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US3163185A - Dimensionally stable, directionally stiff woven fabric - Google Patents

Dimensionally stable, directionally stiff woven fabric Download PDF

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Publication number
US3163185A
US3163185A US22694262A US3163185A US 3163185 A US3163185 A US 3163185A US 22694262 A US22694262 A US 22694262A US 3163185 A US3163185 A US 3163185A
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Prior art keywords
yarns
fabric
wet
fused
type
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Expired - Lifetime
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Leonard A Stanley
Marples Eleanor
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Kendall Co
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Kendall Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D2700/00Woven fabrics; Methods of weaving; Looms
    • D03D2700/01Woven fabrics; General weaving methods
    • D03D2700/0133Woven fabrics; General weaving methods characterised by the material of warp or weft
    • D03D2700/014Warp or weft treated before weaving
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2201/00Cellulose-based fibres, e.g. vegetable fibres
    • D10B2201/01Natural vegetable fibres
    • D10B2201/02Cotton
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2201/00Cellulose-based fibres, e.g. vegetable fibres
    • D10B2201/20Cellulose-derived artificial fibres
    • D10B2201/22Cellulose-derived artificial fibres made from cellulose solutions
    • D10B2201/24Viscose
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2401/00Physical properties
    • D10B2401/04Heat-responsive characteristics
    • D10B2401/041Heat-responsive characteristics thermoplastic; thermosetting
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2401/00Physical properties
    • D10B2401/06Load-responsive characteristics
    • D10B2401/062Load-responsive characteristics stiff, shape retention
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2501/00Wearing apparel

Description

Dec. 29, 1964 A. STANLEY ETAL DIMENSIONALLY STABLE, DIRECTION-ALLY STIFF WOVEN FABRIC Filed Sept. 28, 1962 LEONARb A. STANLEY and ELEANOR MARPLE'S INVENTOR way? United States Patent 3,163,185 DIMENSIGNALLY STABLE, DllREs'JTiGNALLY STZFF WGVEN Leonard A. taniey, Camden, S.C., and Eleanor Marples, Trenton, NJ, assignors to The Kendall Qompany, Boston, Miasa, a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 28, 1962, er. No. 226,942 5 Claims. (Cl. 139-d2tl) This invention relates to directionally stiff woven fabrics wherein one of the sets of warp or filling yarns has been chemically treated, as by a zinc chloride solution, to fuse the yarns for obtaining fabrics having Inaterially greater stiffness in the direction of the fused yarns. Fabrics of this general description are disclosed in Patent Number 2,409,089.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved directionally stiff woven fabric having fused cellulosic yarns in the stiffened direction and non-fused yarns in the other direction, which fabric is usable in those areas wherein dimensional stability of the fabric is of prime importance.

There are numerous uses for fabrics having materially greater stiffness in one direction than the other. One very important field is the garment industry wherein direc tionally stiff fabrics are employed as interliners for coat fronts, which coat fronts are pro-formed multi-layer constructions to which the outer facings or coat materials are subsequently stitched and in large part impart body, form and proper appearance to the coats.

For many years, directionally stiff fabrics of the haircloth type have been employed in the garment industry as interliners for coat fronts. While such fabrics perform satisfactorily, they are relatively expensive due to the em ployment of animal fibers, such as horsehair or goat hair, for obtaining their directional stiffness.

Some directionally stiff cellulosic fabrics have been commercialized as substitutes for haircloth. Such fabrics are formed with unfused cotton warp yarns and fused filling yarns of normal viscose rayon material. While the economy of this type of fabric is very favorable, as compared to haircloth, it has not been universally accepted as a substitute therefor due to the dimensional instability of the fused viscose rayon filling yarns of the fabric when the coat fronts, in which the fabric is incorporated as interliners, are subjected to a cold water shrinking operation.

This cold water shrinking operation on coat fronts is conventionally performed by manufacturers of quality garments by one of several known methods to assure better form to the coat fronts and comfort to the wearer of the coats formed therefrom.

