US3175544A - Internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Internal combustion engines Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3175544A
US3175544A US36595564A US3175544A US 3175544 A US3175544 A US 3175544A US 36595564 A US36595564 A US 36595564A US 3175544 A US3175544 A US 3175544A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
cylinders
pins
pistons
pair
respective
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Hughes James Willis
Original Assignee
Hughes James Willis
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/16Engines characterised by number of cylinders, e.g. single-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/18Multi-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/22Multi-cylinder engines with cylinders in V, fan, or star arrangement
    • F02B75/222Multi-cylinder engines with cylinders in V, fan, or star arrangement with cylinders in star arrangement
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/16Engines characterised by number of cylinders, e.g. single-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/18Multi-cylinder engines
    • F02B2075/1804Number of cylinders
    • F02B2075/1816Number of cylinders four
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B2275/00Other engines, components or details, not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F02B2275/34Lateral camshaft position
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/18Mechanical movements
    • Y10T74/18056Rotary to or from reciprocating or oscillating
    • Y10T74/18208Crank, pitman, and slide
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/18Mechanical movements
    • Y10T74/18056Rotary to or from reciprocating or oscillating
    • Y10T74/18248Crank and slide
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/18Mechanical movements
    • Y10T74/1836Rotary to rotary
    • Y10T74/18408Cranks, slidable connections

Description

March 30, 1965 J. w. HUGHES INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Original Filed Oct. 18. 1960 INVENTOR I I3 E. JAMES w. HUGHES l BY WW9) ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,175,544 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES iames Willis Hughes, Box 1713, Jackson, Miss. Continuation of application Ser. No. 63,339, Oct. 18, 1960. This application May 8, 1964, Ser. No. 365,955 9 Claims. (Cl. 123-55) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in internal combustion engines, and the principal object of the invention is to provide an engine which utilizes a simple, efficient and dependable mechanism for converting reciprocating movement into rotary motion, such mechanism affording optimum conservation or kinetic energy and optimum torque in relation to engine size and weight and being economical to manufacture, easy to assemble and convenient to service.

This application is a continuation of my earlier application Serial No. 63,339, filed October 18, 1960.

With the foregoing more important object and features in View and such other objects and features as may become apparent as this specification proceeds, the invention will be understood from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters of reference are used to designate like parts, and wherein:

FIGURE 1 is an elevational view, partly in section, of an engine constructed in accordance with the invention;

FIGURE 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view, taken substantially in the plane of the line 2-2 in FIG- URE 1;

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view, taken substantially in the plane of the line 3-3 in FIG- URE 1; and

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary view, partly in elevation and partly in section, taken substantially in the plane of the line 44 in FIGURE 2.

Referring now to the accompanying drawings in detail, an internal combustion engine embodying the principles of the invention is designated generally by the reference numeral 10. For illustrative purposes the engine has been shown as utilizing two, double-headed and double-acting pistons 11, 12 which are reciprocable in two cylinders 13, 14, respectively, the two cylinders being coplanar but spaced sngularly by 90 so that they intersect each other and the piston reciprocating in each cylinder crosses the other cylinder midway in its reciprocating stroke. As shown in FIGURE 1, the axes of the two cylinders intersect at the point 15 which lies on the axis 16 of the engine crankshaft shown in FIGURE 2. When either of the two pistons is at one end of its stroke, the other piston is midway of its stroke as illustrated in FIGURE 1, the movement of the pistons being coordinated by means hereinafter described so that the pistons travel past each other without interference when reciprocating between the opposite ends of their respective cylinders.

The pistons 11, 12 are provided midway between their ends with transverse wrist pins 17, 18, respectively, which pins are sl-idable in and project outwardly through pairs of longitudinal slots 19 formed in diametrically opposite sides of the cylinders 13, 14. These slots are long enough to permit the pistons to reach the outermost or dead center positions at the ends of their reciprocating movement. The projecting ends of the wrist pins 17 18 are pivotally connected to a pair of motion coordinating elements such as the links 20, disposed at the opposite sides of the cylinders 13, 14, as shown. The links 20 are provided midway between the wrist pins 17, 18 with a pair of coaxial crank pins 21 which are pivotally connected to a pair of gears 22, secured to two coaxial crankshaft members 23. The pins 21 are eccentrically offset on the gears 22 from the axis of rotation 16 of the crankshaft members, the

"ice

gears 22 functioning in the nature of cranks for the pins 21, so that the components 21, 22 and 23 coact in constituting the crankshaft assembly of the engine.

