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Sonic emulsifying and homogenization apparatus

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US3169013A
US3169013A US25133963A US3169013A US 3169013 A US3169013 A US 3169013A US 25133963 A US25133963 A US 25133963A US 3169013 A US3169013 A US 3169013A
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chamber
plate
fluid
oscillator
jet
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John P B Jones
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John P B Jones
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F11/00Mixers with shaking, oscillating, or vibrating mechanisms
    • B01F11/02Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate
    • B01F11/0208Mixing by means of high-frequency, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, e.g. jets impinging against a vibrating plate the vibrations being generated inside a mixing device without external drive, e.g. by a flow of material causing a knife to vibrate or using nozzles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S116/00Signals and indicators
    • Y10S116/18Wave generators

Description

J. P. B. JONES 3,1 W3 11 some EMULSIFYING AND HOMOGENIZATION APPARATUS Feb. 9, 19%

Filed Jan. 14, 1965 l N VEN TOR JOHN PB. zfDA/ES.

J 1]ljll lllllllllfll llllllllllnl s 3 169 013 some EMUrsrFYrNr; Aim HOMOGENIZATION APPARATUS John P. B. Jones, Willard St. N., San Francisco, Calif. Substituted for abandoned application Ser. No. 842,475, Sept. 25, 1959. This application Jan. 14, 1963, Ser. No.

251,33a 3 Claims. or. 259-4 This invention relates to homogenization of, fluid substancesand more particularly to a tubetype apparatus using fluid dynamic forces, pressure jet forces, vari-directional vibratory forces and cavitation energies for industrial processing. a

The principal object of the invention is to provide a novel apparatus for carrying out such processes as 110- mogenization, .dispersion, emulsification, suspension of solids in liquids, mixing plastic fluids, deaeration of fluids,

incorporation of gases on fluids, wetting out of solids in fluids, deflocculation of woodpulps, disintegration of agglomerates in fluids, and other like uses. s I

Other objects and advantages of the inventionwill be in part evident to those skilled in the art and in part pointed out hereinafteras the description'taken in connection with the accompanying drawing proceeds.

The energ es required for the above processes mode 7 ,vel'oped in'accordance with the invention by the use of positive type pressure pumps of standard design such as piston, rotary, centrifugahturbine and progressive cavity (Moyno) pumps. The apparatus is designed so that the unit may be attached to the outlet side of any, of the taining slot which is a definite advance in the technique 1 of employing these aforementioned energies in the fluids. One ofthe advantages is that by'havinga freely oscillating plate the modulus of elasticity of the oscillator plate is not a primary consideration and metal fatigue is eliminated. The whole oscillator plate moves freely in its mounting and therefore greater efficiencies are obtained as well as being able to use. energies of a harmonic nature. This is developed when the oscillator plate is moving freely in the fluids under the influence of the jet like action of the fluids when pumped under pressure by the pump. The range of pressures which are employed are greater than any in previous types of operation. The suggested range in presssure being from 300 pounds to one thousand pounds per square inch. Lower pressures may be used however in suitable applications as the selection of the operating pressure will depend on the requirements of the process involved. I

For a more detailed description of the invention, reference is now made to the accompanying drawing wherein there is shown by way of illustration and not of limitation a preferred embodiment and modification thereof.

In the drawing:

FIGURE 1 is a sectional view taken longitudinally through apparatus constructed in accordance with the invention,

FIGURE 2 is a View showing the face of the jet producin g nozzle element,

FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken along lines 3-3 of the element shown in FIGURE 2, and

FIGURE 4 shows the outlet, or discharge side of the jet producing nozzle.

States Patent 3,].fi9,@i3 Patented F eh. 9, 1965 'As shown in the drawing, the apparatus involved consists of a tubular chamber 10 having coupling rings 11 and 12 threaded respectively upon the inlet and outlet ends thereof. The coupling ring 11 as here shown is employed to secure a flaring inlet tube 13, which in turn is connected to a pump discharge conduit 14 by a clamping ring 15. At the discharge side of the chamber 10 there is a diverging coupling member 16 that is clamped to the chamber 10 by the clamping ring 12 and at its discharge end the coupling member is secured by a coupling ring 17 to' a suitable conduit 18 through which the processed fluid is directed for storage or future processing. As indicated the parts when assembled in the above manner by the coupling rings 11, 12 and 15 will engage fluid pressure sealing gaskets 11', 12 and 15' so that the whole assembly is fluid-tight. vAt its intake end, the chamber 10 is provided with diametrically opposed longitudinally extending slots 19 into which there is mounted for relatively free movement an oscillator plate 20. In advance of the oscillator plate 20 there i a jet stream producing disk or nozzle 21, which in practice, as will hereinafter appear, serves to project a flat or knife-like jet of fluid upon the leading edge of the oscillator plate 20. In this arrangement the oscillator plate 20 will in effect bisect the jet of fluid as it impinges therefrom. The material employed in the construction shown ispreferably of stainless steel but in such applications as are not able to employ stainless steel, otherrnaterials may be used. The tightness of fit and depth of the oscillator plate may, however, vary depending upon the requirements of the particular application involved. I V

