US3180395A - Liquid and gaseous fuel burner assembly producing a fan-shaped flame - Google Patents

Liquid and gaseous fuel burner assembly producing a fan-shaped flame Download PDF

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US3180395A
US3180395A US24462862A US3180395A US 3180395 A US3180395 A US 3180395A US 24462862 A US24462862 A US 24462862A US 3180395 A US3180395 A US 3180395A
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fuel
burner
member
shroud
refractory
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Robert D Reed
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John Zink Co LLC
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John Zink Co LLC
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/12Radiant burners
    • F23D14/125Radiant burners heating a wall surface to incandescence
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D17/00Burners for combustion conjointly or alternatively of gaseous or liquid or pulverulent fuel

Description

April 1965 R. D. REED 3,18 ,395

LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL BURNER ASSEMBLY PRODUCING A FAN-SHAPED FLAME Filed Dec. 14, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet l ROBERT D. REED BY 9.,0. L4.

ATTORNEY April 27, 1965 R D REED 3,180,395

LIQUID AND eAsEus'FufiL BURNER ASSEMBLY raonucms A FAN-SHAPED FLAME Filed Dec. 14, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ROBERT Q REED ATTORNEY United States Patent Cilice 3,18%,395 Patented Apr. 27, 19%5 3,183,395 LEQUID AND GASEGUS FUEL BURNER ASSEM- BLY PRODUCING A FAN-SHAPED FLAME Robert D. Reed, Tulsa, (Bria, assiguor to John Zinit Company, Tulsa, Qhla, a corporation of Delawme Filed Dec. 14, 1962, Ser. N 244,628 3 Claims. (Cl. 158-11) The present invention relates to a burner assembly for the combustion of gaseous fuel and liquid fuel and means in association with the burner heads for such fuels providing a relatively thin fan-shaped flame and structure promoting stable combustion of the gaseous fuel and stable burning of the liquid fuel.

An object of the invention is to provide means for guiding controlled limited quantities of air into the presence of the burning liquid fuel so as to promote stable burning of the liquid fuel and to provide for the supply of additional quantities of air into the presence of the burning liquid fuel at a zone remote of the initial combustion to insure complete combustion of the liquid fuel without chilling the burning liquid and to provide means for guiding such additional quantities of air to the presence of the burner heads for the gaseous fuel and the burning gaseous fuel.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide a shroud Within which a nozzle for the liquid fuel is arranged and into which limited quantities of air are admitted to provide for stable burning of the liquid fuel and to provide burner heads for discharging gaseous fuel adjacent a downstream end of the shroud including a ceramic member forming a portion of means guiding additional controlled quantities of air to the presence of the burning fuels beyond the downstream end of the shroud and means providing for stable ignition of the burner heads for the gaseous fuel.

Another object of the invention is to provide a burner assembly for developing a relatively thin fan-shaped flame of burning liquid fuel and to provide a burner assembly for developing a similar shaped flame of burning gaseous fuel.

Other objects and features of the invention will be appreciated and become aparent to those skilled in the art as the present disclosure proceeds and upon consideration of the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein an em bodiment of the invention is disclosed.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a sectional elevational view of a burner and refractory assembly taken on the line 1-1 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 2 is a sectional plan view taken on the line 2-4;

FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an elevational view of the downstream end of the assembly.

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a sectional view of the refractory member with burner elements omitted.

The invention pertains to a burner assembly for industrial purposes for producing a generally fiat fan-shaped flame from the combustion of liquid fuel and gaseous fuel and developing as much as four and one-half million British thermal units per hour. A wall of a furnace within which heat in such quantities is to be produced is in dicated at 10. An elongated rectangular shaped opening 1 is provided in the wall 10 for accommodating an elongated generally rectangular shaped refractory member 12. The member 12 may be formed of any suitable ceramic material and is adapted to fit within the rectangular shaped opening 11. The downstream end portions of the refractory member 12 may be flush with the inner surface of the wall It The upstream end portions of the refractory member 12 may also be flush with the exterior of the wall it).

