (see FIGURE 4) comprising a base fabric 27 and pile elements 29 extending substantially perpendicularly to the base fabric 27. If desired, these pile elements may be flattened so that they are inclined forwardly and in the direction of movement of the belt 26. Such fiber direction enables the pile fabric to hold the web more securely but still permits its removal therefrom at a subsequent time. The pile fabric cover 25 may be secured by adhesive or other means to the belt or apron 26.

As used herein, the term pile fabric is used in its broadest textile sense and is intended to cover pile fabrics which usually h ave a relatively soft, gentle and limp hand and feel .and which possess drapeability, pliability, and conformability as to be useful for house furnishings such as carpets, rugs, upholstery fabrics, etc. Such fabrics have raised loops or tufts (cut loops) which form all or a portion of the surface of the pile fabric. Specific examples of such pile fabrics include, for example: plush, which normally has a pile about inch or more in height; velvet, which normally has a pile less than about /8 inch; pann, which has a flattened, lustrous pile; or other pile fabrics, such as velveteen, velour, terry, corduroy, fris, etc. The pile portions of such fabrics may be warp pile, filling pile, knotted pile, or combinations thereof.

Such a pile fabric exercises excellent control over the card web as it is being advanced thereby. Such excellent control is due to the fact that there are so many more individual fibers and filaments in a unit area of the pile portion acting as controlling points as compared to, for example, the number of control-ling points on card clothing, even fine fillet card clothing. For example, the number of controlling points on fillet cotton card clothing may range up to a maximum of about 93,000 points per square foot. In the case of a pile portion of textile fibers in a commercially available pile fabric, the number of controlling points may range from, say, about two hundred thousand up to several hundred thousand or even over a million.

The card web, having been advanced and raised to the desired height by the angularly inclined conveyor 24 is then transferred to the surface of an oscillating conveyor 32. This oscillating conveyor comprises a movable endless belt or apron 34 mounted on two rotatable rolls 36 and 38 and is movable as indicated by the directional arrows. The oscillating conveyor 32 is pivotally secured to the angularly inclined conveyor 24 by means of a pivotal connecting plate 40 which links together the axes of the roll 30 of the angularly inclined conveyor 24 and the roll 36 of the oscillating conveyor 32. The axis of roll 30 is initially secured in position and remains in that position. The axis of the roll 36, however, is caused to oscillate about the axis of the roll 30, as shown by the upper arcuate arrow in FIGURE 1, by means to be described more fully hereinafter. The linear peripheral speed of the endless belt or apron 34 of the oscillating conveyor 32 is approximately the same as that of the endless belt or apron 26 of the angularly inclined conveyor 24.

The endless belt or apron 34 on the oscillating conveyor 32 is similar in basic construction to the endless belt or apron 26 on the angularly inclined conveyor 24 and is normally also made of canvas, natural or synthetic rubber, or the like. It is similarly provided with a pile fabric cover 33 (see FIGURE 4a) comprising a base fabric 35 and pile elements 37. The pile fabric cover 33 may be secured by adhesive or other means to the belt or apron 34.

The pile fabric cover 33 is similar to the previously described pile fabric 25. The pile elements 37 of the pile fabric 33 on the oscillating conveyor 32 are also preferably inclined rearwar-dly and opposite to the direction of movement of the belt 34. In this way, the pile elements face upwardly on the reach of the oscillating conveyor 32 which is carrying the card web downwardly and thus gently hold the card web and prevent it from sliding downwardly under the force of gravity. And, due to the fact that there are so very many pile elements in contact with substantially the entire face of the card web, there is no penetration or punching of holes in the card web as would be possible if a fewer number of pointed wires or teeth contacted the card web. The angular direction also facilitates the removal of the web from the pile fabric at a later time.

As noted particularly in FIGURE 4a, the individual elements 37 of the pile fabric 33 are set at an angle a to the base portion 35 of the pile fabric 33. The angle a, as noted in FIGURE 4a, is measured rearwardly and opposite to the direction of movement of the belt 34. This angular relationship may be formed during the weaving of the pile fabric by known techniques, or it may be created subsequent to weaving by known heat-setting techruques. The former method is employed when the filaments are not thermoplastic, such as regenerated cellulose filaments, or cotton, or wool fibers, which do not respond properly to heat setting. The latter heat-setting process is preferred when the filaments are made of thermoplastic materials, such as celluose acetate, polyamides, polyesters, acrylics, etc., which respond to such heat treatments.

