US3184893A - Contact foundation method - Google Patents

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US3184893A
US3184893A US21282A US2128260A US3184893A US 3184893 A US3184893 A US 3184893A US 21282 A US21282 A US 21282A US 2128260 A US2128260 A US 2128260A US 3184893 A US3184893 A US 3184893A
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floor
columns
slab
area
floor slab
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Weldon S Booth
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CONTACT FOUNDATION Inc
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CONTACT FOUNDATION Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D27/00Foundations as substructures
    • E02D27/10Deep foundations
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/045Underground structures, e.g. tunnels or galleries, built in the open air or by methods involving disturbance of the ground surface all along the location line; Methods of making them
    • E02D29/05Underground structures, e.g. tunnels or galleries, built in the open air or by methods involving disturbance of the ground surface all along the location line; Methods of making them at least part of the cross-section being constructed in an open excavation or from the ground surface, e.g. assembled in a trench
    • E02D29/055Underground structures, e.g. tunnels or galleries, built in the open air or by methods involving disturbance of the ground surface all along the location line; Methods of making them at least part of the cross-section being constructed in an open excavation or from the ground surface, e.g. assembled in a trench further excavation of the cross-section proceeding underneath an already installed part of the structure, e.g. the roof of a tunnel

Description

W. S. BOOTH CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD May 25, 1965 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 11. 1960 INVENTOR WELDON 5. BOOTH BY 6m), 24.
ATTORN Y5 May 25, 1965 W S. OTH
conucw FOUNDATION METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 11 1960 "E' INVENTOR "1' WELDON SBOOTH BY v M 4 ZZM-4$ZZ/&. f I Maj/n51 ATTORNEY May 25, 1965 Filed April 11, 1960 w. s. BOOTH 3,1 84,893
CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 TI S INVENTOR WE LDON 5. BOOTH BY PM, QMM,
a M ATTORNEY May 25, 1965 Filed April 11. 1960 W. S. BOOTH CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 May 25, 1965 w. s. BOOTH 3,184,893
CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD Filed April 11, 1960 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 4 kiwi INVENTOR WELDON 5. BOOTH BY f IATTORNES? L May 25 19 5 w. s. BOOTH 3,184,893
CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD Filed April 11. 1960 s Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR WE LDON S. BOOTH May 25, 1965 w. s. BOOTH CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed April 11, 1960 INVENTOR WELDON 5 BOOTH BY M 7v z' ATTORNEY May 25, 1965 w. s. BOOTH 3,184,893
CONTACT FOUNDATION METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed April 11, 1960 L INVENTOR WELDON 5. B OOTH structure, etc.
United States Patent 3,184,893 CGNTACT FOUNDATHGN METHOD Weldon S. Booth, Hastings on Hudson, N.Y., assignor to Contact Foundation, Inc, New York, NY, a corporation of New York Filed Apr. 11, 1969, Ser. No. 21,282 Claims. (6i. 59-532.)
This invention relates generally to the construction of buildings and other structures which include sub-basements. More particularly it involves a method of construction which utilizes the compressive strength of grade and successive basement floors to absorb lateral forces incurred by excavating beneath each floor level, and permits the excavating and erection of the superstructure to proceed simultaneously.
In constructing large buildings, the method normally followed is to complete the excavation of the site before installing the foundation footings, piers, sub-basement When this has been done, the construction of the steel skeleton or framework of the building proceeds commencing with the lowest floor and progressing upwards to the superstructure. The difiiculty with this conventional method is that considerable time is lost in the preliminary excavating and foundation steps before the building itself may be constructed above ground. It will be appreciated that where money is being invested in the construction of a new building, the loss of revenue from the finished building, if delayed for weeks or months, may be of considerable financial importance. Hence, it is axiomatic that buildings once begun should be brought rapidly to completion to permit early return from the money invested in them.
In recognition of this problem, it has previously been proposed to sink a system of single bearing piles about the periphery of an area to be excavated and also within the building site. Next, and prior to excavating, horizontal structural steel flooring beams were tied into the bearing .pile system. After the horizontal beams were in place, heavy wooden decking was laid on the steel beams; and openings in the decking were left through which to excavate the dirt below. Where it was necessary to construct retaining walls as excavation proceeded, the lateral pressure on these Walls was opposed by bracing the walls against the steel structure which had to be designed to carry this lateral stress. Later, the bearing piles were supplemented by additional piles driven beside them, so as to carry a heavy superstructure.