The refractory member includes a top wall 26 and a bottom wall 17. End walls 13 and 19 join the top and bottom walls 16 and 17 and the refractory member 12 may be formed as a unitary ceramic body. The end walls 18 and 19 are relatively thick as will be appreciated upon a consideration of FIG. 2. An angular face 21 is formed on the downstream portion of the end wall 1%. The angular face 21 flares from the center line of the burner assembly or the axis of the liquid fuel burner. A simlar angular face 22 is provided upon the downstream portion of the end wall 19 which flares from the center line at the burner assembly. A rectangular shaped opening 24 is provided through the refractory member.

A housing as is provided at the exterior of the wall 15 and may be secured thereto in any suitable manner to span the opening 2d provided through the refractory member 12 and to provide means for supporting the burner heads thereon and to support air registers for controlling quantitles of air admitted to the presence of the burner head for liquid fuel and to the furnace chamber through the opening 2 in the refractory member. The front wall 27 of the houisng 2-6 is provided with an opening 23 which is encased by a stationary air register member 29 of a hernispherical shape having openings 31 therein. A hemispherical shaped sleeve 32 is mounted for rotation on the stationary member 29 and openings 33 may be brought into registration or partial registration with the openings 31. The stationary member 29 of the air control device is supported by the front wall 27 of the housing 26.

A nozzle 3% is arranged within the housing 2.) and is supplied with liquid fuel and an atomizing medium through a supply pipe 37. A guide tube 38 extends through the stationary air register member 2% and provides support for the pipe 37 and the nozzle 36. A shroud 51 is supported by the front wall 27 of the housing 25. The shroud 41 has a top wall 43 and a bottom wa l 44 which are in substantial parallel relationship. The shroud includes angular side walls 46 and 47 which diverge from each other in proceeding downstream of the burner assembly as best shown in FIG. 2. The shroud extends into the opening 2 in the refractory member 12. The inner faces of the side walls 46 and 47 are substantially parallel with respect to the angular faces 21 and 22 formed on the end Walls of the refractory member.

The air register assembly formed of the elements 29 and 32 provides for the control of the volume of air admitted to the presence of the burner nozzle 36. This air register and the openings 31 and 33 therein are such that only limited quantities of air may be admitted to the upstream end of the shroud 41 to permit initial buming of the liquid fuel before additional quantities of air are allowed to move into the presence of the burning liquid fuel. Such an arrangement develops sufiicient heat within the shroud 41 to provide for continued stable burning of the liquid fuel.

The top Wall 51 of the housing 26 is provided with openings 52 and the bottom wall 53 is provided with openings 54. A slidable door 56 mounted under the top wall 51 may be moved transversely of the assembly by mean of a handle 57. The door 56 is provided With apertures which may be brought into registration or partial registration with the openings 52. A similar slidab le door 61 is provided overlying the bottom wall 53; and

is manipulated by a handle 62 to control the admission of air through the bottom wall of the housing 26.

The shroud 41 is spaced from the top and bottom walls of the refractory member 12 and from the side walls 15; and 19 so that the generally rectangular shaped opennaceward. The topwall 16 and the bottom wall 17.

may be arcuate shaped as indicated at 66 (FIG. 6) to facilitate movement of the air through the opening 24.

The assembly includes two burner heads 67 and 68 for the gaseous fuel. The burner head 67 is mounted in a recess 71 (FIG. 3) provided in the top wall 16 of the refractory member. The burner head 68 is mounted in a similar recess 72 formed in the bottom wall 17 of the refractory member. A gaseous fuel mixture is supplied through a conduit 7-6 and conduits 77 and 78 which extend through openings in the wa1l'27 of. the housing 26 and into operative association with the burner heads 67 and 68.