In order that the belt 34 properly conveys the card web along the surface thereof and exercises the necessary control thereover for all operational speeds of the oscillating conveyor, the filaments are set in an angle a of from about 5 to about 75 in the direction shown in FIGURE 4a and preferably are set at from about 30 to about 50. In FIGURE 4a,-t-he angle or is approximately 45. At low operational speeds of the oscillating conveyor, it is possible to increase the angle or to 90 and the pile fabric will possess suflicient adherent properties to hold the web thereon. However, at increased operational speeds of the oscillating conveyor, the angle on is preferably reduced to the 575 range, or most desirably to the 30-50 range. The above angular relationship are, of course, also applicable to the pile elements of the pile fabric on the angularly inclined conveyor 2 In case the pile elements are uncut loops, the angle on is generally determined by drawing a median line through the loop, extending this line from its base through its highest point, and calculating its angular relationship to the base portion. proper and necessary fiber-holding action.

More precisely speaking, the angle a should preferably be such that the pile elements on the web-carrying side of the oscillating conveyor 32 are directed rearwardly and upwardly at substantially all times during the oscillatory motion of the conveyor. The problem of card web slippage is not acute when the oscillating conveyor is in the out or far'position,'that is, most distant from the card when the card web rests upon upwardly directed pile elements on the upper surface of the conveyor. However, the problem is acute in the case when the oscillating conveyor 32 is in the in or near position, closest to the card, when the card web is actually on the under surface of the conveyor and is being carried by pile elements which may not be directly upwardly.

For a particular angular configuration and a specified operational speed of the oscillating conveyor 32, there is normally a minimum and a maximum amount of angularity possible for the pile elements of the pile fabric.

-In the particular case of FIGURE 1, wherein the maximum angularity of the oscillatory conveyor is about 25 to the vertical, then the preferred minimum inclination of the angular pile to the vertical is also about 25, or, when measured with respect to the base of the pile fabric, such as angle or is measured, about 65. If such values are followed, then the pile elements will always be inclined rearwardly and upwardly on the surface conveying the card web and there will be adequate physical control exercised over the card web at all operational speeds of the oscillating conveyor.

As a consequence of such excellent physical control, there is no slippage of the card web on the oscillating conveyor 32 and the card web is smoothly conveyed thereby.

The card web thenpasses downwardly between a pair of contacting rotatable lay-down rolls 42 and 44 which guide and direct it onto the surface of a horizontallymovable conveyor 46. Simultaneously, with the advancing movement of the conveyor 32, there is also provided an oscillatory movement. This is accomplished by mounting a pivotal sliding bearing 48 on top of a sliding block assembly 50 secured to the conveyor 32 and causing the sliding block assembly 50 to reciprocate with a rectilinear to-and-fro movement as desired.

The sliding block assembly 50 may be caused to have rectilinear reciprocating motion by any desired mechanical device. According to thepresent invention, reciprocating motion is given to the sliding block 50 by linkages 51, 52, 53 and 54 which are secured to a movable sprocket chain 56 which is mounted upon rotatable sprockets 58 and 60. As noted in FIGURE 1, the linkage 54 is secured to the sprocket chain 56 by a locking nut 62.

It will be appreciated that rotation of the sprockets 58 and 60 will cause the sprocket chain 56 to move in the direction indicated by the arcuate directional arrows and thus cause the linkage 54 to reciprocate alternately from right to left, as viewed in FIGURE 1. Reciprocation of linkage 54 will cause linkages 51, 52 and 53 and the sliding block 50 also to reciprocate.

Such angle is, of course, required for the.

The length of the throw of the lmkage 54 is, of course, equal to the horizontal throw of the lowermost portion of the oscillating conveyor 32. The speed of the lowermost portion of the oscillating conveyor 32 is equal to the speed of the linkage 54 and locking nut 62 during their horizontal movements. At the ends or dwells of the sprocket chain, the speed of the lowermost portion of the oscillating conveyor rapidly decreases to zero and reverses to move in the opposite direction. It is during this dwell that the selvage is being formed. As used herein, the speed of the lowermost portion of the oscillating con- .veyor refers to its speed when the linkage 54 and lock nut 62 are moving along the horizontal portion of the movable sprocket chain. The two rotatable sprockets 58 and 60 are therefore made small so as to decrease the dwell time of the linkage 54 and of the oscillating conveyor 32 at the extremities of their respective motions.