The present method constitutes an improvement over the previous method. According to this invention, piles or vertically driven soldier beams are installed around the perimeter of the area to be excavated. These soldier beams are used later, as excavation progresses, to provide vertical, and some lateral, support for horizontal or vertical sheeting members attached to form retaining walls as needed. Bearing columns are installed prior to any excavation within the building site. The ground within the building site is then prepared to be used as a horizontal form to receive poured concrete in constructing the first floor of a finished floor system. Reinforcing steel will be properly located in the form, and the earth itself covered with building paper or other material to prevent the concrete from combining with the earth. The floor is then poured in its entirety, except that selected open areas are left therein to permit excavation of the earth to proceed after the fioor has hardened sufficiently. At this time, the building of the superstructure will usually begin, although it may be started as soon as the bearing columns are in place.
Next, the earth is removed from beneath the finished concrete floor through the openings provided, or from areas adjacent the perimeter of the floor. As the excava- 3,184,893 Patented May 25, 1965 tion proceeds, the building of retaining walls against the unexcavated side bank will normally begin. These retaining walls are built by attaching sheeting members in suitable manner to the soldier beams driven about the perimeter of the building lines. Although the soldier beams are able to withstand reasonable lateral loads resulting from the pressure of the earth retained by the wall of sheeting, it is frequently necessary to brace the wall from within the foundation to provide adequate support. In the new method, this is accomplished by bracing the wall of sheeting and its soldier beams against the finished concrete floor. As excavation continues, the retaining walls are built downwardly until the next lower subfloor level is reached. The process is then repeated until the lowermost floor is laid.
One advantage of the present invention over the prior method, wherein the structural steel flooring system was utilized to absorb lateral loads imposed by the unexcavated adjacent earth, is that a finished floor may be poured quickly and inexpensively by utilizing the ground as a form. One of the most expensive items in modern building construction is the cost of labor and materials in constructing and removing wooden forms for concrete floors, as well as the time lost in doing so. Moreover, the hardened poured concrete floor of this invention provides a more integrated cross-braced structure and one better able to receive and distribute lateral forces than is a network of widely spaced structural steel members. The present invention also provides the advantage that the permanent columns, piers and foundations which are to support the vertical loads in the finished structure may e installed in the first place, so as to support all of the floors as they are poured or laid, as well as the superstructure which can be star-ted immediately following completion of the ground floor bearing columns, and even prior to pouring the ground floor slab if maximum time is to be saved. This eliminates the duplication of steps and waste of time which were inherent in the prior method, and assures that the weight of the superstructure will be borne by members designed and installed to carry this maximum load permanently.
Several applications of the basic method of the invention are disclosed herein to demonstrate that this method is readily adaptable to the construction of almost any buildings of the general type herein contemplated. In order to understand these and other aspects of the invention, attention is directed to the following description and t0 the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view representing, according to the present invention, a building site with certain columns soldier and beams in place, but prior to excavating.
FIGS. 2 and 3 are detail views of two types of supporting columns which may be sunk within the unexcavated building site;
FIG. 3a illustrates means for temporarily supporting a floor slab;
FIG. 4 shows in detail a portion of the ground floor slab, the earth subgrade to support it, and one type of structural connection between the slab and an interior column;
FiG. 5 is a perspective View, partially in cross-section, showing steps in the construction of a building following the pouring of the ground floor slab;
FIG. 6 shows in elevation the successive ground and sub-basement floor slabs of the same structure with partial excavation underneath the first sub-basement floor slab;
FIGS. 7 and 8 show clip means for connecting a driven pile or soldier beam, to sheeting members forming an earth retaining wall;
FIG. 9 shows an earth retaining wall braced against successive floor slabs from which it is spaced by inter-,
mediate props;
FIG. illustrates the construction of an earth retaining wall comprising interlocking vertical steel plates or piling, and the lateral bracing thereof against successive floor slabs;
FIG. 11 is a detail view of an earth retaining wall which is buttressed against two fioor'slabs, also showing the partial completion of an exterior column or pilaster;
FIG. 12 shows the use of horizontal floor slabs in bracing an exterior foundation wall where this wall is installed in a trench or pit to eliminate sheeting; and
FIG. 13 shows how an existing structure situated adjacent to the site of the new structure is employed to resist the lateral thrust of successive floor slabs initiated by the lateral force imposed by an earth retaining wall constructed opposite the existing structure.
Referring now to FIG. 1, an unexcavated building site It? is represented where the character of the soil is such that at least some earth retaining walls must be built. In other words, the area is not so rocky or dense as to make embankments which are contiguous to the excavation, selfsustaining. Hence, soldier beams comprising H-section piles 11 have been sunk about the perimeter of the site (indicated in phantom lines), immediately adjacent the area which will be excavated for the foundation walls, and the basement. The soldier beams 11 are thus driven (usually spaced about 6 feet between centers) in order to pro vide support for the earth retaining walls which are constructed to prevent cave-ins and injury to personnel as the excavation within the building site proceeds.