, Normally the width of the oscillator plate 20 is slightly less than the diameter of the chamber 10 at the bottom of the slots 19 and in depth or length flow-wise the oscillator plate 29 is normally from to A inch less than the length of the slots 19 at the end of the chamber 10.

- In assembly the setting of the oscillator plate 20 in the slots 19 is such that it will move freely. The distance ofthe oscillator plate 20 from the leading edge of the chamber 10 will be the difference between the depth of the oscillator plate 20 and the length of the slots 19. This allows the pressure plate 21 to be so set that its distance from the oscillator plate 20 is constant once the unit has been constructed. This dimension is designed to change the flow of fluids from the pressure producing pump (not shown) into a fiat jet stream which will be directed against the leading edge of the oscillator plate.

While the diameter of the resonant chamber 10 may vary, depending upon the field in which the device is employed, I have in FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 of the drawing shown a pressure plate of jet directing nozzle 21 for a resonant chamber 10 having an inside diameter of approximately three inches. This particular disk when properly designed has a jet stream shaping aperture, here designated by the numeral 22, that is formed by first drilling into the intake side of the pressure plate with a drill having a round bottom so that there is formed a cup-like recess 23. Then as a further operation a cut is made into the other side of the pressure plate or nozzle 21 with a -degree cutter which is operated to a depth that will enter into the cup-like recess 23 and stopped at a suitable distance. By cutting into the round bottom hole or recess 23 in this manner, there is produced an orifice which results in a flat jet stream where it impinges upon the oscillator plate 20. In order to center the aXis of the aperture 22 of the pressure plate or nozzle 21, with respect to the oscillator plate, I provide two projected lugs 24 in the side thereof that are adapted to register with the slots 19 of the chamber 10.

In the above described arrangement the homogenization action depends upon the force and velocity of the jet stream rather than upon any natural period of vibration possessed by the oscillator plate 20. The apparatus is well adapted for a continuous flow processes as distinguished from many prior devices that operate on the batch to batch principle. As the oscillator plate 20 responds to the forces of the jet produced by the nozzle 21, cavitation takes place continuously in the stream as it rushes past the blade, causing violet pressure changes to be generated locally. The oscillating plate element 2i) is located in spaced trailing relation with the jet-producing nozzle and is enclosed in the resonant chamber lltl which concentrates the homogenizing vibrations and this insures that the velocity of the fluid jet across the blade is maintained. Unlike prior art devices the oscillating plate 20 has no natural or inherent frequency of vibration as in the case of a reed or blade of the type employed by the so-called Pohlman whistle. The frequency of oscillation set up in the oscillating plate 20 not only depends upon the velocity of the jet impinging thereupon, but also upon its spacing in the chamber 19 from the jet producing orifice.

While I have for the sake of clearness and in order to disclose my invention so that the same can be readily understood, described and illustrated a specific form and arrangement, I desire to have it understood that this invention is notlimited to the specific form disclosed, but may be embodied in other Ways that will suggest them.- selves to persons skilled in the art. It is believed that this invention is new and all such changes as come within the scope of the appended claims are to be considered as part of this invention.

Having thus described my invention, what-I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In a continuous flow fluid homogenizing and/or emulsifying apparatus, the combination of a resonant chamber through which fluid to be treated may continuously flow, a closure at the intake end of said chamber having a flat fluid jet producing orifice for projecting a flat jet of fluid into said chamber, said chamber having diametrically opposed internal slots extending longitudinally therein disposed in the plane of said fluid jet, and an oscillator plate mounted in said chamber with its sides fitting loosely into the opposed slots of said chamber, whereby said oscillator plate will be presented edg ewise to said fluid jet and function to produce cavitation in the fluid passing through said chamber.