The linear speed of the sprocket chain 56 may be equal to the web delivery'speed of the oscillating conveyor 32.

Preferably, however, the linear speed of the sprocket chain 56 is slightly greater than the web delivery speed of the oscillating conveyor 32. In this way, the end of the web will be laid down at its extremities and will be actually drafted slightly as the oscillating conveyor moves away from the extreme position faster than the web is being delivered by the pile fabric on the oscillating conveyor. Speed ratios of the linear speed of the sprocket chain 54 to the pile fabric speed of up to 1.2 to l have been found desirable and advantageous. The fibers are aligned better and a more uniform cross-laid fabric is obtained. Of course, this makes it all the more imperative that the ends of the web laid down at the extreme position resist the pull of the drafting motion and remain in the precise position at which it was laid down originally. This is accomplished by vacuum means to be described more fully hereinafter.

Movement of the linkages 51, 52, 53,54- would normally tend to make the sliding block assembly 50 and the oscillating conveyor 32 move in arcuate fashion about the center of the rotatable roll 36. However, this is prevented by causing the sliding bearing 48 positioned on the top of the sliding block assembly 50 to slide upon a horizontally positioned slide rod 64 which is fixedly mounted .at its ends in the card. frame 16.

As a result of the restraint placed upon the sliding block assembly 50 by the slide bearing 48 and the slide rod 64, the conveyor 32 oscillates with such a movement that its lowermost portion moves substantially horizontally in a direction parallel to the slide rod 64. The upper end of the conveyor 32 is therefore compelled to yield and to also move upwardly 0r downwardly depending upon the particular angular configuration of the sliding block assembly 50 and the oscillating conveyor 32. Consideration of FIGURE 1 will make it apparent that the uppermost part of the conveyor 32 will be in its central uppermost position when the conveyor 32 is substantially vertical whereas it will be in its lowermost position when the conveyor 32 is at the extremities of its oscillating movement. The upper a-rcuate directional arrow in FIGURE 1 indicates the path taken by the center of the axis of rotatable roll 36 during this movement of the uppermost part of the conveyor 32.

Consideration of FIGURE 1 will reveal that the card web is conveyed downwardly on the left side of the oscillating conveyor and passes between the rotatable laiddown rolls 42 and- 44 and is deposited on the horizontally movable conveyor 4-6. Then, as the oscillating conveyor 32 oscillates, the card web is laid down with a toand-fro motion in cross-laid or cross-lapped configuration on the horizontally movable conveyor 46. Actually, as it is laid down at the extremity of the oscillatory motion, the end of the card web is folded back upon itself to form the selvage of the cr0ss-laid fabric being formed. If there were no positive means to locate this selvage, it would become irregular and uneven. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, suction-applying means 70 are provided at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the card web on the oscillating conveyor to restrain the movement of the outermost ends of the card web and to hold the newly formed selvage in a fixed position on the surface of the horizontally movable conveyor 46.

The suction-applying means is positioned immediately beneath the horizontally movable conveyor 46 which is made of an air-permeable foraminous nature. A woven fabric made of relatively strong, abrasion resistant materials such as nylon fibers, is desirable for the horizontally movable conveyor.

The suction-applying means comprises two parallel suction ducts 72 and 74 positioned immediately under the air permeable, horizontally movable conveyor at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the card web. The two suction ducts are connected to a common manifold 76 which is connected with a suitable vacuum source, such as an intake blower or the like (not shown). A thin slit 80 is formed in the upper surface of the suction duct and the suction exerted therethrough holds the selvages of the cross-laid fabric in proper position on the surface of the air permeable horizontally movable conveyor. The width of the slits 80 will vary depending upon the particular situation but normally Widths of from about 71 inch to about /8 inch are satisfactory.

The cross-laid fabric, having been laid down on the horizontally movable conveyor 46, is then conveyed to the left as viewed in FIGURE 3, and ultimately moves beyond the holding force 'exerted by the air slits 80. If desired, it may be wound up on a supply roll 78 to be stored for future processing or use. Preferably, however, the cross-laid fabric is forwarded directly for the additional processing. Such additional processing would comprise the combination or lamination of the cross-laid fabric with other materials, coating, impregnating, calendering, and bonding processes, and the like.