According to the invention, a suitable number of hearing columns 12 are installed within the building site by any of the commonly used methods such as open pit, caisson, pile, or by drilling into the earth or rock. The method used will be dependent upon existing subsurface conditions. Where cantilever construction of the ground floor and basement subiloors is contemplated, columns 12 will support the entire superstructure. In such instances, the exterior foundation walls will act only as earth retaining walls and not specifically to carry the vertical loads imposed by the building superstructure. In other instances, the foundation walls will be provided with spaced exterior bearing columns or pilasters 13, which together with the interior columns 12 are adapted to support the vertical loads imposed by the building.
Whatever the method of installing the columns, it has been found advantageous to install them as a part of the permanent building structure. Of course, temporary or supplementary interior columns such as piles may be used in well known manner to afford temporary floor support where permanent columns are to be installed in a given area at a later stage of construction. Such temporary piles (see pile 14, FIG. 3a) may advantageously be equipped with a ring girder 15 which is bolted thereto, and which will support a floor slab 28. The slab 28 will be blocked out, as at B, during the pouring, to space the slab from the pile. Afterthe pile has served its purpose and permanent columns have been installed, the pile may be pulled upwardly through any number of successive floors, and the floors patched as required. One advantage of installing permanent columns in the first instance is that the weight of the building superstructure and of the ground floor and subfioors will rest upon columns which have been specifically designed to carry the vertical loads therefrom. Another advantage is the saving of duplication of time and material when the columns are installed permanently.
In FIGS. 2 and 3, two commonly used methods of column installation are illustrated. The first of these, shown in FIG- 2, is a typical belied caisson with steel column 12 of the type represented in plan view in FIG. 1. A shaft 16 is first sunk at the predetermined location of a column within the interior of the building site. At the proper depth, the bottom of the shaft is excavated and belled out, as at 18, to provide a concrete footing for the column. The bottom portion of the shaft including the belled section 18 will then be filled with poured concrete, and permitted to harden with an attaching bolt 19 sunk securely therein. After the concrete has hardened, the structural column 12 is secured to the upper end of the bolt 19 which passes through base plate 21 welded to the end of the beam. If the base of the column is too deep toreach, column 12 may be set in the wet concrete, with bolts attached to the column before placing. Column 12 may be prefabricated to the extent that floor support brackets 29 are mounted atintervals along its length for reasons later explained.
A second method of constructing columns is represented in FIG. 3. Here, shaft 22 is first'sunk, the bottom portion thereof being belied if necessary, in order to provide the proper footing area. The bottom portion of the shaft is then filled withconcrete 23, partially embedding suitable steel dowels. A casing 24.is nextset upon the top of the footing from which the dowels extend, and the usual steel reinforcing rods (not shown) are installed within the interior of the casing, as required. The casing 24 is then filled with poured concrete which hardens to form a finished column. Appropriate 'keyways 25 or dowels (not shown), or both, are formed or placed in the column to provide supporting means towhich floor slabs can be attached, and thus should be spaced apart the distances between floors 26, 26:. After the concrete has hardened suificiently, the casing 24 may be removed.
after theinstallation of soldier beams and columns as illustrated in FIGS. 1-3, the earth within the building site (see FIGS. 4 and 5) is levelled to form a ground floor subgrade 27, which will comprise the form or mold for eceiving a poured floor slab 28, or a precast slab. This procedure may require some excavation, and necessarily implies the levelling of the earth to ahorizontal grade which will determine the under-surface of the ground iloor slab. Building paper 29 or the like, may be spread upon the levelled ground to keep the wet concrete from mingling with the earth. By employing the earth as a floor slab form, the greatest cost factor in prior methods of pouring floors is eliminated. The preparations for pouring the ground floor will also include providing reinforcing steel 39 (FIG. 4), as required. It will be understood that the preparation of the earth subgrade and the installation of reinforcing steel will be done in a manner to assure that the ground floor will be appropriately supported by the interior columns 12, of which only one is shown in FIG. 4. Accordingly, the upper end of the steel column 12 has been shown equipped with floor support brackets Ztl. The earth '27 immediately adjacent the column 12 is either excavated to make a conical form, or, a wooden form (not shown) may be placed upon the subgrade, around the column to provide a conical support 31 of reinforced concrete which attaches itself to the col umn 12 and brackets 2G when the floor 28 is poured. Additionally, provision should be made for leaving selected areas 32 (see FIG. 5) of thefloor slab 28 open or unpoured, to provide access to the earth therebeneath.
Instead of leaving excavation openings in the central part of a floor slab, openings can be left at the perimeter of a floor slab or in as many bays as needed, to permit excavation operations at the periphery (FIG. 11). This method is especially desirable inlocations where there is room. at the side of the site for excavating equipment, hoists, etc. In this event, the erection of superstructure in such bays is deferred until excavation is finished.
