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US3174540A - Vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus - Google Patents

Vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US3174540A
US3174540A US30599963A US3174540A US 3174540 A US3174540 A US 3174540A US 30599963 A US30599963 A US 30599963A US 3174540 A US3174540 A US 3174540A
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Prior art keywords
tubes
cooling
liquid
tank
assembly
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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John C Dutton
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General Electric Co
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General Electric Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F27/00Details of transformers or inductances, in general
    • H01F27/08Cooling; Ventilating
    • H01F27/10Liquid cooling
    • H01F27/18Liquid cooling by evaporating liquids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D15/00Heat-exchange apparatus with the intermediate heat-transfer medium in closed tubes passing into or through the conduit walls ; Heat-exchange apparatus employing intermediate heat-transfer medium or bodies
    • F28D15/02Heat-exchange apparatus with the intermediate heat-transfer medium in closed tubes passing into or through the conduit walls ; Heat-exchange apparatus employing intermediate heat-transfer medium or bodies in which the medium condenses and evaporates, e.g. heat pipes
    • F28D15/0275Arrangements for coupling heat-pipes together or with other structures, e.g. with base blocks; Heat pipe cores
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D5/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, using the cooling effect of natural or forced evaporation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F1/00Tubular elements; Assemblies of tubular elements
    • F28F1/10Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses
    • F28F1/12Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses the means being only outside the tubular element
    • F28F1/24Tubular elements and assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with projections, with recesses the means being only outside the tubular element and extending transversely
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S165/00Heat exchange
    • Y10S165/913Condensation

Description

March 23, 1965 J. c. DuT'roN VAPORIZATION COOLING OF' ELECTRICAL APPARATUS Filed Sept. 3, 1963 United States Patent O l 3,174,540 VAPORIZATION COOLING F ELECTRICAL APPARATUS .lohn C. Dutton, Rome, Ga., assignor to General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 3, 1963, Ser. No. 305,999 3 Claims. (Cl. 16S- 105) This invention relates to vaporization cooling and more particularly to improvements in the vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus such as transformers.

By vaporization cooling is meant using the latent heat of vapon'zation of a liquid rather than its specific heat for cooling purposes. In such systems the vapor is condensed in a cooler and the liquid returned to the area or part to be cooled by vaporization, the cycle or circulation being maintained by a pump.

In accordance with this invention, the pump is eliminated and by a special arrangement of finned cooling tubes containing a volatile liquid the cooling cycle is selfrepeating.

An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved cooling system.

Another object of the invention is to eliminate the pump or its equivalent in a vaporization cooling system.

A further object of the invention is to provide a simple, etiicient, long lived vaporization cooling system having no movable mechanical parts.

The invention will be better understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing and its scope will be pointed out in the appended claims.

In the drawing,

FIG. 1 is an elevational sectional view through a transformer embodying the invention,

FIG. 2 is an enlarged side view of one of the finned cooling tubes, and

FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of the inner end of such a finned tube.

Referring now to the drawing, and more particularly to FIG. l, there is shown therein a transformer 1 comprising a core and coil assembly 2 enclosed in a sealed tank 3. Extending through walls of the tank 3 are a plurality of finned cooling tubes 4. As shown, these tubes are inclined upwardly from their inner ends to their outer ends and their inner ends are staggered so that the higher ones are longer than the lower ones. However, in all cases the inner ends of the tubes are vertically over the core and coil assembly 2.

As shown more clearly in FIG. 2, the tubes 4 are sealed and are partially filled with any suitable volatile liquid 5. A preferred composition is trichlorotrifluoroethane (C2CI3F3). The portions of the tubes 4 extending outside the wall of the tank 3 are provided with axially spaced cooling tins 6 extending radially in all directions from the tube.

As shown more clearly in FIG. 3, the portion of the tube 4 inside the tank is preferably but not necessarily provided with upwardly extending fan-like fins 7.

In operation, there is a body of any suitable cooling and insulating uid 8 in the tank 3 which has a boiling point at the approximate desired operating temperature considering all system parameters. A preferred composition of this insulating and vaporization cooling material is per- 3,174,540 4 PatentedMar. 23, 1965 ICC.

fluorocyclic ether (CBFISO). Thus this fluid when in liquid phase and in contact with the core and coils will be vaporized, the latent heat of Vaporization serving to extract heat from the core and coil. The vaporized iiuid on rising condenses on the fan-like fins 7 of the tubes 4, then runs down their surfaces and collects on the bottom of the respective tubes along which it runs until it drops off as liquid and falls onto the core and coils where it is revaporized and the cycle is repeated.