The burner head 67 is provided with a plurality of main discharge ports 81 which may be arranged in a row as shown in FIG. 3. The burner head 68 is provided with a similar group of discharge ports 82. A smaller number of discharge ports 8.3 are provided in' the burner.

head 67 and similar discharge ports 84 are provided in the burner head 68. The discharge ports 83 have their axes disposed to discharge the fuel escaping therethrough against the under surface 86 of the top wall 16 of the refractory member 12 and an area of eddy currents of burning fuel i provided adjacent the exit ends of the ports 83 as shown in FIG. 4 to kindle and rekindle the gaseousfuel escaping through the main discharge ports '81. A similar condition is developed adjacent the exit ports 82 converge towards a horizontal plane formed by the center line of the burner assembly or a horizontal plane defined-by the axis of the nozzle 36 as shown in FIG. 1. The fuel streams from the main discharge ports 81 and 82 meet along such a plane as indicated in FIG. 1. The angular relationship of this impingement of the fuel streams is such that the resultant of the energy of the fuel streams is downstream of the assembly and the impingement also creates a thin flame which is of fanshape. The ports 83 and 84 are shielded from the air passing over the top and bottom walls 43 and 44 of the shroud to maintain kindling of the fuel discharged through the ports 81 and S2.

The nozzle 36 for the liquid fuel is provided with discharge port 8-6 arranged to project a relatively thin fan-shaped pattern and the ports in the nozzle 36 desirably flare as shown in FIG. 2. The liquid fuel discharged through the ports 86 provides a relatively thin fan-shaped flame. Controlled and limited quantities of air admitted through the opening 28 provide stable burningof the liquid fuel to be attained' before there is any chilling of the burning liquid fuel by additional air which enters through the rectangular opening 24 in the ceramic member 12 downstream of the shroud 41.

If there is simultaneou operation of the burners for both types of fuels fuel streams issuing through the discharge ports 81 and 82 meet each other alongthe plane of the burning liquid fuel and the resulting flamerepresenting a combination of the burning gaseous fuel and v the liquid fuel provides a relatively thin fan-shaped flame.

The gaseous fuel 4i r The quantity of air downstream of the shroud 41 may readily be controlled by'the positioning of the doors 56 and 61.

While the invention has been described with reference to a particular organization of elements it will be appreciated that changes may be made in the components modifications and others may be made Without departing along with alterations inthe overall assembly. Such from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in ,refractory member having top and bottom walls and end walls forming'an opening therethrough, said jopening being generally'rectangularly shaped in cross section, faces on the end walls of said'refr'actorymember flaring from each other in proceeding to one end of the refractory member and defining side faces of said opening, a shroud sup- "ported within said opening having top and bottom walls, walls on said shroud diverging from each other and substantially parallelto said faces, said shroud having an upstream end, a liquid fuel burner tip within saidshroud, means associated with the fuel burner tip for developing a thin fan-shaped flame within the shroud and with the flame projecting therefrom into said refractory member,

means for admitting controlled quantities of air into the upstream endof said shroud and into the presence of the fan-shaped flame therein, said top wall of the refractory member having a first recess therein, a first burner head for gaseous fuel mounted within said recess and spaced above the top Wall of said shroud, said bottom wall of the refractory member having a second recess therein, a second burner head for gaseous fuel mounted within said second recess and spaced below the bottom wall of said shroud, means for supplying a gaseous fuel mixture to said burner heads, means for admitting controlled quantities of air for movement through said opening externally of said shroud, said burner heads having discharge ports therein with projections oftheir axes converging towards an extension of a plane through said shroud which is substantially perpendicular to said faces, and the axes head has other port means which discharge some of the a gaseous fuel againstthe bottom wall of the refractory member.