After the foregoing has been completed, the floor slab 28 (FIG. 5) may be poured. When the slab has hardened sufficiently to support workers and equipment, construction may begin upon the building superstructure 33. Simultaneously, the floor slab 28 may be used as a base from which excavating equipment may be operated to remove quantities of the earth subgrade 27 from beneath the ground floor slab 28, through openings 32 in the slab.
This strong concrete floor provides not only a smooth impervious surface upon which to move equipment, but also provides the safest possible protection for workmen beneath. Excavation will proceed until the first basement floor subgrade level 35 has been reached. At this time, the procedure outlined above respecting the preparation of the ground floor subgrade 27, will be substantially repeated to prepare for pouring a first basement floor slab 28 and a sub-basement floor slab 28" (FIG. 6). In the basement and sub-basement floors, suitable openings 32 and 32" should be provided for excavation beneath. In this way the method may be repeated until the lowest subbasement floor level has been reached, after which the floor openings may be closed unless they are to be used for stairways, elevators, or the like.
While the above-outlined excavating procedure is being followed, it will be necessary to construct earth retaining walls wherever the character of the earth requires. As mentioned initially, these retaining walls will be supported by the soldier beams 11 driven into the ground about the perimeter of the building site. One means for constructing and supporting an earth retaining wall 36 is illustrated in detail in FIGS. 7 and 8, in which a soldier beam comprising an H-section pile 11 has been driven to a depth greater than the depth of the proposed excava tion. After excavation has proceeded for a few feet (which may be beneath floor slab 28 as described in connection with FIG. 5), upper and lower sheeting members 37, 37' are placed against the exposed inner flange 38 of the beam 11, and the flange clip 39, bolt 40 and plate 41 are provided for fastening the sheeting members to the inner flange of the piles 11 so that the sheeting members, separated by bolt 40, as illustrated, form a retaining wall such as wall 42 in FIG. 5. It is also possible to construct a retaining wall by this method wherein the piles 11 are setback various distances and wherein some piles may be rotated from the line of sheeting, as more specifically decribed in co-pending application Serial No. 704,550 filed December 23,1957, and entitled Underground Sheeting Means and Methods, now abandoned, and the continuation thereof Serial No. 21,973, filed April 19, 1960, now Patent No. 3,068,656. In that case the sheeting planks need be separated by only the diameter of the bolt.
After two sheeting members or planks have been placed, excavation may proceed until space has been provided for two more. In this manner, a retaining wall may be constructed in stages from the top down, without danger of cavein. Many variations of earth retaining walls are possible to fit the exigencies of a given situation, and may be integrated with the present method of construction. One of these is to employ wall or foundation slabs which may be precast on a sub-basement floor, if desired, and tilted into place.
In constructing retaining walls within deep excavations, additional bracing is usually provided from the inside of the excavation laterally against the retaining wall. This additional bracing is required notwithsanding that the soldier beams have been driven into the ground below the final subgrade, thereby making them able to withstand substantial lateral loads. According to the present inven tion, as each section of retaining wall is constructed downwardly between successively poured concrete floors, the wall will be braced in an extremely effective manner by the floor slabs themselves. As shown in FIG. 5, this may be readily accomplished by initially driving the line of soldier beams, viz., H-section piles 11, along one edge of the building line to permit the concrete floor slab 23, after it is paved, to about the line of piles. Once the earth is excavated beneath the slab 28 a retaining wall 42 of sheeting members 43 will be constructed as heretofore described. Thus, any lateral loads tending to force the sheeting retaining wall 42 inwardly toward the excavated area (see arrows at left) will be opposed not only by soldier beams 11, but by the entire floor slab 28, the vertical columns 12, and soldier beams 11 which bear F against the earth on the right. This arrangement has the advantage of utilizing the extremely great compressive strength of concrete and the total integration of the floor slab and steel structure to provide a highly rigid means of bracing the earth retaining walls.
Where, as in FIG. 9, a sheeting retaining wall 46 is constructed at a distance from the edges of successive floor slabs 45, 45', essentially the same bracing arrangement can be provided by intermediate horizontal props 47, 47' braced between the edges of the floor slabs and the inner face of the retaining wall 46. Because the horizontal thrust is taken by the floor slab, these props need not be located at the vertical bearing columns 12, but, like prop 47, may be located anywhere along the edge of the slab.