This problem of dimensional instability of the fused viscose rayon filling yarns manifested itself in excessive elongation and erratic contraction of the fused yarns during the cold water shrinking operation which presented a rippled, wrinkled or bubbly appearance to the other layers of the coat front which would impart a wrinkled appearance to the finished coat unless subsequently removed. It has been determined that this distorted appearance resulted from the fused viscose rayon yarns elongating when wet followed by an erratic contraction when dried to plus or minus its original length. Also, it has been noted that progressive shrinkage or progressive shortening of the fused viscose rayon yarns occurs upon repeated washings thereof.

Manufacturers seeing this distortion on the coat front and realizing the many attendant problems thereof were reluctant to use directionally stiif cellulosic fabrics as a substitute for haircloth. Also, because of such excessive elongation and erratic contraction and particularly be cause of the progressive shrinkage of the fused viscose rayon yarns, such directionally stiff cellulosic fabrics could not be used successfully in garments of the wash and wear type.

Early experiments toward solving the problem revealed that the twist of the viscose yarns prior to being fused could be adjusted to balance the yarns so that the length of the unfused yarns would not appreciably vary upon the wetting thereof, i.e., between wet and dry state. However, when the twisted yarns were subsequently sub jected to a fusing treatment, it was discovered that the balancing action of the twist was nullified since the filaments of the yarns were fused together, causing the yarns to behave as monolithic structures.

Failing to render the Viscose yarns stable through control of the twist thereof, various fabric constructions were explored with a view to imparting dimensional stability to the viscose rayon yarns. Such efforts did not uncover a solution to the perplexing problem.

Knowing that one way of predicting the probable swelling or dimensional stability of a yarn in water was its Water imbibition index, i.e., the percent of water retained after wetting and then centrifuging at 1,000 g for five minutes, experiments were conducted with yarns having lower water imbibition indexes than normal viscose rayon. Geometrical differences may distort the apparent relative indexes of two different viscose materials when compared in the form of yarns or fabrics, unless thefabric and yarn constructions are identical. The viscose rayon yarns having a lower water imbibition index as compared with normal viscose rayon yarns are commonly referred to as the high wet modulus type and of this type, those having the lowest water imbibition indexes are the cross-linked species thereof. Therefore, it appeared that the cross-linked high wet modulus yarns would afford the solution to the dimensional stability problem. Furthermore, the literature describing the characteristics and physical properties of the cross-linked type of high wet modulus fibers and yarns formed therefrom strongly indicated that the dimensional stability of these yarns would not be adversely affected by caustic solutions, which in many instances are considered to be equivalent fusing agents to zinc chloride solutions. However, tests with these crosslinked rayon yarns proved to be surprising failures with respect to dimensional stability.

Notwithstanding these failures with this apparently more desirable type of high wet modulus yarns, further tests were conducted with the supposedly less desirable non-cross-linked type of high wet modulus yarns formed into fabrics of similar construction. This latter type of yarn has a higher water imbibition index than the crosslinked type which would indicate less dimensional stability thereof. llotwithstanding this apparently adverse indication, such tests were unqualified successes, since it was discovered that the non-cross linked type of hi h wet modulus yarns were smoothly fused by the zinc chloride solution into highly dimensionally stable yarns having .is subjected to a fusing treatment.

have little or no progressive shrinkage permitting fabrics incorporating the same to be used in garments of the wash and wear type.

Therefore, a more specific object of this invention is to provide an improved directionally stifl fabric of the character described wherein the fused cellulosic yarns are formed of high Wet modulus viscose rayon fusible in a zinc chloride solution without appreciable loss of dimensional stability.

Some of the objects of the invention having been stated, other objects will appear as the description proceeds, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which The figure of the drawing is a greatly magnified schematic View of a portion of a fabric constructed in accordance with the present invention.

Referring to the drawing, there is shown a portion of fabric generally indicated at it? formed of warp yarns 11 interwoven with filling yarns 12. In accordance with the present invention, warp yarns it are preferably formed of cotton and may vary in count and in number of yarns per inch in accordance with end use requirements. in the embodiment illustrated in the drawing. warp yarns 11 are 20s, and 48 warp yarns are provided per inch of fabric 19.

Filling yarns 12 are formed by plying two yarns l3 and 14 which are twisted in the same direction with substantially the same amount of twist provided therein and then plied in the opposite direction to the twist therein to balance the curling action encountered when fabric 1%) This curling action and reasons therefore are described in detail in the aforementioned Patent Number 2,409,089. It is noted that this curling action may also be balanced by various twist combinations, some of which are described in the aforementioned patent.