Heat is removed from the entire apparatus through the operation of the volatile liquid 5 in the tubes in that as the vaporization cooling fluid 8 condenses on the fins 7 and gives up its heat thereto the volatile liquid 5 or a part thereof becomes heated and volatilized and rises and passes out to the outer end of the tubes 4 where it is cooled by the iins 6 in the relatively cool ambient air of the atmosphere whereupon it recondenses and runs back by gravity as relatively cool liquid to the inner end of the tubes 4 thus maintaining them at a temperature below the condensing temperature of the vaporization cooling fluid 8.

If desired or found necessary, a trough-like receptacle 9 may be supported or hung below and parallel with the inner portions of the tubes 4 so as to catch any condensate dripping from the bottom of the tubes 4 before it reaches the end thereof, such collected condensate will then run down the trough to its lowermost inner end and drip onto the core and coils.

It is desirable to prevent condensation of the vaporization cooling iiuid 8 on the inner tank walls but in the event that condensed vapor collects as liquid at the bottom of the tank it can be returned to the top of the core and coil by any suitable means such as a pump and conduit.

While there has been shown and described a particular embodiment of the invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention, and therefore it is intended by the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. In combination, a sealed transformer tank containing a core and coil assembly, a volatile insulating liquid in said tank insuiiicient in liquid volume to effect appreciable immersion of said assembly, said insulating liquid being vaporizable at a predetermined desired temperature at which said core and coil assembly are to be maintained, a plurality of sealed cooling tubes partially filled with a volatile cooling liquid, said tubes extending through a wall of said casing, said tubes being inclined upwardly from their inner ends to their outer ends, the inner end of each tube being vertically above said core and coil assembly, axially spaced fins attached to said tubes outside said tank and extending radially therefrom in all directions, and axially spaced fins attached to said tubes inside said tank and extending radially thereof in all upward directions only, whereby vapors of the insulating liquid in said tank are condensed on the inner ends of said tubes and said upwardly extending fins and the condensed liquid runs along the bottoms of said tubes to their inner and lowermost ends and drips olf onto said core and coil assembly there to be revaporized by the heat of said assembly and cool said assembly by Vaporiztion.

2. The combination as defined in claim 1 in which there is a trough beneath each tube inside said tank and parallel therewith for collecting liquid condensate dripping from the bottom of said tube before it reaches the inner end of said tube and discharging it above said core and coil assembly.

3. The combination as defined in claim 1 in which some of said tubes are above others, the higher tubes being longer on the inside of said tank than the lower tubes.

References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Gay 165-32 X Marshall 62-119 X Young 62-287 Bailey 62-285 Goltsos et al. 165-105 X CHARLES SUKALO, Primary Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. IN COMBINATION, A SEALED TRANSFORMER TANK CONTAINING A CORE AND COIL ASSEMBLY, A VOLATILE INSULATING LIQUID IN SAID TANK INSUFFICIENT IN LIQUID VOLUME TO EFFECT APPRECIABLE IMMERSION OF SAID ASSEMBLY, SAID INSULATING LIQUID BEING VAPORIZABLE AT A PREDETERMINED DESIRED TEMPERATURE AT WHICH SAID CORE AND COIL ASSEMBLY ARE TO BE MAINTAINED, A PLURALITY OF SEALED COOLING TUBES PARTIALLY FILLED WITH A VOLATILE COOLING LIQUID, SAID TUBES EXTENDING THROUGH A WALL OF SAID CASING, SAID TUBES BEING INCLINED UPWARDLY FROM THEIR INNER ENDS TO THEIR OUTER ENDS, THE INNER END OF EACH TUBE BEING VERTICALLY ABOVE SAID CORE AND COIL ASSEMBLY, AXIALLY SPACED FINS ATACHED TO SAID TUBES OUTSIDE SAID TANK AND EXTENDING RADIALLY THEREFROM IN ALL DIRECTIONS, AND AXIALLY SPACED FINS ATTACHED TO SAID TUBES INSIDE SAID TANK AND EXTENDING RADIALLY THEREFROM IN ALL UPWARD DIRECTIONS ONLY, WHEREBY VAPORS OF THE INSULATING LIQUID IN SAID TANK ARE CONDENSED ON THE INNER ENDS OF SAID TUBES AND SAID UPWARDLY EXTENDING FINS AND THE CONDENSED LIQUID RUNS ALONG THE BOTTOMS OF SAID TUBES TO THEIR INNER AND LOWERMOST ENDS AND DRIPS OFF ONTO SAID CORE AND COIL ASSEMBLY THERE TO BE REVAPORIZED BY THE HEAT OF SAID ASSEMBLY AND COOL SAID ASSEMBLY BY VAPORIZTION.
US3174540A 1963-09-03 1963-09-03 Vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus Expired - Lifetime US3174540A (en)