In a further modification of the invention as shown in FIG. 10, where the surrounding unexcavated earth 48 is particularly wet, vertical steel plates, or sheets, 49 having interlocking joints, may be sunk into the ground to form a coffer dam as a step prior to pouring the slabs at successive fioor levels. These vertical steel walls are equivalent to the driven soldier beams and the sheeting above described. In this arrangement, the successive floor slabs 50, 56', are poured up to the plates 49 to provide lateral bracing therefor when the earth beneath the slabs has been removed. If these plates are separated from the concrete by building paper or wooden forms, they may readily be removed at a later time. The rectangular hole 65, made in the slab when it was poured, is in vertical alignment with corresponding holes in the other floor slabs to receive a bearing column which, with other similar columns, will be erected later. Such outside columns can, of course, be omitted if the inside columns and the floors are initially designed for cantilever construction.
Where exterior columns or pilasters have not been erected simultaneously with the interior columns, pilasters 51 as in FIG. 11, may be constructed immediately adjacent the inside of the sheeting retaining wall 52. The retaining wall may then be left in place, or if it has been spaced from the finished building line, as in FIG. 9, the sheeting may be removed after the foundation wall has been completed. Openings or pockets 56 are left in the slabs to receive these exterior columns. Opening 57 at the perimeter of the slab is large enough to permit excavation from outside the building site.
In FIG. 12, another arrangement provided by the present invention is illustrated. As shown, a completed foundation wall 53 has been erected in a trench, or in pits, prior to any interior excavation of the building site. Sub sequently, and after interior columns (not shown) have been erected, the building of successive floor slabs 54, 54' using the earth subgrade as a form or mold therefor, may proceed as previously described. As each floor is poured, it is permanently joined to the completed foundation wall 53, as at 55. In this arrangement, the foundation wall serves the function of an earth retaining wall and is laterally braced against each successive floor slab in a manner essentially similar to the bracing of a temporary retaining wall.
There are some situations during the course of constructing large buildings when it is not necessary to build retaining walls adjacent to all sides of the new building. This might occur where an existing foundation immediately adjoins the proposed new site, or where one or more areas of embankment are sufliciently self-sustaining not to require a retaining wall. However, if an earth retaining wall is built and supported by successive floor slabs along one side of a new building, the lateral thrust against these floor slabs must be opposed in some manner. In the case of an existing foundation, this can ordinarily be accomplished by providing braces between the floor slabs and the side of the existing foundation opposite the earth retaining wall. Thus, by means of adequately balanced cross bracing against the successive floor slabs, no
greases FIG. 13 where a concrete floor slab 61 is used to brace an earth retaining wall 66 which is parallel to one foundation wall 64- of an existing building. In this case, the retaining wall 6th is braced in succession by subfloor slabs 62 and 63 as retained wall 60 is constructed downwardly.
The particular advantages derived from the method of this invention in the construction of large buildings will be readily recognized. The larger the structure, the greater the savings in cost and time. Basically, the present method permits the construction of a building simultaneoulsy upwardly and downwardly from the ground level. In accomplishing this result, the unexcavated ground of the building site itself serves as a form for pouring first the concrete ground floor slab, and then subfioor slabs as the excavation proceeds. The ground floor slab and subsequent slabs may be permanently joined to columns which have first been erected to support the entire weight of the building. The erection of the structure above ground may I proceed either before or after the pouring of the ground floor slab. If superstructure erection is to be commenced prior to pouring the ground floor slab and to excavating, the second floor can be planked over and poured as soon as the columns are finished. Since, in a high building the superstructure requires most of the total construction 1 time, great savings can result by taking advantage of this feature of the invention.
When, due to soil conditions is becomes necessary to erect earth retaining walls as excavation below grade level proceeds, the successively poured floors themselves are utilized as part of a truly efiicient integrated lateral bracing system. The characteristic of poured concrete to resist compression is well known, and consequently, the finished concrete floor olfers a better means of carrying compressive lateral loads than, for example, a network of structural steel. The latter, although generally strong, is subject to local strain under the extreme lateral forces to which a bracing system must be subjected in deep excavations of the type contemplated.
It will be understood that the foregoing description is directed to typical embodiments of the present invention and is therefore merely representative of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims.
I claim:
1, The method of construction a multi-fioor buildng in which a portion of the structure is to be below grade in an area wherein the character of the soil to be excavated requires the erection of an earth retaining wall, which includes: installing a plurality of soldier beams vertically in the ground about the perimeter of the area to be excavated; installing vertical supporting columns within said area, said columns being provided with attachment means for structurally joining concrete floor slabs to the columns, surfacing the soil within the building line at ground floor level to a predetermined contour to comprise a generally horizontal form upon which a concrete floor slab or the like may be poured; pouring a first floor slab on said form while leaving open at least one selected area in said slab; said floor slab being poured so as to be structurally joined by said attachment means to certain of said columns; excavating the earth beneath said first floor slab through said open area to form a sub-floor area; attaching sheet-ing members to said soldier beams as excavation proceeds to form an earth retaining wall at the periphery of said area; laterally bracing said retaining Wall against said floor slab to resist through the floor slab system lateral forces from the retained earth; surfacing the soil at the bottom of the sub-floor area to a predetermined contour to comprise a generally horizontal sub-floor form upon which a sub-floor slab may be poured; and pouring a sub-fioor slab on said sub-floor form so that said sub-floor slab is structurally joined by said attachment means to certain of said columns.