The invention will be further illustrated in greater detail by the following specific examples. It should be understood, however, that although these examples may describe in particular detail some of the more specific features of the invention, they are given primarily for purposes of illustration and the invention in its broader aspects is not to be construed as limited thereto.

Example I A fibrous lap comprising 75% by weight of 3-denier, 1%; inch staple length nylon 6/6 polyamide fibers and 25% by weight of 1.5-denier, 1%; inch staple length dull viscose rayon fibers is fed to a card having a width of 40 inches. The card web produced is removed from the doffing cylinder of the card with a 1.1:1 compaction of the web between the dofling cylinder and the worker rolldofiing mechanism. The weight of the web is about 75 grains per square yard. The web is then transferred to the surface of an angularly inclined conveyor having a 1:1 linear speed ratio with respect to the worker rolldofiing mechanism. The textile pile fabric on the angularly inclined conveyor is velvet and is made of rayon fibers 90 to the base fabric. The web is then transferred to the surface of a vertically movable oscillating conveyor which has a linear speed ratio of 1:1 with respect to the angularly inclined conveyor. The pile fabric on the oscillating conveyor is velvet and is made of wool fibers 45 to the base fabric, measured rearwardly and opposite to the direction of movement of the conveyor.

The horizontally movable conveyor is set at a linear speed of 8 yards per minute. The throw of the oscillating conveyor is set so as to deposit a web 60 inches in width on the horizontally movable conveyor. The web is crosslaid at approximately 1826' angle which requires about 7.2 cycles per minute of the oscillating conveyor. This amounts to a delivery rate of web of about 24 yards per minute from the oscillating conveyor and the angularly inclined conveyor.

The vacuum assist lay-down under the horizontally movable conveyor is operated at 10 inches of water negative static head. This results in an air velocity of about 4,000 feet per minute through the hold-down slots and a fiow of approximately 2500 cubic feet per minute per unit. A 10% draft is imparted to the web by the action of the oscillating conveyor puling against the vacuum assist lay-down.

The cross-laid fabric possesses two thicknesses and is 60 inches wide. Its weight is about 225 grains per square yard. The selvages are sharply defined and clear-cut. It is then laminated with two similarly-constructed cross-laid fabrics and the laminate of three cross-laid fabrics weighing about 675 grains per square yard is bonded with a suitable pre-binder, processed over conventional, heated dry cans, binder-padding equipment, a gas-fired oven, and then through calendering equipment. The resulting fabric is suitable as an all-bias interlining.

Examples II & III

The procedures of Example I are followed substantially as set forth therein with the exception that the pile on the vertically movable oscillating conveyor is (a) 30 and (b) 50 to the base fabric.

Both operations are commercially successful and the web is carried smoothly and efficiently on the surface of the oscillating conveyor at all times. The operations are still commercially successful when the operational speed is increased so that the horizontally movable conveyor moves with a linear delivery speed of 15 yards per minute.

Example IV The procedures of Example I are carried out substantially as set forth therein with the exception that the pile on the oscillating conveyor is to the base fabric.

The operation is commercially satisfactory with additional attention being required by the operators in that the web being carried by the oscillating conveyor occasionally tends to fall away from the surface thereof when the oscillating conveyor is in the near position with respect to the card. There is an occasional lack of uniformity in the web and in the resulting cross-laid fabric whenever the web does fall away from the oscillating conveyor.

Example V The procedures of Example I are carried out substantially as set forth therein except that (l) the pile on the oscillating conveyor is 90 to the base fabric and (2) the operational speed of the apparatus is increased so that the speed of the horizontally movable conveyor goes from 8 yards per minute to 15 yards per minute,

The operation is not commercially satisfactory. The tendency of the web to fall away from the pile fabric on the oscillating conveyor is too great. The windage of the oscillating conveyor tends to pull the web away from the pile fabric. Also, the vacuum effect of the surface of the oscillating conveyor, as it moves inwardly toward the card, tends to billow out the web undesirably.

Example VI The procedures of Example I are carried out substantially as set forth therein with the exception that the vacuum assist lay-down is not used.