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US3174540A US3174540A (en) 1963-09-03 1963-09-03 Vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3174540A US3174540A (en) 1963-09-03 1963-09-03 Vaporization cooling of electrical apparatus
GB3551364A GB1017025A (en) 1963-09-03 1964-08-31 Improvements in vaporisation cooling of transformers

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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3994336A (en) * 1973-06-01 1976-11-30 Isothermics, Inc. Transformer for heat pipes
US4340111A (en) * 1972-10-04 1982-07-20 Skala Stephen F Evaporative cooling of containers in a pressure vessel
US4485367A (en) * 1981-12-25 1984-11-27 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Cooling apparatus for a gas insulated transformer
US4757370A (en) * 1987-01-12 1988-07-12 International Business Machines Corp. Circuit package cooling technique with liquid film spreading downward across package surface without separation
US5255296A (en) * 1992-06-24 1993-10-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment
US5651414A (en) * 1993-12-28 1997-07-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Heat-pipe type cooling apparatus
US5893701A (en) * 1996-06-13 1999-04-13 Food Machinery Sales, Inc. Method and apparatus for forming groups of work products
US6026889A (en) * 1998-06-18 2000-02-22 Joseph Oat Corporation Single shell boiler
US6041850A (en) * 1996-07-26 2000-03-28 General Electric Company Temperature control of electronic components
US20040200608A1 (en) * 2003-04-11 2004-10-14 Baldassarre Gregg J. Plate fins with vanes for redirecting airflow
US20040231351A1 (en) * 2003-05-19 2004-11-25 Wyatt William Gerald Method and apparatus for extracting non-condensable gases in a cooling system
US6937471B1 (en) 2002-07-11 2005-08-30 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for removing heat from a circuit
US20050262861A1 (en) * 2004-05-25 2005-12-01 Weber Richard M Method and apparatus for controlling cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20050274139A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Wyatt William G Sub-ambient refrigerating cycle
US7000691B1 (en) * 2002-07-11 2006-02-21 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20060179861A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2006-08-17 Weber Richard M Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20070119568A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 Raytheon Company System and method of enhanced boiling heat transfer using pin fins
US20070119572A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 Raytheon Company System and Method for Boiling Heat Transfer Using Self-Induced Coolant Transport and Impingements
US20070209782A1 (en) * 2006-03-08 2007-09-13 Raytheon Company System and method for cooling a server-based data center with sub-ambient cooling
US20070263356A1 (en) * 2006-05-02 2007-11-15 Raytheon Company Method and Apparatus for Cooling Electronics with a Coolant at a Subambient Pressure
US20080229780A1 (en) * 2007-03-22 2008-09-25 Raytheon Company System and Method for Separating Components of a Fluid Coolant for Cooling a Structure
US20090077981A1 (en) * 2007-09-21 2009-03-26 Raytheon Company Topping Cycle for a Sub-Ambient Cooling System
US20090211277A1 (en) * 2008-02-25 2009-08-27 Raytheon Company System and method for cooling a heat generating structure
US20100307183A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2010-12-09 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Device for the Cooling of Articles and its use
US7907409B2 (en) 2008-03-25 2011-03-15 Raytheon Company Systems and methods for cooling a computing component in a computing rack
CN102141351A (en) * 2011-04-24 2011-08-03 广州大学 Heat pipe
US8341965B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2013-01-01 Raytheon Company Method and system for cooling
US8953320B2 (en) 2012-09-13 2015-02-10 Levi A. Campbell Coolant drip facilitating partial immersion-cooling of electronic components

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1750750A (en) * 1928-04-20 1930-03-18 Frazer W Gay Cooling means for electrical and other apparatus
US2083611A (en) * 1931-12-05 1937-06-15 Carrier Corp Cooling system
US2663160A (en) * 1951-10-02 1953-12-22 Gen Electric Evaporator
US2876631A (en) * 1956-05-24 1959-03-10 Pierce John B Foundation Fin structure
US3024298A (en) * 1958-07-10 1962-03-06 Raytheon Co Evaporative-gravity cooling systems

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1750750A (en) * 1928-04-20 1930-03-18 Frazer W Gay Cooling means for electrical and other apparatus
US2083611A (en) * 1931-12-05 1937-06-15 Carrier Corp Cooling system
US2663160A (en) * 1951-10-02 1953-12-22 Gen Electric Evaporator
US2876631A (en) * 1956-05-24 1959-03-10 Pierce John B Foundation Fin structure
US3024298A (en) * 1958-07-10 1962-03-06 Raytheon Co Evaporative-gravity cooling systems