The crankshaft members 23 are rotatably journalled in opposite sides of a case or housing 24, as by suitable bearings 25, the housing 24 also serving as a support for the cylinders 13, 14, in the manner illustrated. The gears 22 mesh with a pair of pinions 26 secured to a single shaft 27 which extends transversely of and is rotatably journalled in the housing 24, so as not to interfere with the cylinders 13, 14, as is best shown in FIGURE 4. The single shaft 27 and the meshing gears 22, 26 assure that the two crankshaft members 23 rotate in unison and that the links 20 at the opposite sides of the cylinders also have a unitary movement without any lost motion.

A combustion chamber 28 exists in each end portion of each of the cylinders 13, 14, and means are provided for admitting a fuel mixture into the combustion chambers, igniting the same, and subsequently exhausting the products of combustion. For illustrative purposes in an- 'nular intake manifold 29 has been shown as communicating through ducts or risers 30 with intake chambers 31 at the ends of the cylinders. An intake valve 32 admits the fuel mixture from each chamber 31 to the adjacent combustion chamber 28, the several intake valves being operated through suitable linkage 33 by push rods 34 engaging a cam 35 on one of the crankshaft members 23. The engine is basically of a two-cycle type, and suitable exhaust ports are provided in communication with the combustion chambers, as indicated at 36 in FIGURE 2. For purposes of ignition, each combustion chamber is equipped with a spark plug, as at 37.

The engine may also be constructed to operate on the four-cycle principle, in which event cam actuated exhaust valves would be used and, if necessary, suitable means provided for sealing the cylinder slots 19 while permitting reciprocation of the wrist pins 17, 18 therein. Also, the device may be used as a pump or compressor rather than as an engine, as will be understood.

In addition, while in the embodiment shown the engine has been illustrated as having two pistons in two cylinders, three or more pistons operating in three or more cylinders may be utilized.

Thus, while in the foregoing there has been described and shown the preferred embodiment of the invention, various modifications may become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention relates. Accordingly, it is not desired to limit the invention to this disclosure, and various modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed.

What is claimed as new is:

1. In an engine, the combination of a cylinder block including at least two cylinders crossing each other at an intersection point intermediate their ends, at least two pistons reciprocable in the respective cylinders from one side of the intersection point to the other whereby paths of reciprocation of said pistons cross each other at the intersection point, a pair of coaxial crank shafts disposed exteriorly at opposite sides of said block and having their axis of rotation normal to said cylinders, said intersection point lying on the axis of rotation of said crankshafts, said crankshafts including a pair of coaxial crank pins disposed at opposite sides of the cylinder block, at least two wrist pins provided on the respective pistons and projecting outwardly through longitudinal slots in said cylinders to the opposite sides of the block, a pair of rotatable motion coordinating elements carried by the respective crank pins and having said wrist pins connected thereto at points spaced and equidistant from the crank pins, and fluid pressure means 3 for selectively actuating said pistons in timed relation to one another.

2. The device as defined in claim 1 together with means in addition to said wrist pins for operatively connecting said crankshafts together for unitary rotation.

3. In an engine, the combination of a cylinder block including at least two cylinders crossing each other at an intersection point intermediate their ends, at least two pistons reciprocable in the respective cylinders from one side of the intersection point to the other whereby paths of reciprocation of said pistons cross each other at the intersection point, a crankshaft member disposed ex-.

teriorly at one side of said block and having its axis of rotation normal to said cylinders, said intersection point lying on the axis of-rotationof said crankshaft member, said crankshaft member including a crank pin, at least two wrist'pins provided on the respective pistons and projecting outwardly through slots in said cylinders, a motion coordinating element carried by said crank pin and having said Wrist pins connected thereto at points spaced equidistant fromthe crank pin, and fluid pressure means for selectively actuating said pistons inv timed relation to one another.

'4. vIn an engine, the combination of a cylinder block including at least two cylinders crossing each other at an intersection point intermediate their ends, at least two pistons reciprooable in the respective. cylinders from one side of the intersection point to the other whereby paths of reciprocation of said pistons cross each other at the intersection point, at least two wrist pins provided on the respective pistons and projecting outwardly through slots in] said cylinders to the' opposite'sides of said block, a pair of motion coordinating elements disposed at opposite sides of the block and each having said wrist pins connected thereto, a pair of coaxial cranlo shaft members provided atxthe opposite sides of the block and having their axis of rotation normal to said cylinders, means operatively' connecting said crankshaft members together for unitary rotation, said crankshaft members including a pair of coaxial crank pins connected to the respective motion coordinating'elements at points equidistant from said Wrist pins, and fluid pressure means for selectively actuating said pistons in timed relation to one another. a

5. The device as defined in' claim 4wherein said means connecting said crankshaft members comprise a pair of gears provided on the respective crankshaft members, a cross shaft, and a pair of'pinions provided on said cross shaftpsaid pinions meshing with the respective gears.