V 3. A burner and refractory assembly according to claim 1 wherein the opening in the refractory member has a mouth and arcuate surfaces define the mouth of the opening.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,025,331 12/35 Bullum l58--ll 2,204,719 6/40 Zink 158- l1 2,847,063 8/58 Reed et a1 l58l1 2,851,093 9/58 Zink et a1. l58ll 3,101,769 '8/63 Zink et .al 158-11 JAMESVW. WESTHAVER, Primary Examiner. 7 MEYER PERLIN, Examiner,

Claims (1)

1. A BURNER AND REFRACTORY ASSEMBLY COMPRISING, A REFRACTORY MEMBER HAVING TOP AND BOTTOM WALLS AND END WALLS FORMING AN OPENING THERETHROUGH, SAID OPENING BEING GENERALLY RECTANGULARLY SHAPED IN CROSS SECTION, FACES ON THE END WALLS OF SAID REFRACTORY MEMBER FLARING FROM EACH OTHER IN PROCEEDING TO ONE END OF THE REFRACTORY MEMBER AND DEFINING SIDE FACES OF SAID OPENING, A SHROUD SUPPORTED WITHIN SAID OPENING HAVING TOP AND BOTTOM WALLS, WALLS ON SAID SHROUD DIVERGING FROM EACH OTHER AND SUBSTANTIALLY PARALLEL TO SAID FACES, SAID SHROUD HAVING AN UPSTREAM END, A LIQUID FUEL BURNER TIP WITHIN SAID SHROUD, MEANS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FUEL BURNER TIP FOR DEVELOPING A THIN FAN-SHAPED FLAME WITHIN THE SHROUD AND WITH THE FLAME PROJECTING THEREFROM INTO SAID REFRACTORY MEMBER, MEANS FOR ADMITTING CONTROLLED QUANTITIES OF AIR INTO THE UPSTREAM END OF SAID SHROUD AND INTO THE PRESENCE OF THE FAN-SHAPED FLAME THEREIN, SAID TOP WALL OF THE REFRACTORY MEMBER HAVING A FIRST RECESS THEREIN, A FIRST BURNER HEAD FOR GASEOUS FUEL MOUNTED WITHIN SAID RECESS AND SPACED ABOVE THE TOP WALL OF SAID SHROUD, SAID BOTTOM WALL OF THE REFRACTORY MEMBER HAVING A SECOND RECESS THEREIN, A SECOND BURNER HEAD FOR GASEOUS FUEL MOUNTED WITHIN SAID SECOND RECESS AND SPACED BELOW THE BOTTOM WALL OF SAID SHROUD, MEANS FOR SUPPLYING A GASEOUS FUEL MIXTURE TO SAID BURNER HEADS, MEANS FOR ADMITTING CONTROLLED QUANTITIES OF AIR FOR MOVEMENT THROGH SAID OPENING EXTERNALLY OF SAID SHROUD, SAID BURNER HEADS HAVING DISCHARGE PORTS THEREIN WITH PROJECTIONS OF THEIR AXES CONVERGING TOWARDS AN EXTENSION OF A PLANE THROGH SAID SHROUD WHICH IS SUBSTANTIALLY PERPENDICULAR TO SAID FACES, AND THE AXES OF THE DISCHARGE PORTS IN EACH BURNER HEAD DIVERGING FROM EACH OTHER IN PROCEEDING FROM THE DISCHARGE END OF THE ASSOCIATED BURNER HEAD.
US3180395A 1962-12-14 1962-12-14 Liquid and gaseous fuel burner assembly producing a fan-shaped flame Expired - Lifetime US3180395A (en)