In the embodiment illustrated in the drawing, each of the yarns i3 and 14 is of 20s count and has 20 turns per inch of Z twist therein. Yarns l3 and M- are plied together by 8 turns per inch of 8 ply twist and are interwoven with warp yarns 11 with 48 filling yarns per inch of fabric 19. As was the case with warp yarns it, the count of filling yarns i2 and the number of filling yarns per inch of fabric 3% may be varied Without departing from the scope of the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, filling yarns 12 are formed of a type of high wet modulus viscose rayon material which is smoothly fusible by a zinc chloride solution of appropriate concentration. This type of high wet modulus viscose rayon is of the non-cross-linked type having no appreciable loss of its dimensional stability when fused.

A commercial embodiment of this non-cross-linlred type of high wet modulus viscose rayon is manufactured by Courtaulds Limited and sold under the trademark Moynel. This high wet modulus yarn before fusing has a water imbibition index of approximately 65% and a longitudinal swelling 'or elongation from the dry to wet state of less than one-half the longitudinal swelling or elongation of normal viscose rayon from the dry to wet state. Also, this high wet modulus yarn contracts from the wet to dry state substantially the same amount as it elongated from the dry to wet state such that there is substantially no change in the length after drying as compared to its ori inal length and therefore, fused yarns of this type have very little or no progressive shrinkage. This is in contrast to normal viscose rayon which can elongate or contract erratically when wet and subsequently dried. This wetting and drying, as stated earlier, is a conventional process in the manufacture of coat fronts. This phenomenon as Well as progressive shrinkage is aggravated under typical laundering conditions.

It has been determined that the dimensional stability, i.e. elongation and contraction, of this non-cross-linlred high wet modulus yarn is not appreciably affected by the d Zinc chloride fusing treatment as were the cross-linked high wet modulus yarns described above.

At this point. it should be noted that the used of zinc chloride as the fusing agent is preferred since the same is considerably more efficient and more easily controlled than other known fusing agents. In this regar the time factor of the fusing treatment using zinc chloride is considerably less critical than with other fusing agents. For example, it has been determined that fabrics subiected to 2 to 5 hours of this Zinc chloride treatment will have substantially the same fusing effect imparted thereto. On the contrary, the time factor of other fusing agents is so critical, that variations in minutes often varies the degree of fusing imparted to the yarns.

For purposes of this invention, it has been determined that zinc chlo lde solutions of a concentration similar to trose used heretofore for normal viscose rayon may be used for fusing the filing yarns 12. Such zinc chloride solutions are normally of a concentration within a range of 62% to 66%.

it should be noted that these ranges of zinc chloride concentrations permit using bleached cotton as the warp yarns if desired, since these concentrations will not fuse bleached cotton.

Furthermore, yarns non-reactive to zinc chloride solutions in the concentrations used may be intermingled with the reactive yarns in those instances wherein it is desirable to adjust or reduce the stiffness of the fabric or to obtain a desired appearance or fabric construction. Similar results may be obtained by yarns formed of blends of reactive and non-reactive fibers.

While no comments have been made relative to obtaining dimensional stability of the non-fused or Warp yarns, dimensional stability is readily imparted thereto by conventional finishing operations or techniques such as a Sanfo-rizin g process.

From the foregoing, it is deemed apparent that the directionally stiff fabrics of the instant invention have new physical properties making the same suitable for all uses wherein dimensional stability of this type fabric is a prerequisite.

In the drawings and specification there has been set forth a preferred embodiment of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.

We claim:

1. A woven fabric having substantially greater stiffness in one direction than in the other comprising sets of warp and filling yarns interwoven with each other, one of said sets consisting mainly of regenerated Cellulose yarns of the noncross-linked, high wet modulus type and characterized by being reactive to fusing treatment by a Zinc chloride solution of about 62% to 66% concentration and by having good dimensional stability in fused state, said one set of yarns being fused and sufficient in number and size to provide said greater stiffness in their longitudinal direction, and the other of said sets consisting mainly of cotton yarns characterized by being non-reactive of fusing treatment by a zinc chloride solution of said about 62% to 66%- concentration.

