US3200457A - Method of regulating the discharge of molten metal from ladles - Google Patents

Method of regulating the discharge of molten metal from ladles Download PDF

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Publication number
US3200457A
US3200457A US35023164A US3200457A US 3200457 A US3200457 A US 3200457A US 35023164 A US35023164 A US 35023164A US 3200457 A US3200457 A US 3200457A
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United States
Prior art keywords
discharge
nozzle
ladle
gas
metal
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James B Wagstaff
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United States Steel Corp
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United States Steel Corp
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Priority to US35023164 priority Critical patent/US3200457A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D41/00Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like
    • B22D41/14Closures
    • B22D41/16Closures stopper-rod type, i.e. a stopper-rod being positioned downwardly through the vessel and the metal therein, for selective registry with the pouring opening
    • B22D41/18Stopper-rods therefor
    • B22D41/186Stopper-rods therefor with means for injecting a fluid into the melt
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D3/00Charging; Discharging; Manipulation of charge
    • F27D3/15Tapping equipment; Equipment for removing or retaining slag
    • F27D3/1509Tapping equipment
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/0318Processes
    • Y10T137/0391Affecting flow by the addition of material or energy

Description

UHU HNLI -LHKDH UUR www Aug 17, 1955 J. B. wAGsTAFF 3,200,457

METHOD OF REGULATING THE DISCHARGE OF MOLTEN METAL FROM LADLES f .II Ill Filed March 9, 1964 INVENTOR A/R FLOW, cc/sec FLE? 1 JAMES E. WAGSTAFF Mm A l orney United States Patent O 3,200,457 METHOD F REGULATING THE DISCHARGE OF MOLTEN METAL FROM LADLES James B. Wagstalf, Franklin Township, Westmoreland County, Pa., assignor to United States Steel Corporation, a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 9, 1964, Ser. No. 350,231 7 Claims. (Cl. 22-209) This invention relates to the casting of molten metal and, as indicated, to a method of regulating the rate at which molten metal is discharged from refractory-lined ladles. Such method, more specifically, operates to slow the rate at which the metal teems through a nozzle in the bottom of the ladle, this being accomplished in a manner to be described by introducing gas in regulated quantities into the nozzle orifice to restrict the gravitational liow of metal therethrough.

The teeming operation of ladles used in casting hot metal is controlled by stopper rods that are moved vertically between open and closed positions with respect to the ladle teeming nozzles. After a stopper rod is raised to open position, there is nothing to restrict the discharge of metal through the teeming nozzle, which continues until the ladle is empty or the stopper rod is lowered to its closed position. The unrestricted discharge of molten metal in this manner is undesirable especially in continuous casting operations under conditions that may result in the molten metal being fed to the casting apparatus at too rapid a rate.

An object of this invention, accordingly, is to regulate the rate at which molten metal is discharged from a ladle teeming nozzle. A further and related object is to feed gas in regulated quantities into the orifice of a ladle nozzle while metal is teeming therethrough to retard the rate at which the metal is discharged from the ladle.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE l is a fragmentary sectional view of a teeming ladle equipped with a nozzle and stopper rod that are constructed for the practice of the method of this invention, the stopper rod being shown in its lowermost or closed position;

FIGURE 2 is an enlarged View of a portion of the ladle structure shown in FIGURE l, but showing the stopper rod in its raised or open position; and

FIGURE 3 is a graph illustrating the manner in which the method of this invention operates to regulate the flow of liquid through a discharge orifice.

The ladle structure shown in FIGURE l of the drawings is similar to that shown in U.S. Patent No. 2,005,311 issued June 18, 1935, to H. R. Belding. As disclosed in this patent, a ladle A for holding molten iron or steel comprises a shell 1 of boiler plate and a lining 2 of fire brick, or other refractory material. A vertically extending teeming orifice 3 is provided in the bottom of ladle A by a nozzle 4 of fire clay or other suitable refractory material, which is normally closed by a stopper-head S of fire clay or graphite, the latter being suitably aflixed to a stopper rod assembly, generally indicated at B. The

stopper rod assembly B extends upwardly t-o the top of "ice head 5 mentioned above has an axially extending opening 10 that is defined in part by a metal sleeve 11 which forms part of a connection for securing the stopper-head to the tube 7. The opening 10 is an extension of the passage through the tube 7 and is axially alined with the nozzle orifice 3 so that gas delivered through a supply conduit 12 connected with the upper end of the tube 7 will be discharged through the nozzle 4 when the stopper rod B is in the closed position shown in FIGURE 1. The ladle structure thus far described is essentially similar to that shown in the above-mentioned Belding patent.

