US3160052A - Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means - Google Patents

Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means Download PDF

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US3160052A
US3160052A US103780A US10378061A US3160052A US 3160052 A US3160052 A US 3160052A US 103780 A US103780 A US 103780A US 10378061 A US10378061 A US 10378061A US 3160052 A US3160052 A US 3160052A
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solenoid
elongated
key
transversely
armature
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US103780A
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Gunten Lee L Von
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Aurora Corp
Aurora Corp of Illinois
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Aurora Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10FAUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10F5/00Details or accessories
    • G10F5/02Actions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10CPIANOS, HARPSICHORDS, SPINETS OR SIMILAR STRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WITH ONE OR MORE KEYBOARDS
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/12Keyboards; Keys

Description

Dec. 8, 1964 L. L. VON GUNTEN SOLENOID MEANS FOR ACTUATING AND GUIDING Filed April 18, 1961 PIANO PLAYING MEANS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.
ATTORNEYS.
Dec. 8, 1964 L. VON GUNTEN 3,160,052
SOLENOID MEANS FOR ACTUATING AND GUIDING PIANO PLAYING MEANS Filed April 18, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 $1 Z/w 22w IN V EN TOR.
lee V027 61022? United States Patent 3,16lntl52 SGLENO ID MEANS FGR AQTUATENG AND GUID- ING PIANG PLAYENG MEANS Lee L. Van Gunten, Kenmore, N.Y., assignor to Aurora Corporation of Illinois, Buffalo, N.Y., a corporation of Illinois Filed Apr. 18, 1961, Ser. No. 103,786 12 Claims. (Cl. 34-433) This invention relates to a piano having solenoid actuated playing means, and more particularly to new and improved solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means such as keys.
The present application is a continuation in part of my prior co-pending application, Serial No. 794,902, filed February 24, 1959, and entitled Piano Having Electric Playing Means Therefor. As described in said prior application, the piano was provided with a run playing mechanism for actuating certain keys to play notes in harmony with a chord played in the control octave of the piano. This mechanism included individual solenoids severally associated with the keys in the run octaves of the piano and individual manually closed switches for severally energizing the solenoids to actuate such keys. The solenoid coils were mounted in the keyboard bed frame below the fnont ends of the corresponding black and white run keys, and t e solenoid armatures were directly secured to and extended downwardly from such keys. Thus, upon energization of an individual solenoid, its armature was sharply pulled down into the coil, thereby causing the front end of the corresponding key to move downwardly, just as when struck from above during manual playing. Such keys were mounted on the piano in the usual manner, each key pivoting about its central pivot pin with the movement of its forward end being controlled by the usual front guide pin, and the solenoid coils and armatures were added to the conventional keyboard forwardly of the front key guides.
It is a primary object of the present invention to provide solenoid means which will not only properly actuate but also properly guide the keys during actuation and deactuation thereof, thereby completely eliminating the separate front guides formerly employed while retaining their function.
Another object is to provide such solenoid means which are especially constructed and designed to (l) facilitate installation thereof with a minimum of modification of the keyboard bed frame; (2) eliminate adjustment of the coils once installed; (3) not only permit free movement of the armature into and out of the coils, but also control such movement for proper key action and sounding of the desired notes, and (4) ensure quiet solenoid and key actuation.
Still another object is to provide such solenoid means which are economical to manufacture, simple yet rugged in construction for long life under conditions of repeated usage, and most effective and efficient in operation.
Other objects and advantage of the invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description and accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary top plan view of a keyboard with certain of the keys removed to more clearly illustrate the solenoid means constituting a preferred embodiment of the invention;
FlG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken generally on line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and with certain portions being broken away in section to more clearly illustrate the central guides on which the keys pivot and the structure of the inventive solenoid means;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary front elevational view of the keyboard and inventive solenoid means of FIG. 1, and
3,lh,b52 Patented Dec. 8., 1964 ice FIG. 4 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken through a single inventive solenoid means of FIGS. l3.
Referring to the drawings, wherein like numerals indicate like parts, and particularly FIGS. 1-3, a typical piano keyboard is generally indicated at 1d. This keyboard includes a generally horizontal bed frame member or support 11 having generally horizontal recessed surfaces 12 and 13 at its forward end for a purpose to be described below. Arranged on support 11 is the usual boss 14 which is provided with the usual forwardly inclined upper surface 15. Embedded in boss 14 are a plurality of central pivot pins, those for :the white keys being designated as 16w and those for the black keys as 161;. As best seen in FIGS. 1 and 2, the pins 16w are arranged in a row forwardly of the row of pins 1612, with the latter being staggered with respect to the former. Each pin is also provided with a bearing washer 17w or 17b on which the corresponding key rests.