2. A woven fabric having substantially greater stiffness in one direction than in the other comprising sets of warp and filling yarns interwoven with each other, said set of filling yarns consisting mainly of regenerated cellulose of the non-cross-linltcd, high wet modulus type and char acterized by being reactive to fusing treatment by a zinc 7 chloride solution of about 62% to 66% concentration and by h ving good dimensional stability in fused state,

said filling yarn being fused and sufficient in number and size to provide said greater stillness in their longitudinal direction, and said set of warp yarns consisting mainly of 75 cotton characterized by being non-reactive to fusing treat- 5 ment by a zinc chloride solution of said about 62% to 66% concentration.

3. A fabric in accordance with claim 2 wherein said set of warp yarns consist mainly of bleached cotton.

4. A woven fabric adapted for treatment to provide substantially greater stiffness in one direction than in the other comprising sets of warp and filling yarns interwoven With each other, one of said sets consisting mainly of regenerated cellulose yarns of the non-cross-linked,

high wet modulus type reactive to fusing treatment by a 10 2,409,989

zinc chloride solution of about 62% to 66% concentration and having good dimensional stability in fused state,

5 and other of said sets consisting mainly of cotton yarns non-reactive to fusing treatment by a zinc chloride solution of said about 62% to 66% concentration.

5. In a fabric according to claim 4 wherein said other of said sets of yarns consist mainly of bleached cotton yarns.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Whitman Oct. 8, 1946 2,987,371 Henry June 6, 1961 3,046,082 Mitchell et a1 July 24, 1962

Claims (1)

  1. 4. A WOVEN FABRIC ADAPTED FOR TREATMENT TO PROVIDE SUBSTANTIALLY GREATER STIFFNESS IN ONE DIRECTION THAN IN THE OTHER COMPRISING SETS OF WARP AND FILLING YARNS INTERWOVEN WITH EACH OTHER, ONE OF SAID SETS CONSISTING MAINLY OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE YARNS OF THE NON-CROSS-LINKED, HIGH WET MODULUS TYPE REACTIVE TO FUSING TREATMENT BY A ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTION OF ABUT 62% TO 66% CONCENTRATION AND HAVING GOOD DIMENSIONAL STABILITY IN FUSED STATE, AND OTHER OF SAID SETS CONSISTING MAINLY OF COTTON YARNS NON-REACTIVE TO FUSING TREATMENT BY A ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTION OF SAID ABOUT 62% TO 66% CONCENTRATION.
US3163185A 1962-09-28 1962-09-28 Dimensionally stable, directionally stiff woven fabric Expired - Lifetime US3163185A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3664381A (en) * 1970-05-22 1972-05-23 Du Pont Press free textile fabric
US4107371A (en) * 1977-10-25 1978-08-15 Johnson & Johnson Woven fabric that is relatively stiff in one direction and relatively flexible in the other
US4499842A (en) * 1983-04-11 1985-02-19 North Sails, Inc. Sail cloth and sail made therefrom
USD645259S1 (en) * 2009-06-19 2011-09-20 Dsm Ip Assets B.V. Film sheet for use in antiballistic articles

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2409089A (en) * 1943-05-17 1946-10-08 Kendall & Co Directionally stiff woven fabric and method
US2987371A (en) * 1957-12-26 1961-06-06 American Enka Corp Manufacture of rayon
US3046082A (en) * 1960-12-27 1962-07-24 Rayonier Inc Viscose process for the manufacture of low-shrink rayon

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2409089A (en) * 1943-05-17 1946-10-08 Kendall & Co Directionally stiff woven fabric and method
US2987371A (en) * 1957-12-26 1961-06-06 American Enka Corp Manufacture of rayon
US3046082A (en) * 1960-12-27 1962-07-24 Rayonier Inc Viscose process for the manufacture of low-shrink rayon

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3664381A (en) * 1970-05-22 1972-05-23 Du Pont Press free textile fabric
US4107371A (en) * 1977-10-25 1978-08-15 Johnson & Johnson Woven fabric that is relatively stiff in one direction and relatively flexible in the other
US4499842A (en) * 1983-04-11 1985-02-19 North Sails, Inc. Sail cloth and sail made therefrom
USD645259S1 (en) * 2009-06-19 2011-09-20 Dsm Ip Assets B.V. Film sheet for use in antiballistic articles

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