A throttle valve 13 is provided in the supply line 12 for regulating the supply of gas flowing through the stopper rod tube 7 to the nozzle orifice 3. The valve preferably is manually adjustable although it may be operated automatically from a remote location if desired. The Valve 13 further connects the tube 7 to a pressurized source of gas which, for the purposes of this invention, is preferably an inert gas, such as argon, although air, oxygen or other gas may be used. In the closed position of the stopper rod B shown in FIGURE l, which is the position it occupies when the ladle is being filled with metal and during its transfer to a teeming location, the valve 13 may be fully opened to deliver gas or air through the tube 7 and opening 10 in sufficient volume to effect cooling of the rod B according to the disclosure of the above-mentioned Belding patent.

After the ladle A has been filled and transferred to a teeming location, the valve 13, if it has been in fully-open position to effect cooling of the stopper rod, is closed to interrupt the fiow of gas before the assembly B is elevated to the open position shown in FIGURE 2 for the discharge of metal through the teeming orifice 3. With the assembly B in open position, regulation of the rate of discharge of metal through the orifice 3 in accordance with the principles of this invention, is effected by opening the valve 13 to deliver gas through the tube 7 of the stopper rod assembly B. The gas flowing through the tube 7 is discharged from the lower end of the assembly B at a point vertically above the upper end of the orifice 3. The gas leaving the lower end of the rod assembly B in the mannner is carried through the nozzle orifice 3 with the metal flowing therethrough, and operates to limit the quantity of metal that will teem through the nozzle 4 in a given period of time. Generally stated, the rate of discharge of metal through the nozzle 4 is reduced as the valve 13 is opened to deliver more gas through the stopper rod assembly B. While the maximum amount of gas that can be delivered to the rod B for reducing the discharge of metal through the nozzle 4 has not been determined, it is far less than is required for cooling the rod assembly B in accordance with the invention of the Belding patent.

The manner in which the rate of gas flow operates to vary the rate of liquid flowing through a nozzle is illustrated by the graph shown in FIGURE 3. The data for this graph was obtained by constructing a plexiglass model ladle with a bottom nozzle and a hollow stopper rod which was arranged vertically above the nozzle orifice substantially as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2. Water was maintained at a constant level in the ladle and air was passed downwardly through the stopper rod after it was elevated to open position. The rate of air flow through the stopper rod was gradually increased to determine its effect in liquid discharge and develop the information from which the curve of FIGURE 3 was plotted. As shown by FIGURE 3, the water flow or rate of discharge decreased as the air flow increased. In addition to reducing the rate of discharge, the addition of air to the liquid in this manner was found to reduce the splash that takes place when the stream of liquid moving downwardly from the nozzle stopped by a fiat surface.

While one embodiment of my invention has been shown and described it will be apparent that other adaptations and moditications may be made without departing from the scope of the following claims.

I claim:

1. A method of regulating the discharge of molten metal iiowing through a vertically extending orifice in a teeming nozzle in the bottom of a refractory-lined ladle which comprises forcing gas through said nozzle orifice to reduce the rate at which metal is discharged from said ladle.

2. A method as dened in claim 1 characterized by said gas being forced into said nozzle orifice in an axial direction from a point vertically above its upper end.

3. The method defined in claim 2 characterized further by said gas being fed to said nozzle orifice through an axial passage in the stopper rod for said ladle.

4. A method as defined in claim 3 characterized by varying the rate at which gas is delivered to said stopper rod passage to vary the rate at which metal is discharged from said nozzle orifice.

5. A method of regulating the discharge of molten metal from a refractory-lined ladle which comprises forcing gas through a teeming nozzle in the bottom of said ladle while metal is flowing therethrough to thereby re- 7. A method of regulating the discharge of liquid through an orifice in the bottom of a container which comprises moving gas through said orifice while liquid is being discharged therethrough to thereby reduce the rate at which the liquid is discharged from said container.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 161,644 4/75 Swank 22-85 2,259,215 10/ 41 Scheurer 239-416 2,889,856 6/59 Magnuson 137-815 2,964,302 12/ 60 Tombu 239-407 3,083,422 4/ 63 Finkl 22-85 WILLIAM I. STEPHENSON, Primary Examiner.