The piano keys of the keyboard include the usual black keys 1% and white keys 26, these keys being arranged in juxtaposition, with the black keys 18 being interposed betwen certain adjacent white keys 2% to form the octaves of the piano. The black keys 18 are mounted on the rear pivot pins 16b while the white keys 2d are mounted on the front pivot pins 16w, each key being provided with an enlarged through bore 21w or 21b, the lower end of which is partially closed by an inwardly extending flange 22w or 2215 fitting snugly around its corresponding pivot pin while permitting the desired movement of the key about such pin. At rest, each key is inclined sli htly upwardly toward its front end, as shown in FIG. 2.
When actuated, each key oscillates about an axis which is remote from the front end of the key and extends transversely of such front end, as well as transversely through the corresponding pivot in, as shown in FIG. 1. This axis is located substantially at the upper surface of the bearing washer 17w or17b, as best seen in H6. 2. For example, the black keys 18 oscillate about axis X-X passing through the row of pins 1619, while the white keys 2i) oscillate about the axis Y-Y passing through the pins 16w.
At their front ends, each key is provided with the downwardly open recess 23w or 23b for a purpose to be de scribed below.
The structure so far described, with the exception of the recessed surfaces 12 and 13 is conventional. The structure now to be described constitutes a preferred embodirnent of the inventive solenoid means.
Inasmuch as the structure of the solenoid means is the same whether used for a black key 18 or a white key 20, a description of one will generally sufiice for both, the numerals used for a particular solenoid means being followed by the letter w, it used for a white key, or the letter b if used for a black key.
The inventive solenoid means for a white key 20 includes coil means 24w which extends upwardly from its recessed supporting surface 13, and is centered beneath the front end of the key. This coil means includes a bobbin or spool 25w which is made of suitable nonmetallic material such as nylon, the spool being composed of an elongated core 26w provided with outstanding flanges 27w at its upper and lower ends. The lower of such flanges is rigidly secured to surface 13 preferably by any suitable adhesive. The core 26w as also seen in FIG. 4, is of uniform rectangular transverse section elongated generally longitudinally of its corresponding key 20, and each flange 27w is of rectangular shape elongated in such direction. Wrapped around each core 26w is a coil of wire 28w to complete the coil means 24w.
Each such solenoid means also includes a flat and elongated armature 30w made of magnetically permeable metallic material. This armature is embedded and rigidly e3? secured in an elongated recess 23w centered longitudinally in its corresponding key 20 preferably by any suitable adhesive and extends downwardly therefrom. The armature 30w is freely oscillatable longitudinally in core 26w about the oscillation axis YY of its corresponding key upon actuation of such key.
This armature has a pair of opposed guides 31w which are made of suitable non-metallic material such as felt for quietness of operation, and these guides are rigidly secured to the transversely elongated outer peripheral surfaces 32w on the armature preferably by any suitable adhesive. These guides 31w are slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces 33w of core 26w as the key 20 and armature 39w oscillate.
In order to cushion the key 20 as it reaches its lower limit of oscillation, a strip of felt 34w is rigidly secured to the rear portion of the upper flange 27w preferably by any suitable adhesive. Thus, :as the key moves downwardly and bottoms on the corresponding felt strip, this insures, like the felt guides 31w, quiet operation of the key.
The structure and arrangement of the coil means 24b on surface 12 and armature 39b for each black key 18 is the same as described above. However, it will be apparent that the deeper recessed surface 12 lowers the solenoid means for the black keys in order to permit the white keys to clear the same where actuated.
As best seen in FIG. 1, the coil means 24w and 24b are arranged in separate rows with the coil means 24b located behind and staggered with respect to coil means 24w. In addition, for reasons of economy and uniformity of key action, it is preferred that a single elongated strip of felt be used for each stop 34w and 34b, the strip spanning the juxtaposed solenoid means in each row.
It will now be apparent that whether a key be actuated manually or electrically by energization of the corresponding solenoid means, the movement of the armature is positively controlled by the sliding engagement between the guides ?wllw or 311) and the transversely elongated surfaces 33w or 33b on the core. Accordingly, it is no longer necessary when using the solenoid means of the present invention to provide the usual front guide pins for the keys, such as disclosed in the aforesaid copending application. At the same time the inventive solenoid means performs the function of such front guide pins.