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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3279705A (en) * 1964-03-13 1966-10-18 Cleaver Brooks Co Gas burner nozzle
US3285315A (en) * 1965-04-15 1966-11-15 Coen Company Oil burner with widely variable operating range
US3360201A (en) * 1965-10-13 1967-12-26 Gen Machine Company Inc Oil burner combustion head
US3963443A (en) * 1974-09-23 1976-06-15 Ford, Bacon & Davis Texas Incorporated Acid gas burner and sulfur recovery system
US4050879A (en) * 1974-11-18 1977-09-27 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Fuel combustion apparatus
US4095929A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-06-20 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Low BTU gas horizontal burner
US4197076A (en) * 1978-02-13 1980-04-08 Pacific Turbo Flame Ltd. Forced draft burner
US4443182A (en) * 1981-11-10 1984-04-17 Hauck Manufacturing Company Burner and method
US4597733A (en) * 1985-02-14 1986-07-01 Alvin Dean Gas heating system for dehydrators and the like
US4604048A (en) * 1985-05-06 1986-08-05 John Zink Company Methods and apparatus for burning fuel with low NOx formation
US4645449A (en) * 1985-05-06 1987-02-24 John Zink Company Methods and apparatus for burning fuel with low nox formation
US4717332A (en) * 1985-11-22 1988-01-05 Edens P Clifton Flame retention burner apparatus and method
US4925387A (en) * 1987-12-24 1990-05-15 Philippe Locanetto Process and apparatus intended to effect staged combustion of a mixture of fuel and comburent to reduce the production of nitrogen oxides
US5147199A (en) * 1986-12-12 1992-09-15 Edmond Perthuis Double fuel jet burner and method for its implementation
US5154598A (en) * 1988-10-20 1992-10-13 Airoil-Flaregas Limited Burner assemblies
US5180302A (en) * 1992-02-28 1993-01-19 John Zink Company, A Division Of Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Radiant gas burner and method
US5482457A (en) * 1992-10-16 1996-01-09 Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. Gas-operated premixing burner
US5685705A (en) * 1994-03-11 1997-11-11 Asea Brown Boveri Ag Method and appliance for flame stabilization in premixing burners
US5846067A (en) * 1994-07-18 1998-12-08 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Low-NOx burner
US5953168A (en) * 1995-02-08 1999-09-14 Valentino; Joseph A. Automatically adjustable passenger mirror assembly for a trailered vehicle having a mirror position feedback device
US5961312A (en) * 1996-02-14 1999-10-05 Nkk Corporation Combustion burner and combustion method thereof in furnace
US5975886A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-11-02 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Combustion process and apparatus therefore containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant streams
US5984665A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-11-16 Gas Research Institute Low emissions surface combustion pilot and flame holder
US5993193A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-11-30 Gas Research, Inc. Variable heat flux low emissions burner
US6007325A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-12-28 Gas Research Institute Ultra low emissions burner
US6302547B1 (en) 1995-02-08 2001-10-16 Joseph A. Valentino Automatically adjustable passenger mirror assembly for a trailered vehicle having a mirror position feedback and position correction device
WO2002004864A1 (en) * 2000-07-07 2002-01-17 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme À Directoire Et Conseil De Surveillance Pour L'etude Et Exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method and apparatus for mixing combustion gases
US6394792B1 (en) * 1999-03-11 2002-05-28 Zeeco, Inc. Low NoX burner apparatus
US9593848B2 (en) 2014-06-09 2017-03-14 Zeeco, Inc. Non-symmetrical low NOx burner apparatus and method
US9593847B1 (en) 2014-03-05 2017-03-14 Zeeco, Inc. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2025331A (en) * 1933-05-26 1935-12-24 Bullum Inc Fuel burner
US2204719A (en) * 1938-10-14 1940-06-18 John S Zink Combination gas and oil burner
US2847063A (en) * 1955-12-27 1958-08-12 Zink Co John Gas and liquid fuel burner assembly
US2851093A (en) * 1956-12-26 1958-09-09 Zink Co John Multiple fuel burner
US3101769A (en) * 1961-09-25 1963-08-27 Zink Co John Burner for gaseous and liquid fuels

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2025331A (en) * 1933-05-26 1935-12-24 Bullum Inc Fuel burner
US2204719A (en) * 1938-10-14 1940-06-18 John S Zink Combination gas and oil burner
US2847063A (en) * 1955-12-27 1958-08-12 Zink Co John Gas and liquid fuel burner assembly
US2851093A (en) * 1956-12-26 1958-09-09 Zink Co John Multiple fuel burner
US3101769A (en) * 1961-09-25 1963-08-27 Zink Co John Burner for gaseous and liquid fuels