2. The method of constructing a building which includes erecting each of two retaining walls. below grade according to claim 1, at opposite sides of the building structure, and bracing said walls laterally against each floor slab at opposite edges thereof in succession as. each floor slab is completed.
3. The method according to claim 1 which includes laterally bracing at least one of said floor slabs along the edge opposite to the edge which braces said earth retaining wall in a direction tending to balance the lateral forces upon said columns.
4. The method according to claim 1 which includes forming said floor slab so that the edge thereof is horizontally spaced from said earth-retaining wall, and inserting horizontal spacing props across said space so that their ends are respectively in contact with said wall and with the edge of said slab.
5. The method of constructing multi-floor buildings requiring deep excavation to provide a basement and at least one sub-basement,-whicl1 comprises: erecting a finished foundation wall in a trench or the like along at least one side of the. building site, and continuing said wall upwards at least to grade, installing within the site on footings below the lowest sub-basement floor, bearing columns adapted to support'vertical building loads; preparing the soil at ground floor level to comprise a substantially horizontal form within the building site upon which a floor may be poured; pouring on said form a floor slab of material strong in compression and so as to be structurally connected to said columns for vertical support thereby and also as to be structurally connected to said foundation wall to provide lateral bracing against said wall; leaving open at least one selected area in the slab; thereafter excavating through said open area earth beneathsaid floor; preparing the soil at said sub-basement floor level to comprise a substantially horizontal form within the building site upon which a sub-basement floor may be poured; pouring on said last named form a subbascment floor slab of material strong in compression and so as to be structurally connected to said columns for vertical support thereby and also as to be structurally connected to said foundation wall to:provide lateral bracing against said wall.
6. The method of constructing an cantilever type building inwhich a portion of the structure is to be below grade in an area wherein the character of the earth to be excavated requires the erection of an earth retaining Wall,
which includes: installing a plurality of vertical supporting columns within the periphery of the building area to be excavated, including sinkingsaid columns to. a depth below the deepest contemplated sub-basement floor; surfacing the earth within the building line substantially at ground floor level to comprise a generally horizontal form upon which a concrete floor slab or the like may be poured; pouring a ground floor slab on said form while leaving at least one selected area of the slab open at the perimeter thereof, said slab being by said pouring joined to said columns; driving a series of soldier beams bertically into the ground about the perimeter of the area to be excavated; excavating the earth beneath the floor at least in part through said open area; attaching sheeting members to said soldier beams downwardly, as excavation proceeds, to form an earth retaining wall; and laterally bracing said retaining wall against said fioor slab to oppose by the floor slab system lateral forces from the retained earth.
7. The method according to claim 6 in which said beams are of flanged type and saidmethod includes continuing the excavating substantially to said perimeter, stopping the excavating at the inner flanges of'said beams, and attaching said sheeting members to said inner flanges.
8. The method of constructing a building structure of which a portion of the structure is to be below grade in an area wherein the character of the earth to be excavated requires erection of a ground-material retaining wall,
which includes: installing a plurality of solider beams vertically in the ground about the perimeter of the area to be excavated, erecting vertical supporting columns within said area, said columns being provided with attachment means for structurally joining a floor slab to the columns,
surfacing the soil within the building line substantially at ground fioor level to comprise a generally horizontal form on which a concrete floor or the like may be poured; pouring a ground floor slab on said form while leaving at least one selected slab area open at the perimeter thereof, said slab being by said pouring joined to said attachment means and hence to said columns; excavating the earth beneath the floor at least in part from a location outside the perimeter of the building through said open area, attaching sheeting members to said soldier beams downwardly, as excavation proceeds, to form an earth retaining wall, and laterally bracing said retaining wall against said floor slab to oppose by the floor slab system lateral forces from the retained ground material.
9. The method of simultaneously constructing a building below and above grade which includes erecting vertical supporting columns spaced at intervals within the building area so that said columns are supported below the lowest sub-basement floor level and extend above ground floor level, surfacing the soil over at least a portion of said area at ground floor level to comprise a generally horizontal form upon which a concrete floor slab or the like may be poured, covering the surfaced soil with sheet material to prevent intermingling of soil and concrete, pouring a concrete ground floor slab on said sheet material while leaving open at least one selected area in the slab, said slab being poured so as to be structurally joined to certain of said columns, erecting superstructure 10 on said columns, and substantially simultaneously exca vating earth beneath the floor slab and removing the earth through said opening as erection of said superstructure proceeds.