The operation is not commercially satisfactory in that the selvages are not sharply defined or clear-cut but are irregular and ragged. The appearance is decidedly undesirable. No drafting of the web is possible by the oscillating conveyor. Difficulties are also encountered with regard to the alignment of the internal diagonally-positioned edges.

Although several specific examples of the inventive concept have been described, the same should not be construed as limited thereby nor to the specific materials or embodiments mentioned therein but to include various other materials and embodiments as set forth in the claims appended hereto. It is understood that any suitable changes, modifications and variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

l. In apparatus for depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable, movable conveyor wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a toand-fro movement having a direction generally transverse to the direction of movement of the air-permeable, movable conveyor, the improvement which comprises vertically movable conveyor means to deliver said fibrous web for deposition on said air-permeable, movable conveyor with a linear speed less than the linear speed of said to-andfro transverse movement, and suction-applying means located substantially only at the extremities of the to-andfro transverse movement of the fibrous web to restrain movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web with respect to the surface of the air-permeable, movable conveyor, whereby the fibrous web is drafted during its deposition on said air-permeable, movable conveyor,

2. In apparatus for depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable, movable conveyor wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a toand-fro movement having a direction generally transverse to the direction of movement of the conveyor, the improvement which comprises vertically movable conveyor means to deliver said fibrous web for deposition on said air-permeable, movable conveyor with a linear speed less than the linear speed of said to-and-fro transverse movement, said vertically movable conveyor means having a textile pile fabric surface to control the fibrous web thereon during its vertical movement prior to being deposited on the air-permeable, movable conveyor, and suction applying means located substantially only at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the fibrous web to restrain movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web during the to-and-fro transverse movement.

3. In apparatus for depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable, movable conveyor wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a to-and-fro movement having a direction generally transverse to the direction of movement of the air-permeable movable conveyor, the improvement which comprises vertically movable conveyor means to deliver said fibrous web for deposition on said air-permeable, movable conveyor with a linear speed less than the linear speed of said to-and-fro transverse movement, a relatively soft, drapeable, pliable and conformable textile pile fabric surface on said vertically movable conveyor means to control the fibrous web thereon during its vertical movement prior to being deposited on the air-permeable movable conveyor, said textile pile fabric having pile elements which are inclined at an angle of from about to about 75 rearwardly and opposite to the direction of movement of said vertically movable conveyor means, and suction applying means located substantially only at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the fibrous web to restrain movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web during the to-and-fro transverse movement.

4. In apparatus for depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable horizontally movable conveyor wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a to-and-fro movement having a direction generally transverse to the direction of movement of the conveyor, the improvement which comprises a vertically movable conveyor to deliver said fibrous web for deposition on said air-permeable horizontally movable conveyor with a linear speed less than the linear speed of said to-and-fro transverse movement, a relatively soft, drapeable, pliable and conformable textile pile fabric surface on said vertically movable conveyor to control the fibrous web thereon during its vertical movement prior to being deposited on the air-permeable horizontally movable conveyor, a pair of distributing rolls cooperating with said vertically movable conveyor to guide the fibrous web as it is deposited on the air-permeable horizontally movable conveyor, and suction applying means located substantially only at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the fibrous web comprising a suction duct and a pair of slits formed in said suction duct extending under said air-permeable horizontally movable conveyor to restrain movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web during the to-and-fro transverse movement.

5. A method of depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable movable conveyor, wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a toand-fro movement having a direction transverse to the direction of movement of the air-permeable movable conveyor comprising; conveying said fibrous web substantially vertically downward for deposition on said airpermeable movable conveyor while providing said vertically moving web with a to-and-fro movement, depositing said web on said air-permeable movable conveyor while simultaneously drafting said web, and restraining movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web with respect to the surface of the air-permeable movable conveyor.

6. A method of depositing a fibrous web in a plurality of overlapping folds on an air-permeable movable conveyor, wherein the fibrous web is deposited with a to-andfro movement having a direction transverse to the direction of movement of the air-permeable movable conveyor comprising; conveying said fibrous web substantially vertically downward for deposition on said air-permeable movable conveyor while providing said vertically moving web with a to-and-fro movement, applying a frictional force to control the fibrous web during its vertical movement, depositing said web on said air-permeable movable conveyor while simultaneously drafting said web, and restraining movement of the outermost portions of said fibrous web at the extremities of the to-and-fro transverse movement of the fibrous web while permitting movement of the internal portions of said fibrous web with respect to the surface of the air-permeable movable conveyor.