2. In apparatus for the continuous homogenization and emulsification of fluid substances, the combination of a resonant cylindrical chamber into which fluid may be projected at high velocity at one end, said chamber having diametrically opposed slots extending longitudinally from said one end thereof, an oscillator plate of rectangular outline seated at its sides with freedom of movement in said diametrically opposed slots and extending centrally across said chamber, a conduit for conducting fluid under pressure at said one end of said chamber, a closure means having an orifice at said one end ,of said chamber for directing a flat jet offluid into said chamberdn substantially co-planar relation with said oscillator plate, and a second conduit at the other end of said chamber for conducting fluid therefrom, wherebyall of the fluid passing through said chamber will be subjected to homogenizing and/ or emulsifying action as the said oscillator plate 20 responds to said jet of fluid as directed by the nozzle 21;

3. In apparatus for the continuous homogenization and emulsification of fluid substances, the combination of a resonant cylindrical chamber through whicha circulation of fluid may be. maintained, said chamber having diametrically opposed internal slots-extending longitudinally from said one end, an oscillator plate of rectangular outline seated at its sides in said diametrically opposed slots and extending diametrically across ,said chamber, a conduit for conducting fluid under pressure at said one end of said chamber, means at said one end of said chamber having an orifice for directing a flat jet of fluid into said chamber in substantially co-planar relation with said oscillator plate, and a second conduit at the other end of said chamber for conducting fluid therefrom, whereby the fluid circulating through said chamber will be subjected to homogenizing and/or emulsifying action as the said oscillator plate responds to the jet of fluid directed therefrom by said last means.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS CHARLES A. WILLMUTH, Primary Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. IN A CONTINUOUS FLOW FLUID HOMOGENIZING AND/OR EMULSIFYING APPARATUS, THE COMBINATION OF A RESONANT CHAMBER THROUGH WHICH FLUID TO BE TREATED MAY CONTINUOUSLY FLOW, A CLOSURE AT THE INTAKE END OF SAID CHAMBER HAVING A FLAT FLUID JET PRODUCING ORIFICE FOR PROJECTING A FLAT JET OF FLUID INTO SAID CHAMBER, SAID CHAMBER HAVING DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSED INTERNAL SLOTS EXTENDING LONGITUDINALLY THEREIN DISPOSED IN THE PLANE OF SAID FLUID JET, AND AN OSCILLATOR PLATE MOUNTED IN SAID CHAMBER WITH ITS SIDES FITTING LOOSELY INTO THE OPPOSED SLOTS OF SAID CHAMBER, WHEREBY SAID OSCILLATOR PLATE WILL BE PRESENTED EDGEWISE TO SAID FLUID JET AND FUNCTION TO PRODUCE CAVITATION IN THE FLUID PASSING THROUGH SAID CHAMBER.
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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3278165A (en) * 1963-02-25 1966-10-11 Sonic Eng Corp Method and apparatus for generating acoustic vibrations in flowing fluids
US3325348A (en) * 1964-09-24 1967-06-13 Fitchburg Paper Ultrasonic device for placing materials in suspension
US3344766A (en) * 1965-10-18 1967-10-03 Eric C Cottell Rotating liquid whistle
US3356345A (en) * 1965-12-27 1967-12-05 Ultrasonics Ltd Apparatus for the mechanical production of acoustic vibrations for use in dispersion or like processes
US3357683A (en) * 1965-04-22 1967-12-12 Ekstroems Maskinaffaer Ab Apparatus for generating vibrations in liquids
DE1271444B (en) * 1965-04-22 1968-06-27 Ekstroems Maskinaffaer Ab Device for generating vibrations in liquids
US3408050A (en) * 1966-01-13 1968-10-29 Sonic Eng Corp Apparatus for mixing fluids
US3410529A (en) * 1967-06-12 1968-11-12 Sonic Eng Corp Tunable acoustic fluid mixer having easy access to internal working parts
US3614069A (en) * 1969-09-22 1971-10-19 Fibra Sonics Multiple frequency ultrasonic method and apparatus for improved cavitation, emulsification and mixing
US3648984A (en) * 1969-03-17 1972-03-14 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Method for emulsion dispersing and apparatus for the same
US3658302A (en) * 1968-12-31 1972-04-25 Louis Duthion Feed unit for a fuel burner
US3687369A (en) * 1970-10-12 1972-08-29 North American Car Corp Cleaning apparatus
US3865350A (en) * 1974-01-14 1975-02-11 Wilson A Burtis Liquid homogenizing device
US3926413A (en) * 1975-01-20 1975-12-16 Sonic Corp Apparatus for producing acoustic vibrations in liquids
US3947262A (en) * 1973-07-27 1976-03-30 Nikolai Mikhailovich Baklanov Method of producing phosphorus-containing fertilizers
JPS5316139B1 (en) * 1971-05-17 1978-05-30
US20050058579A1 (en) * 2003-09-16 2005-03-17 Cline Amos E. Acoustic energy transducer
US20100020632A1 (en) * 2008-07-25 2010-01-28 The Procter & Gamble Company Apparatus And Method for Mixing by Producing Shear, Turbulence and/or Cavitation
US20110172137A1 (en) * 2010-01-13 2011-07-14 Francesc Corominas Method Of Producing A Fabric Softening Composition
US9185484B2 (en) 2013-01-16 2015-11-10 Curtis E. Graber Hydrodynamic modulator