MARCUS U. LYONS, Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF REGULATING THE DISCHARGE OF MOLTEN METAL FLOWING THROUGH A VERTICALLY EXTENDING ORIFICE IN A TEEMING NOZZLE IN THE BOTTOM OF A REFRACTORY-LINED LADLE WHICH COMPRISES FORCING GAS THROUGH SAID NOZZLE ORIFICE TO
US35023164 1964-03-09 1964-03-09 Method of regulating the discharge of molten metal from ladles Expired - Lifetime US3200457A (en)

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Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3299480A (en) * 1963-09-13 1967-01-24 Amsted Ind Inc Bottom feed pouring head
US3310851A (en) * 1964-08-26 1967-03-28 Ellwood C Stiteler Ladle valve arrangement with stationary plug and slidable nozzle
US3365889A (en) * 1964-05-27 1968-01-30 United Aircraft Corp Propellant aeration system
US3366370A (en) * 1965-12-06 1968-01-30 Honeywell Inc Control apparatus
US3386633A (en) * 1966-04-20 1968-06-04 Nadrich John Closure for a bottom pour metallurgical ladle
US3502249A (en) * 1967-12-22 1970-03-24 United States Steel Corp Expansion-chamber extension for gas-controlled teeming nozzle
US3556359A (en) * 1968-01-05 1971-01-19 Magnesita Sa Plug for molten metal containers
US3632026A (en) * 1969-01-27 1972-01-04 Vesuvius Crucible Co Stopper structure and combination of bottom pour receptacle and stopper
US3777785A (en) * 1963-12-12 1973-12-11 Coulter Chem Inc Fluid switch
JPS4934221U (en) * 1972-06-30 1974-03-26
JPS5065423A (en) * 1973-10-13 1975-06-03
US3888294A (en) * 1973-06-14 1975-06-10 Voest Ag Method of continuously casting steel
JPS5137032A (en) * 1974-09-24 1976-03-29 Nippon Steel Corp Renzokuchuzoniokeru teionchuzohoho
US3954134A (en) * 1971-03-28 1976-05-04 Rheinstahl Huettenwerke Ag Apparatus for treating metal melts with a purging gas during continuous casting
US3964535A (en) * 1975-02-20 1976-06-22 Allied Chemical Corporation Stopper rod tapping assembly and filament forming process
JPS52135835A (en) * 1976-05-10 1977-11-14 Zeppellini Dino M M Casting ladle for mould
JPS5426493B1 (en) * 1971-05-28 1979-09-04
US4394006A (en) * 1982-04-07 1983-07-19 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Molten metal flow control
US4508247A (en) * 1982-01-18 1985-04-02 Mills Stephen D Stopper support mechanism for casting containers
WO1985005056A1 (en) * 1984-05-05 1985-11-21 Thor Ceramics Limited Stopper for use in molten metal handling
US4691901A (en) * 1985-12-21 1987-09-08 Didier-Werke Ag Gas rinsing stopper preventing mixing of air with rinsing gas
US4736930A (en) * 1984-10-16 1988-04-12 Kortec Ag Closure apparatus for a tap hole
WO1988006068A1 (en) * 1987-02-20 1988-08-25 Daussan Et Compagnie Installation for pouring liquid metal, and process for its implementation
US4941646A (en) * 1988-11-23 1990-07-17 Bethlehem Steel Corporation Air cooled gas injection lance
US5116027A (en) * 1989-05-03 1992-05-26 British Steel Plc Apparatus for controlling teeming streams
EP0551581A1 (en) * 1991-12-23 1993-07-21 Thyssen Stahl Aktiengesellschaft Slopper for metallurgical vessels
US6528010B2 (en) * 2000-02-08 2003-03-04 Foseco International Limited Molten metal handling vessel
US20040164465A1 (en) * 2001-06-12 2004-08-26 Francois-Noel Richard Stopper for reliable gas injection
US20070210494A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2007-09-13 Vesuvius Creucible Company Stopper Rod for Delivering Gas Into a Molten Metal

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US161644A (en) * 1875-04-06 Improvement in stoppers for ladles
US2259215A (en) * 1940-02-26 1941-10-14 J W Mortell Company Spray gun
US2889856A (en) * 1957-04-12 1959-06-09 Genevieve I Magnuson Apparatus for methods of filling measured amounts of viscous liquids or finely divided solids
US2964302A (en) * 1956-06-14 1960-12-13 Tombu Georges Alexander Victor Apparatus for plastering walls by means of compressed air
US3083422A (en) * 1959-04-13 1963-04-02 Finkl & Sons Co Porous stopper rod

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US161644A (en) * 1875-04-06 Improvement in stoppers for ladles
US2259215A (en) * 1940-02-26 1941-10-14 J W Mortell Company Spray gun
US2964302A (en) * 1956-06-14 1960-12-13 Tombu Georges Alexander Victor Apparatus for plastering walls by means of compressed air
US2889856A (en) * 1957-04-12 1959-06-09 Genevieve I Magnuson Apparatus for methods of filling measured amounts of viscous liquids or finely divided solids
US3083422A (en) * 1959-04-13 1963-04-02 Finkl & Sons Co Porous stopper rod