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3279705A (en) * 1964-03-13 1966-10-18 Cleaver Brooks Co Gas burner nozzle
US3285315A (en) * 1965-04-15 1966-11-15 Coen Company Oil burner with widely variable operating range
US3360201A (en) * 1965-10-13 1967-12-26 Gen Machine Company Inc Oil burner combustion head
US3963443A (en) * 1974-09-23 1976-06-15 Ford, Bacon & Davis Texas Incorporated Acid gas burner and sulfur recovery system
US4050879A (en) * 1974-11-18 1977-09-27 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Fuel combustion apparatus
US4095929A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-06-20 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Low BTU gas horizontal burner
US4197076A (en) * 1978-02-13 1980-04-08 Pacific Turbo Flame Ltd. Forced draft burner
US4443182A (en) * 1981-11-10 1984-04-17 Hauck Manufacturing Company Burner and method
US4597733A (en) * 1985-02-14 1986-07-01 Alvin Dean Gas heating system for dehydrators and the like
US4604048A (en) * 1985-05-06 1986-08-05 John Zink Company Methods and apparatus for burning fuel with low NOx formation
US4645449A (en) * 1985-05-06 1987-02-24 John Zink Company Methods and apparatus for burning fuel with low nox formation
US4717332A (en) * 1985-11-22 1988-01-05 Edens P Clifton Flame retention burner apparatus and method
US5147199A (en) * 1986-12-12 1992-09-15 Edmond Perthuis Double fuel jet burner and method for its implementation
US4925387A (en) * 1987-12-24 1990-05-15 Philippe Locanetto Process and apparatus intended to effect staged combustion of a mixture of fuel and comburent to reduce the production of nitrogen oxides
US5154598A (en) * 1988-10-20 1992-10-13 Airoil-Flaregas Limited Burner assemblies
US5180302A (en) * 1992-02-28 1993-01-19 John Zink Company, A Division Of Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Radiant gas burner and method
US5482457A (en) * 1992-10-16 1996-01-09 Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. Gas-operated premixing burner
US5685705A (en) * 1994-03-11 1997-11-11 Asea Brown Boveri Ag Method and appliance for flame stabilization in premixing burners
US5846067A (en) * 1994-07-18 1998-12-08 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Low-NOx burner
US6302547B1 (en) 1995-02-08 2001-10-16 Joseph A. Valentino Automatically adjustable passenger mirror assembly for a trailered vehicle having a mirror position feedback and position correction device
US5953168A (en) * 1995-02-08 1999-09-14 Valentino; Joseph A. Automatically adjustable passenger mirror assembly for a trailered vehicle having a mirror position feedback device
US5961312A (en) * 1996-02-14 1999-10-05 Nkk Corporation Combustion burner and combustion method thereof in furnace
US5975886A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-11-02 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Combustion process and apparatus therefore containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant streams
US6331107B1 (en) * 1996-11-25 2001-12-18 American Air Liquide, Inc. Combustion process and apparatus therefore containing separate injection of fuel and oxidant streams
US5993193A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-11-30 Gas Research, Inc. Variable heat flux low emissions burner
US6007325A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-12-28 Gas Research Institute Ultra low emissions burner
US5984665A (en) * 1998-02-09 1999-11-16 Gas Research Institute Low emissions surface combustion pilot and flame holder
US6394792B1 (en) * 1999-03-11 2002-05-28 Zeeco, Inc. Low NoX burner apparatus
WO2002004864A1 (en) * 2000-07-07 2002-01-17 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme À Directoire Et Conseil De Surveillance Pour L'etude Et Exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Method and apparatus for mixing combustion gases
US9593847B1 (en) 2014-03-05 2017-03-14 Zeeco, Inc. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters
US9593848B2 (en) 2014-06-09 2017-03-14 Zeeco, Inc. Non-symmetrical low NOx burner apparatus and method

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