References (lited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,554,838 9/1925 Bokum et al 19163 1,610,818 12/1926 Spadone et al 226 1,737,087 11/1929 Horstmann 198178 2,736,362 2/1956 Slayter et al. 19--156 X 2,816,757 12/1957 Burkhart 22695 2,974,393 3/1961 Hollowell 28-722 X 3,095,998 7/1963 Kienel 198178 X FOREIGN PATENTS 82,926 9/ 1895 Germany. 347,501 1/ 1922 Germany. 238,698 11/ 1945 Switzerland.

DONALD W. PARKER, Primary Examiner.

RUSSELL C. MADER, Examiner.

Claims (2)

1. IN APPARATUS FOR DEPOSITING A FIBROUS WEB IN A PLURALITY OF OVERLAPPING FOLDS ON AN AIR-PERMEABLE, MOVABLE CONVEYOR WHEREIN THE FIBROUS WEB IS DEPOSITED WITH A TOAND-FRO MOVEMENT HAVING A DIRECTION GENERALLY TRANSVERSE TO THE DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT OF THE AIR-PERMEABLE, MOVABLE CONVEYOR, THE IMPROVEMENT WHICH COMPRISES VERTICALLY MOVABLE CONVEYOR MEANS TO DELIVER SAID FIBROUS WEB FOR DEPOSITION ON SAID AIR-PERMEABLE, MOVABLE CONVEYOR WITH A LINEAR SPEED LESS THAN THE LINEAR SPEED OF SAID TO-ANDFRO TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT, AND SUCTION-APPLYING MEANS LOCATED SUBSTANTIALLY ONLY AT THE EXTREMITIES OF THE TO-ANDFRO TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT OF THE FIBROUS WEB TO RESTRAIN MOVEMENT OF THE OUTERMOST PORTIONS OF SAID FIBROUS WEB WHILE PERMITTING MOVEMENT OF THE INTERNAL PORTIONS OF SAID FIBROUS WEB WITH RESPECT TO THE SURFACE OF THE AIR-PERMEABLE, MOVABLE CONVEYOR, WHEREBY THE FIBROUS WEB IS DRAFTED DURING ITS DEPOSITION ON SAID AIR-PERMEABLE, MOVABLE CONVEYOR.
5. A METHOD OF DEPOSITING A FIBROUS WEB IN A PLURALITY OF OVERLAPPING FOLDS ON AN AIR-PERMEABLE MOVABLE CONVEYOR, WHEREIN THE FIBROUS WEB IS DEPOSITED WITH A TOAND-FRO MOVEMENT HAVING A DIRECTION TRANSVERSE TO THE DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT OF THE AIR-PERMEABLE MOVABLE CONVEYOR COMPRISING; CONVEYING SAID FIBROUS WEB SUBSTANTIALLY VERTICALLY DOWNWARD FOR DEPOSITION ON SAID AIRPERMEABLE MOVABLE CONVEYOR WHILE PROVIDING SAID VERTICALLYLE MOVING WEB WITH A TO-AND-FRO MOVEMENT, DEPOSITING SAID WEB ON SAID AIR-PERMEABLE MOVALBE CONVEYOR WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY DRAFTING SAID WEB, AND RESTRAINING MOVEMENT OF THE OUTERMOST PORTIONS OF SAID FIBROUS WEB AT THE EXTREMITIES OF THE TO-AND-FRO TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT OF THE FIBROUS WEB WHILE PERMITTING MOVEMENT OF THE INTERNAL PORTIONS OF SAID FIBROUS WEB WITH RESPECT TO THE SURFACE OF THE AIR-PERMEABLE MOVABLE CONVEYOR.
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DE1962C0028349 DE1292549B (en) 1961-11-13 1962-11-06 A process for producing fiber webs and Flortaefler for performing the method
GB5034565A GB1030672A (en) 1961-11-13 1962-11-13 Method for producing non-woven textile fabrics
GB4294862A GB1030671A (en) 1961-11-13 1962-11-13 Method and apparatus for producing non-woven textile fabrics
GB5034665A GB1030673A (en) 1961-11-13 1962-11-13 Apparatus for producing non-woven textile fabrics