Cited By (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4340111A (en) * 1972-10-04 1982-07-20 Skala Stephen F Evaporative cooling of containers in a pressure vessel
US3994336A (en) * 1973-06-01 1976-11-30 Isothermics, Inc. Transformer for heat pipes
US4485367A (en) * 1981-12-25 1984-11-27 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Cooling apparatus for a gas insulated transformer
US4757370A (en) * 1987-01-12 1988-07-12 International Business Machines Corp. Circuit package cooling technique with liquid film spreading downward across package surface without separation
US5255296A (en) * 1992-06-24 1993-10-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment
US5651414A (en) * 1993-12-28 1997-07-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Heat-pipe type cooling apparatus
US5893701A (en) * 1996-06-13 1999-04-13 Food Machinery Sales, Inc. Method and apparatus for forming groups of work products
US6041850A (en) * 1996-07-26 2000-03-28 General Electric Company Temperature control of electronic components
US6026889A (en) * 1998-06-18 2000-02-22 Joseph Oat Corporation Single shell boiler
US7000691B1 (en) * 2002-07-11 2006-02-21 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20060118292A1 (en) * 2002-07-11 2006-06-08 Raytheon Company, A Delaware Corporation Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US6937471B1 (en) 2002-07-11 2005-08-30 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for removing heat from a circuit
US7607475B2 (en) 2002-07-11 2009-10-27 Raytheon Company Apparatus for cooling with coolant at subambient pressure
US20040200608A1 (en) * 2003-04-11 2004-10-14 Baldassarre Gregg J. Plate fins with vanes for redirecting airflow
US20040231351A1 (en) * 2003-05-19 2004-11-25 Wyatt William Gerald Method and apparatus for extracting non-condensable gases in a cooling system
US6957550B2 (en) 2003-05-19 2005-10-25 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for extracting non-condensable gases in a cooling system
US20050262861A1 (en) * 2004-05-25 2005-12-01 Weber Richard M Method and apparatus for controlling cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20050274139A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Wyatt William G Sub-ambient refrigerating cycle
US8341965B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2013-01-01 Raytheon Company Method and system for cooling
US20060179861A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2006-08-17 Weber Richard M Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US7254957B2 (en) 2005-02-15 2007-08-14 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for cooling with coolant at a subambient pressure
US20070119572A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 Raytheon Company System and Method for Boiling Heat Transfer Using Self-Induced Coolant Transport and Impingements
US20070119568A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-05-31 Raytheon Company System and method of enhanced boiling heat transfer using pin fins
US9383145B2 (en) 2005-11-30 2016-07-05 Raytheon Company System and method of boiling heat transfer using self-induced coolant transport and impingements
US20090020266A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2009-01-22 Raytheon Company System and Method of Boiling Heat Transfer Using Self-Induced Coolant Transport and Impingements
US20070209782A1 (en) * 2006-03-08 2007-09-13 Raytheon Company System and method for cooling a server-based data center with sub-ambient cooling
US20070263356A1 (en) * 2006-05-02 2007-11-15 Raytheon Company Method and Apparatus for Cooling Electronics with a Coolant at a Subambient Pressure
US7908874B2 (en) 2006-05-02 2011-03-22 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for cooling electronics with a coolant at a subambient pressure
US8490418B2 (en) 2006-05-02 2013-07-23 Raytheon Company Method and apparatus for cooling electronics with a coolant at a subambient pressure
US8651172B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-02-18 Raytheon Company System and method for separating components of a fluid coolant for cooling a structure
US20080229780A1 (en) * 2007-03-22 2008-09-25 Raytheon Company System and Method for Separating Components of a Fluid Coolant for Cooling a Structure
US8756953B2 (en) * 2007-05-11 2014-06-24 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Device for the cooling of articles and its use
US20100307183A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2010-12-09 L'air Liquide Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Device for the Cooling of Articles and its use
US20090077981A1 (en) * 2007-09-21 2009-03-26 Raytheon Company Topping Cycle for a Sub-Ambient Cooling System
US7921655B2 (en) 2007-09-21 2011-04-12 Raytheon Company Topping cycle for a sub-ambient cooling system
US20090211277A1 (en) * 2008-02-25 2009-08-27 Raytheon Company System and method for cooling a heat generating structure
US7934386B2 (en) 2008-02-25 2011-05-03 Raytheon Company System and method for cooling a heat generating structure
US7907409B2 (en) 2008-03-25 2011-03-15 Raytheon Company Systems and methods for cooling a computing component in a computing rack
CN102141351B (en) 2011-04-24 2012-08-08 广州大学 Heat pipe
CN102141351A (en) * 2011-04-24 2011-08-03 广州大学 Heat pipe
US8953320B2 (en) 2012-09-13 2015-02-10 Levi A. Campbell Coolant drip facilitating partial immersion-cooling of electronic components

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