10. The method of simultaneously constructing a multi-fioor building below and above grade which includes constructing vertical supporting columns spaced at intervals within the building area, supporting said columns below the lowest intended sub-basement floor level, extending said columns to floor levels above ground level, erecting building superstructure on said extended columns, planking over and constructing certain of the floors above the ground so as to be supported by said columns, and substantially concurrently therewith excavating the earth beneath ground level and constructing basement and sub-basement floors attached to said columns in the excavation.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 718,441 1/03 Ewen 50--100 X 2,007,498 7/35 Kida 50-532 X 2,069,280 2/37 Schuster 50-140 2,166,632 7/39 Hardesty ct al. 50-532 2,213,169 8/40 Ouchi 6150 2,871,544 2/59 Youtz 50140 FOREIGN PATENTS 511,373 8/39 Great Britain. 1,039,499 5/53 France.
JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM S. MUSHAKE, Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No: 3,184,893 May 25, 1965 Weldon 5. Booth It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent reqiiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as correctedbelow.
Column 7, line 48, for "construction" read constructing column 8, line 46, for "an" read a column 10, after line 26, insert the following reference:
2,978,840 4/16 Tatsch --50-100 Signed and sealed this 12th day of October 1965.
(SEAL) Attest:
ERNEST W. SWIDER Commissioner of Patents

Claims (1)

1. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A MULTI-FLOOR BUILDING IN WHICH A PORTION OF THE STRUCTURE IS TO BE BELOW GRADE IN AN AREA WHEREIN THE CHARACTER OF THE SOIL TO BE EXCAVATED REQUIRES THE ERECTION OF AN EARTH RETAINING WALL, WHICH INCLUDES: INSTALLING A PLURALITY OF SOLDIER BEAMS VERTICALLY IN THE GROUND ABOUT THE PERIMETER OF THE AREA TO BE EXCAVATED; INSTALLING VERTICAL SUPPORTING COLUMNS WITHIN SAID AREA, SAID COLUMNS BEING PROVIDED WITH ATTACHMENT MEANS FOR STRUCTURALLY JOINING CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS TO THE COLUMNS, SURFACING THE SOIL WITHIN THE BUILDING LINE AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL TO A PREDETERMINED CONTOUR TO COMPRISE A GENERALLY HORIZONTAL FORM UPON WHICH A CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB OR THE LIKE MAY BE POURED; POURING A FIRST FLOOR SLAB ON SAID FORM WHILE LEAVING OPEN AT LEAST ONE SELECTED AREA IN SAID SLAB; SAID FLOOR SLAB BEING POURED SO AS TO BE STRUCTURALLY JOINED BY SAID ATTACHMENT MEANS TO CERTAIN OF SAID COLUMNS; EXCAVATING THE EARTH BENEATH SAID FIRST FLOOR SLAB THROUGH SAID OPEN AREA TO FORM A SUB-FLOOR AREA; ATTACHING SHEETING MEMBERS TO SAID SOLDIER BEAMS AS EXCAVATION PROCEEDS TO FORM AN EARTH RETAINING WALL AT THE PERIPHERY OF SAID AREA; LATERALLY BRACING SAID RETAINING WALL AGAINST SAID FLOOR SLAB TO RESIST THROUGH THE FLOOR SLAB SYSTEM LATERAL FORCES FROM THE RETAINED EARTH; SURFACING THE SOIL AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SUB-FLOOR AREA TO A PREDETERMINED CONTOUR TO COMPRISE A GENERALLY HORIZONTAL SUB-FLOOR FORM UPON WHICH A SUB-FLOOR SLAB MAY BE POURED; AND POURING A SUB-FLOOR SLAB ON SAID SUB-FLOOR FORM SO THAT SAID SUB-FLOOR SLAB IS STRUCTURALLY JOINED BY SAID ATTACHMENT MEANS TO CERTAIN OF SAID COLUMNS.