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FR2091919A1 (en) * 1970-04-24 1971-01-21 Intissel Sa
US3660868A (en) * 1968-05-29 1972-05-09 Ici Ltd Manufacture of non-woven fibrous webs
US3902644A (en) * 1972-03-28 1975-09-02 Karl Bous Apparatus for the treatment of yarn
US4043855A (en) * 1974-03-01 1977-08-23 Compagnie Des Etablissements Dela Risle Multi-layer article and a process and an apparatus for its manufacture
US4052239A (en) * 1976-01-23 1977-10-04 Chen Henry T Method and apparatus for making fiber reinforced tape
US4108302A (en) * 1974-03-27 1978-08-22 J. Bobst & Fils, S.A. Suction conveyor
US4179776A (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-12-25 Harold Wortman Method and apparatus for deregistering and processing an open synthetic tow into fiber-filled articles
US4308640A (en) * 1979-03-08 1982-01-05 Celanese Corporation Cross lapping apparatus
US4339293A (en) * 1980-02-15 1982-07-13 Riso Kagaku Corporation Process and machine for disposing of sticky sheet
WO1988003121A1 (en) * 1986-10-31 1988-05-05 Oy Partek Ab A process and device for feeding a thin binder impregnated uncured primary web of mineral wool onto a receiving conveyor
US4790086A (en) * 1987-08-21 1988-12-13 Bosson Ann Britt Method of Smoothing fabric
EP0528348A1 (en) * 1991-08-16 1993-02-24 Heraklith Holding Aktiengesellschaft Device for feeding a non-woven web, particularly a mineral wool web, onto a receiving conveyor
EP0630998A1 (en) * 1993-06-21 1994-12-28 Sanei-Kisetsu Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for manufacturing piled-up cotton mat
FR2846342A1 (en) * 2002-10-25 2004-04-30 Dilo Kg Maschf Oskar Assembly to lay a carded web in a zigzag on a take-up belt, to be formed into a nonwoven, has a reciprocating swing arm with two continuous belts pressed together to carry the web to the laying point
US20050193526A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-08 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Web buffering device
EP1574605A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-14 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Lap-forming apparatus
US20050217077A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2005-10-06 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Cross lapper
EP1612306A1 (en) * 2004-07-01 2006-01-04 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Cross-lapper
EP1854910A1 (en) * 2006-05-09 2007-11-14 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Pendulum cross-lapper
US7320154B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2008-01-22 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Ag Fleece laying device
US20080182099A1 (en) * 2006-11-17 2008-07-31 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Robust electrodes for shape memory films
US20080206550A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2008-08-28 Michael Jeremiah Borlner Hydrophobic surface
US20080213570A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2008-09-04 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Self-assembled conductive deformable films
US20080245413A1 (en) * 2007-04-04 2008-10-09 Hang Ruan Self assembled photovoltaic devices
US20080261044A1 (en) * 2003-02-10 2008-10-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Rapidly self-assembled thin films and functional decals
US20090035513A1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2009-02-05 Michael Jeremiah Bortner Tethered nanorods
US20090087348A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2009-04-02 Richard Otto Claus Sensor applications
US20090104434A1 (en) * 2007-10-17 2009-04-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Conformal multifunctional coatings
US20090104438A1 (en) * 2007-10-17 2009-04-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Abrasion resistant coatings
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EP2169095A1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-03-31 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Device for laying a fibre web evenly
RU2492044C1 (en) * 2012-04-13 2013-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) (ФГБОУ ВПО "ЮУрГУ" (НИУ)) Method of making mineral wool article