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2657021A (en) * 1951-02-22 1953-10-27 Eric C Cottell Apparatus for the mechanical production of acoustic vibrations for use in emulsification, dispersion or like processes
US2713998A (en) * 1953-05-18 1955-07-26 Eicken Henri Means for emulsifying sizing and the like products
US2947312A (en) * 1958-02-26 1960-08-02 Heinicke Instr Company Washing and sterilizing machine for glassware

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2657021A (en) * 1951-02-22 1953-10-27 Eric C Cottell Apparatus for the mechanical production of acoustic vibrations for use in emulsification, dispersion or like processes
US2713998A (en) * 1953-05-18 1955-07-26 Eicken Henri Means for emulsifying sizing and the like products
US2947312A (en) * 1958-02-26 1960-08-02 Heinicke Instr Company Washing and sterilizing machine for glassware

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3278165A (en) * 1963-02-25 1966-10-11 Sonic Eng Corp Method and apparatus for generating acoustic vibrations in flowing fluids
US3325348A (en) * 1964-09-24 1967-06-13 Fitchburg Paper Ultrasonic device for placing materials in suspension
US3357683A (en) * 1965-04-22 1967-12-12 Ekstroems Maskinaffaer Ab Apparatus for generating vibrations in liquids
DE1271444B (en) * 1965-04-22 1968-06-27 Ekstroems Maskinaffaer Ab Device for generating vibrations in liquids
US3344766A (en) * 1965-10-18 1967-10-03 Eric C Cottell Rotating liquid whistle
US3356345A (en) * 1965-12-27 1967-12-05 Ultrasonics Ltd Apparatus for the mechanical production of acoustic vibrations for use in dispersion or like processes
US3408050A (en) * 1966-01-13 1968-10-29 Sonic Eng Corp Apparatus for mixing fluids
US3410529A (en) * 1967-06-12 1968-11-12 Sonic Eng Corp Tunable acoustic fluid mixer having easy access to internal working parts
US3658302A (en) * 1968-12-31 1972-04-25 Louis Duthion Feed unit for a fuel burner
US3648984A (en) * 1969-03-17 1972-03-14 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Method for emulsion dispersing and apparatus for the same
US3614069A (en) * 1969-09-22 1971-10-19 Fibra Sonics Multiple frequency ultrasonic method and apparatus for improved cavitation, emulsification and mixing
US3687369A (en) * 1970-10-12 1972-08-29 North American Car Corp Cleaning apparatus
JPS5316139B1 (en) * 1971-05-17 1978-05-30
US3947262A (en) * 1973-07-27 1976-03-30 Nikolai Mikhailovich Baklanov Method of producing phosphorus-containing fertilizers
US3865350A (en) * 1974-01-14 1975-02-11 Wilson A Burtis Liquid homogenizing device
US3926413A (en) * 1975-01-20 1975-12-16 Sonic Corp Apparatus for producing acoustic vibrations in liquids
US20050058579A1 (en) * 2003-09-16 2005-03-17 Cline Amos E. Acoustic energy transducer
US20100020632A1 (en) * 2008-07-25 2010-01-28 The Procter & Gamble Company Apparatus And Method for Mixing by Producing Shear, Turbulence and/or Cavitation
US20110172137A1 (en) * 2010-01-13 2011-07-14 Francesc Corominas Method Of Producing A Fabric Softening Composition
US8759278B2 (en) 2010-01-13 2014-06-24 The Procter & Gamble Company Method of producing a fabric softening composition
US9185484B2 (en) 2013-01-16 2015-11-10 Curtis E. Graber Hydrodynamic modulator

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