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US3457690A (en) * 1967-01-26 1969-07-29 Pierre Le Clercq Method for constructing a building simultaneously below and above ground level
US3543459A (en) * 1968-09-05 1970-12-01 George C Mills Method and means for stabilizing concrete slab structures
DE1634300B1 (en) * 1967-01-27 1971-03-11 Pierre Le Clercq Process for the production of a multi-storey building with a basement
US3843988A (en) * 1971-07-19 1974-10-29 Hess H Method for excavating an underpass beneath an existing roadway
US4015432A (en) * 1974-12-26 1977-04-05 Ball Henry F Stabilizing subsoil moisture under light structures
US4023325A (en) * 1975-11-11 1977-05-17 Paverman Grisha H Load bearing reinforced ground slab
US4031687A (en) * 1976-08-02 1977-06-28 Raymond International Inc. Formation of elevated structures
US4035973A (en) * 1974-09-20 1977-07-19 Sutelan Franklin S Bisectional architectural structure
US4221090A (en) * 1978-10-16 1980-09-09 Pahl Robert A Stilt construction for dwellings and the like
US4355927A (en) * 1980-07-28 1982-10-26 Karl Stephan Piling structure and methods
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US5067289A (en) * 1990-06-28 1991-11-26 Ouderkirk Dale L Foundation system for manufactured housing
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EP0590760A1 (en) * 1992-10-02 1994-04-06 998492 ONTARIO Inc. Undercut excavation method
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US6220789B1 (en) * 1998-12-29 2001-04-24 Richard W. White Integrated excavation shoring building foundation method
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US6269602B1 (en) * 1997-02-12 2001-08-07 N.V. Bekaert S.A. Combination reinforcement for floor on piles
US20020174608A1 (en) * 1999-09-07 2002-11-28 Rapisarda Joseph R. Clean room facility and construction method
US20050229516A1 (en) * 2004-04-15 2005-10-20 Angelo Riccio Precast wall section and method of making walls from same
US20070264087A1 (en) * 2006-04-25 2007-11-15 Arcelor Commercial Rps S.A R.1. Method of construction using sheet piling sections
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US20080276555A1 (en) * 2007-05-07 2008-11-13 Larson Gerald T Foundation for modular structures
US20090191003A1 (en) * 2008-01-28 2009-07-30 Kruse Darin R Apparatus and methods for underground structures and construction thereof
US20100132292A1 (en) * 2005-10-25 2010-06-03 Jon Michael Gullette Structural Support System and Method
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US9085872B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2015-07-21 Darin R. Kruse Lubricated soil mixing system and methods
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US10138616B2 (en) * 2016-08-12 2018-11-27 Wuhan Zhihe Geotechnical Engineering Co., Ltd. Inverse construction method for deep, large and long pit assembling structure of suspension-type envelope enclosure
US10260250B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2019-04-16 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Diaphragm to lateral support coupling in a structure
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US3457690A (en) * 1967-01-26 1969-07-29 Pierre Le Clercq Method for constructing a building simultaneously below and above ground level
DE1634300B1 (en) * 1967-01-27 1971-03-11 Pierre Le Clercq Process for the production of a multi-storey building with a basement
US3412562A (en) * 1967-11-14 1968-11-26 Ben C Gerwick Inc Structural wall and method
US3543459A (en) * 1968-09-05 1970-12-01 George C Mills Method and means for stabilizing concrete slab structures
US3843988A (en) * 1971-07-19 1974-10-29 Hess H Method for excavating an underpass beneath an existing roadway
US4035973A (en) * 1974-09-20 1977-07-19 Sutelan Franklin S Bisectional architectural structure
US4015432A (en) * 1974-12-26 1977-04-05 Ball Henry F Stabilizing subsoil moisture under light structures
US4023325A (en) * 1975-11-11 1977-05-17 Paverman Grisha H Load bearing reinforced ground slab
US4031687A (en) * 1976-08-02 1977-06-28 Raymond International Inc. Formation of elevated structures
US4221090A (en) * 1978-10-16 1980-09-09 Pahl Robert A Stilt construction for dwellings and the like
US4355927A (en) * 1980-07-28 1982-10-26 Karl Stephan Piling structure and methods
FR2586047A2 (en) * 1984-08-29 1987-02-13 Labrue Jean Marie Raft foundation supported on small piles and devices for using it
TR25672A (en) * 1989-10-05 1993-07-01 Hollandse Signaalapparaten Bv PALS TRANSFORMER
US5067289A (en) * 1990-06-28 1991-11-26 Ouderkirk Dale L Foundation system for manufactured housing
EP0590760A1 (en) * 1992-10-02 1994-04-06 998492 ONTARIO Inc. Undercut excavation method
US5522676A (en) * 1992-10-02 1996-06-04 998492 Ontario Inc. Undercut excavation method
US6269602B1 (en) * 1997-02-12 2001-08-07 N.V. Bekaert S.A. Combination reinforcement for floor on piles
AP893A (en) * 1997-04-16 2000-11-16 998492 Ontario Inc Undercut excavation with protection against seismic events or excessive ground movement.
US6256954B1 (en) 1998-06-11 2001-07-10 N.V. Bekaert S.A. Combination reinforcement for floor on piles
US6220789B1 (en) * 1998-12-29 2001-04-24 Richard W. White Integrated excavation shoring building foundation method
WO2002061211A1 (en) * 1998-12-29 2002-08-08 White Richard W Integrated excavation shoring building foundation method
US7083515B2 (en) * 1999-09-07 2006-08-01 Speedfam-Ipec Corporation Clean room facility and construction method
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