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US1610818A (en) * 1925-01-31 1926-12-14 Spadone Machine Company Inc Feeding mechanism
US1737087A (en) * 1926-12-23 1929-11-26 Frederick W Horstmann Fur machine
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Cited By (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3401896A (en) * 1965-10-21 1968-09-17 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method and apparatus for packaging materials
US3660868A (en) * 1968-05-29 1972-05-09 Ici Ltd Manufacture of non-woven fibrous webs
FR2091919A1 (en) * 1970-04-24 1971-01-21 Intissel Sa
US3902644A (en) * 1972-03-28 1975-09-02 Karl Bous Apparatus for the treatment of yarn
US4043855A (en) * 1974-03-01 1977-08-23 Compagnie Des Etablissements Dela Risle Multi-layer article and a process and an apparatus for its manufacture
US4108302A (en) * 1974-03-27 1978-08-22 J. Bobst & Fils, S.A. Suction conveyor
US4052239A (en) * 1976-01-23 1977-10-04 Chen Henry T Method and apparatus for making fiber reinforced tape
US4179776A (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-12-25 Harold Wortman Method and apparatus for deregistering and processing an open synthetic tow into fiber-filled articles
US4308640A (en) * 1979-03-08 1982-01-05 Celanese Corporation Cross lapping apparatus
US4339293A (en) * 1980-02-15 1982-07-13 Riso Kagaku Corporation Process and machine for disposing of sticky sheet
WO1988003121A1 (en) * 1986-10-31 1988-05-05 Oy Partek Ab A process and device for feeding a thin binder impregnated uncured primary web of mineral wool onto a receiving conveyor
US4790086A (en) * 1987-08-21 1988-12-13 Bosson Ann Britt Method of Smoothing fabric
EP0528348A1 (en) * 1991-08-16 1993-02-24 Heraklith Holding Aktiengesellschaft Device for feeding a non-woven web, particularly a mineral wool web, onto a receiving conveyor
EP0630998A1 (en) * 1993-06-21 1994-12-28 Sanei-Kisetsu Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for manufacturing piled-up cotton mat
US5423733A (en) * 1993-06-21 1995-06-13 Sanei-Kisetsu Co., Ltd. Method of and apparatus for manufacturing piled-up cotton mat
FR2846342A1 (en) * 2002-10-25 2004-04-30 Dilo Kg Maschf Oskar Assembly to lay a carded web in a zigzag on a take-up belt, to be formed into a nonwoven, has a reciprocating swing arm with two continuous belts pressed together to carry the web to the laying point
US20080261044A1 (en) * 2003-02-10 2008-10-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Rapidly self-assembled thin films and functional decals
US20050193526A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-08 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Web buffering device
EP1574604A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-14 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Storage device
EP1574605A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-14 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Lap-forming apparatus
US7320154B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2008-01-22 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Ag Fleece laying device
US7320155B2 (en) 2004-03-08 2008-01-22 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Web buffering device
US20050217077A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2005-10-06 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Cross lapper
US7318255B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2008-01-15 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Cross lapper
EP1593761A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2005-11-09 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Swinging arm cross-lapper
EP1612306A1 (en) * 2004-07-01 2006-01-04 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Cross-lapper
US20090136574A1 (en) * 2006-04-19 2009-05-28 Galderma S.A. Compositions comprising at least one aqueous phase and at least one fatty phase which comprises avermectin compounds
US20080052877A1 (en) * 2006-05-09 2008-03-06 Dilo Johann P Camel-back fleece laying machine
US7526838B2 (en) 2006-05-09 2009-05-05 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik Kg Camel-back fleece laying machine
EP1854910A1 (en) * 2006-05-09 2007-11-14 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Pendulum cross-lapper
US20080182099A1 (en) * 2006-11-17 2008-07-31 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Robust electrodes for shape memory films
US20100012267A1 (en) * 2006-11-17 2010-01-21 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Robust electrodes for shape memory films
US20090087348A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2009-04-02 Richard Otto Claus Sensor applications
US20080213570A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2008-09-04 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Self-assembled conductive deformable films
US20080206550A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2008-08-28 Michael Jeremiah Borlner Hydrophobic surface
US20090035513A1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2009-02-05 Michael Jeremiah Bortner Tethered nanorods
US20080245413A1 (en) * 2007-04-04 2008-10-09 Hang Ruan Self assembled photovoltaic devices
US20090104434A1 (en) * 2007-10-17 2009-04-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Conformal multifunctional coatings
US20090104438A1 (en) * 2007-10-17 2009-04-23 Jennifer Hoyt Lalli Abrasion resistant coatings
EP2169095A1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-03-31 Oskar Dilo Maschinenfabrik KG Device for laying a fibre web evenly
RU2492044C1 (en) * 2012-04-13 2013-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Южно-Уральский государственный университет" (национальный исследовательский университет) (ФГБОУ ВПО "ЮУрГУ" (НИУ)) Method of making mineral wool article

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Publication number Publication date Type
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GB1030672A (en) 1966-05-25 application
GB1030671A (en) 1966-05-25 application
NL285404A (en) application
GB1030673A (en) 1966-05-25 application

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