6. The device as defined in claim 4 together with a casing supporting said cylinder block, and coaxial bearings provided in opposite sides of said casing, said crankshaft members being journalled in said bearings, and said casing accommodating said crank pins and said motion coordinating elements therein.

7. The device as defined in claim 4 wherein end portions of said cylinders constitute combustion chambers, said fluid pressure means including means for admitting a combustible fuel mixture into said chambers in timed relation to reciprocation of said pistons, means for igniting said fuel mixture, and means for exhausting products of combustion from said chambers. i

8. In'an' internal combustion engine, the'combination of a cylinder block including at least two cylinders crossing each other at an intersection point intermediate their ends, at least two pistonsreciprocable in the respective cylinders from one side of the intersection point to the other wherebypaths of'reciprocation of said pistons cross each other at the intersection point,at least'two Wrist pins provided on the respective pistons and projecting outwardly through longitudinal slots in said cylinders to opposite sides of said block, a pair of motion coordinating links disposed at opposite sides of the block and each having said Wrist pins connected to the endsthereof, a casing supporting said cylinder block therein'and enclosing said motion coordinating links, said casing including a pair of side Walls disposed at opposite sides of saidcylinder block and provided with a pair of'coaxial bear-ings having their axis normal to said cylinders, a pair of crankshaft members journalled in the respective bearings,'a pair of gears secured to the respective crankshaft members and disposed within said casing, said crankshaft members including a pair of coaxial crank pins; carried by the respective gears and connected to the mid-portions of the respective motion coordinating links, across shaft rotatably journalled in said casing, a pair of pinions provided on said cross shaft and meshing. with the respective gears'whereby said. crankshaft members may rotate in unison, and fluid pressure means for selectively actuating said pistons in timed relation to one another.

. 9. The device as defined inclaim' .8: wherein end portions of said cylinders constitute combustion chambers, said fluid pressure means including means for admitting a combustible fuel mixture into; said chambers in timed relation to reciprocation of said pistons, means for igniting said fuel mixture, 7 and means for exhausting products of combustion from said chambers. 7

No references cited,

Claims (1)

1. IN AN ENGINE, THE COMBINATION OF A CYLINDER BLOCK INCLUDING AT LEAST TWO CYLINDERS CROSSING EACH OTHER AT AN INTERSECTION POINT INTERMEDIATE THEIR ENDS, AT LEAST TWO PISTONS RECIPROCABLE IN THE RESPECTIVE CYLINDERS FROM ONE SIDE OF THE INTERSECTION POINT TO THE OTHER WHEREBY PATHS OF RECIPROCATION OF SAID PISTONS CROSS EACH OTHER AT THE INTERSECTION POINT, A PAIR OF COAXIAL CRANK SHAFTS DISPOSED EXTERIORLY AT OPPOSITE SIDES OF SAID BLOCK AND HAVING THEIR AXIS OF ROTATION NORMAL TO SAID CYLINDERS, SAID INTERSECTION POINT LYING ON THE AXIS OF ROTATION OF SAID CRANKSHAFTS, SAID CRANKSHAFTS INCLUDING A PAIR OF COAXIAL CRANK PINS DISPOSED AT OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE CYLINDER BLOCK, AT LEAST TWO WRISTS PINS PROVIDED ON THE RESPECTIVE PISTONS AND PROJECTING OUTWARDLY THROUGH LONGITUDINAL SLOTS IN SAID CYLINDERS TO THE OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE BLOCK, A PAIR OF ROTATABLE MOTION COORDINATING ELEMENTS CARRIED BY THE RESPECTIVE CRANK PINS AND HAVING SAID WRISTS PINS CONNECTED THERETO AT POINTS SPACED AND EQUIDISTANT FROM THE CRANK PINS, AND FLUID PRESSURE MENS
US3175544A 1964-05-08 1964-05-08 Internal combustion engines Expired - Lifetime US3175544A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3175544A US3175544A (en) 1964-05-08 1964-05-08 Internal combustion engines

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3175544A US3175544A (en) 1964-05-08 1964-05-08 Internal combustion engines

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3175544A true US3175544A (en) 1965-03-30

Family

ID=23441091

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3175544A Expired - Lifetime US3175544A (en) 1964-05-08 1964-05-08 Internal combustion engines