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3299480A (en) * 1963-09-13 1967-01-24 Amsted Ind Inc Bottom feed pouring head
US3777785A (en) * 1963-12-12 1973-12-11 Coulter Chem Inc Fluid switch
US3365889A (en) * 1964-05-27 1968-01-30 United Aircraft Corp Propellant aeration system
US3310851A (en) * 1964-08-26 1967-03-28 Ellwood C Stiteler Ladle valve arrangement with stationary plug and slidable nozzle
US3366370A (en) * 1965-12-06 1968-01-30 Honeywell Inc Control apparatus
US3386633A (en) * 1966-04-20 1968-06-04 Nadrich John Closure for a bottom pour metallurgical ladle
US3502249A (en) * 1967-12-22 1970-03-24 United States Steel Corp Expansion-chamber extension for gas-controlled teeming nozzle
US3556359A (en) * 1968-01-05 1971-01-19 Magnesita Sa Plug for molten metal containers
US3632026A (en) * 1969-01-27 1972-01-04 Vesuvius Crucible Co Stopper structure and combination of bottom pour receptacle and stopper
US3954134A (en) * 1971-03-28 1976-05-04 Rheinstahl Huettenwerke Ag Apparatus for treating metal melts with a purging gas during continuous casting
JPS5426493B1 (en) * 1971-05-28 1979-09-04
JPS4934221U (en) * 1972-06-30 1974-03-26
US3888294A (en) * 1973-06-14 1975-06-10 Voest Ag Method of continuously casting steel
JPS5065423A (en) * 1973-10-13 1975-06-03
JPS5137032A (en) * 1974-09-24 1976-03-29 Nippon Steel Corp Renzokuchuzoniokeru teionchuzohoho
JPS54205B2 (en) * 1974-09-24 1979-01-08
US3964535A (en) * 1975-02-20 1976-06-22 Allied Chemical Corporation Stopper rod tapping assembly and filament forming process
JPS52135835A (en) * 1976-05-10 1977-11-14 Zeppellini Dino M M Casting ladle for mould
JPS5625902B2 (en) * 1976-05-10 1981-06-15
US4508247A (en) * 1982-01-18 1985-04-02 Mills Stephen D Stopper support mechanism for casting containers
US4394006A (en) * 1982-04-07 1983-07-19 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Molten metal flow control
WO1985005056A1 (en) * 1984-05-05 1985-11-21 Thor Ceramics Limited Stopper for use in molten metal handling
US4706944A (en) * 1984-05-05 1987-11-17 Thor Ceramics Limited Stopper for use in molten metal handling
US4736930A (en) * 1984-10-16 1988-04-12 Kortec Ag Closure apparatus for a tap hole
US4691901A (en) * 1985-12-21 1987-09-08 Didier-Werke Ag Gas rinsing stopper preventing mixing of air with rinsing gas
WO1988006068A1 (en) * 1987-02-20 1988-08-25 Daussan Et Compagnie Installation for pouring liquid metal, and process for its implementation
FR2611151A1 (en) * 1987-02-20 1988-08-26 Daussan & Co Device for preheating and / or filling and unchouching a casting orifice and method for implementing said method
US4909421A (en) * 1987-02-20 1990-03-20 Daussan Et Compagnie Installation for teeming liquid metal and process for its use
US4941646A (en) * 1988-11-23 1990-07-17 Bethlehem Steel Corporation Air cooled gas injection lance
US5116027A (en) * 1989-05-03 1992-05-26 British Steel Plc Apparatus for controlling teeming streams
EP0551581A1 (en) * 1991-12-23 1993-07-21 Thyssen Stahl Aktiengesellschaft Slopper for metallurgical vessels
US5361825A (en) * 1991-12-23 1994-11-08 Hermann Lax Plug for metallurgical vessels
US6528010B2 (en) * 2000-02-08 2003-03-04 Foseco International Limited Molten metal handling vessel
US20040164465A1 (en) * 2001-06-12 2004-08-26 Francois-Noel Richard Stopper for reliable gas injection
US7198181B2 (en) * 2001-06-12 2007-04-03 Vesuvius Crucible Company Stopper for reliable gas injection
US20070210494A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2007-09-13 Vesuvius Creucible Company Stopper Rod for Delivering Gas Into a Molten Metal

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