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3175544A (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3563223A (en) * 1968-01-30 1971-02-16 Univ Shizuoka Perfectly balanced double-acting reciprocating machine
US3648671A (en) * 1969-10-04 1972-03-14 Kal Pac Eng Ltd Modified internal combustion engine
US4121422A (en) * 1976-09-23 1978-10-24 Flinn Jr Henry I Power plant
US4524583A (en) * 1983-10-31 1985-06-25 Scheibengraber Karl J Stirling engine
US4590812A (en) * 1983-06-16 1986-05-27 Brackett Douglas C Device for converting between rotary and rectilinear motion
US4850313A (en) * 1988-02-16 1989-07-25 Peter Gibbons Cruciform engine
US5064411A (en) * 1988-11-04 1991-11-12 Gordon Iii Kilbourn Protective medical device
US5158046A (en) * 1991-10-02 1992-10-27 Rucker Richard D Two-stroke cycle engine having linear gear drive
US5189994A (en) * 1991-08-20 1993-03-02 Ilya Gindentuller Internal combustion engine
US5228416A (en) * 1991-05-24 1993-07-20 Puzio Eugene T Internal combustion engine having opposed pistons
US5526779A (en) * 1995-04-06 1996-06-18 Harrington Technology L.L.C. Virtual crankshaft engine
US6202537B1 (en) * 1999-07-13 2001-03-20 Caterpillar Inc. Connecting rod for horizontally opposed compressor
US20040231456A1 (en) * 2001-08-24 2004-11-25 Spangler Kendall Lee Crankshaft with continuous main journal and corresponding connecting structure
DE102004031168B3 (en) * 2004-06-28 2005-12-22 Eduard Koll Device for converting between reciprocating motion and rotary motion, e.g. for engine, has planetary gearwheel with outer teeth that engage with inner teeth of toothed ring

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None *

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3563223A (en) * 1968-01-30 1971-02-16 Univ Shizuoka Perfectly balanced double-acting reciprocating machine
US3648671A (en) * 1969-10-04 1972-03-14 Kal Pac Eng Ltd Modified internal combustion engine
US4121422A (en) * 1976-09-23 1978-10-24 Flinn Jr Henry I Power plant
US4590812A (en) * 1983-06-16 1986-05-27 Brackett Douglas C Device for converting between rotary and rectilinear motion
US4524583A (en) * 1983-10-31 1985-06-25 Scheibengraber Karl J Stirling engine
US4850313A (en) * 1988-02-16 1989-07-25 Peter Gibbons Cruciform engine
US5064411A (en) * 1988-11-04 1991-11-12 Gordon Iii Kilbourn Protective medical device
US5228416A (en) * 1991-05-24 1993-07-20 Puzio Eugene T Internal combustion engine having opposed pistons
US5189994A (en) * 1991-08-20 1993-03-02 Ilya Gindentuller Internal combustion engine
US5158046A (en) * 1991-10-02 1992-10-27 Rucker Richard D Two-stroke cycle engine having linear gear drive
US5526779A (en) * 1995-04-06 1996-06-18 Harrington Technology L.L.C. Virtual crankshaft engine
WO1996031688A1 (en) * 1995-04-06 1996-10-10 Harrington Technology, L.L.C. Virtual crankshaft engine
US6202537B1 (en) * 1999-07-13 2001-03-20 Caterpillar Inc. Connecting rod for horizontally opposed compressor
US20040231456A1 (en) * 2001-08-24 2004-11-25 Spangler Kendall Lee Crankshaft with continuous main journal and corresponding connecting structure
US7077097B2 (en) * 2001-08-24 2006-07-18 Kendall Lee Spangler Crankshaft with continuous main journal and corresponding connecting structure
DE102004031168B3 (en) * 2004-06-28 2005-12-22 Eduard Koll Device for converting between reciprocating motion and rotary motion, e.g. for engine, has planetary gearwheel with outer teeth that engage with inner teeth of toothed ring

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3446192A (en) Four-cycle internal combustion engine
US3572209A (en) Radial engine
US3563223A (en) Perfectly balanced double-acting reciprocating machine
US5927236A (en) Variable stroke mechanism for internal combustion engine
US4011842A (en) Piston machine
US6450135B1 (en) Two-stroke internal combustion engine
US1301141A (en) Internal-combustion engine.
US2983264A (en) Cam engine valve means
US4517931A (en) Variable stroke engine
US4026252A (en) Engine construction
US1894033A (en) Engine
US5884590A (en) Two-stroke engine
US5992356A (en) Opposed piston combustion engine
US3312206A (en) Reciprocating engines
US3130592A (en) Motion converting means
US3692005A (en) Internal pressure engine
US4071000A (en) Double crankshaft valved two cycle engine
US2076334A (en) Diesel engine
US5083530A (en) Internal combustion engine having opposed pistons
US4077365A (en) Expansible chamber apparatus
US3084678A (en) Internal combustion engine with shifting cylinders
US3274982A (en) Two-cycle two-cylinder internal combustion engine
US2639699A (en) Two-cycle engine and improved crankcase induction means therefor
US4256068A (en) Oblong piston and cylinder for internal combustion engine
US2896596A (en) Double piston internal combustion engine