Furthermore, it is but a simple matter to install the inventive solenoid means on a conventional piano keyboard, as the keys are already provided with the elongated re cesses such as 23w or 23b, and the armatures 30b or 30w can readily be adhesively secured therein. Likewise, the recessed surfaces 12. and 13 can be readily made by cutting down the top surface of the front end of the support 11 and the coil means 24w or 24b can be readily and permanently secured in place on their respective recessed surfaces preferably by a suitable adhesive, with no need for further adjustment.
It will now be seen how the above described invention accomplishes its objectives, and additional advantages thereof will also be apparent. While the invention has been described and illustrated herein with reference to a single embodiment, it is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be made therein by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention, the scope of which is to be determined by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means, said solenoid means comprising, coil means having a transversely elongated inner periphery, and armature means freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated portions of said inner periphery, said armature means having outstanding guide 4.- means slidable along the transversely elongated portions of said inner periphery.
2. Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means, said solenoid means comprising, coil means having a transversely elongated inner periphery, and armature means freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated portions of said inner periphery, said armature means having an outer periphery elongated transversely in substantially the same direction as the transverse elongation of said inner periphery and outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated portions of said inner periphery.
3. Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means, said solenoid means comprising, coil means having a transversely elongated rectangular inner periphery, and armature means freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated surfaces of said inner periphery, said armature means having outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated surfaces of said inner periphery.
4. Solenoid means for actuating and guiding piano playing means, said solenoid means comprising, coil means having a transversely elongated rectangular inner periphery, and armature means freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated surfaces of said inner periphery, said armature means having a rectangular outer periphery elongated transversely in substantially the same direction as the transverse elongation of said inner periphery and outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated surfaces of said inner periphery.
5. A solenoid for actuating and guiding a piano key, said solenoid comprising, coil means including a nonmetallic core of uniform elongated rectangular transverse section and a coil of wire wrapped around said core, and an armature freely oscillatable longitudinally in said core about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core, said armature having outstanding non-metallic guides slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core.
6. A solenoid for actuating and guiding a piano key, said solenoid comprising, coil means including a nonmetallic spool having an elongated core of uniform elongated rectangular transverse section and provided at each end with an outstanding rectangular flange elongated in the same direction as the transverse section of said core and a coil of wire wrapped around said core between said flanges, and an elongated armature freely oscillatable longitudinally in said core about a remote axis extending generally transversely of the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core, said armature having a uniform rectangular transverse section elongated in the same direction as the transverse section of said core and outstanding non-metallic guides slidable along the trans versely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core.
7. In a piano including, support means, outstanding pivot pin means arranged on said support means, and elongated playing means mounted on said pivot pin means for oscillation about a transverse axis of said pin means remote from and extending generally transversely of one end portion of said playing means, the combination therewith of solenoid means for actuating and guiding said playing means, said solenoid means comprising, outstanding coil means arranged on said support means laterally of said one end portion of said playing means and having an inner periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means, and armature means extending laterally outwardly from said one end portion of said playing means and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about said axis upon actuation of said playing means, said armature means having outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated inner-peripheral portions of said coil means.
8. In a piano including, support means, outstanding pivot pin means arranged on said support means, and elongated playing means mounted on said pivot pin means for oscillation about a transverse axis of said pin means remote from and extending generally transversely of one end portion of said playing means, the combination therewith of solenoid means for actuating and guiding said playing means, said solenoid means comprising, outstanding coil means arranged on said support means laterally of said one end portion of said playing means and having an inner periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means, and armature means extending laterally outwardly from said one end portion of said playing means and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about said axis upon actuation of said playing means, said armature means having an outer periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means and outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral portions of said coil means.
9. In a piano including, support means, outstanding pivot pin means arranged on said support means, and elongated playing means mounted on said pivot pin means for oscillation about a transverse axis of said pin means remote from and extending generally transversely of one end portion of said playing means, the combination therewith of solenoid means for actuating and guiding said playing means, said solenoid means comprising, outstanding coil means arranged on said support means laterally of said one end portion of said playing means and having a rectangular inner periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means, and armature means extending laterally outwardly from said one end portion of said playing means and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about said axis upon actuation of said playing means, said armature means having outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said coil means.
10. In a piano including, support means, outstanding pivot pin means arranged on said support means, and elongated playing means mounted on said pivot pin means for oscillation about a transverse axis of said pin means remote from and extending generally transversely of one end portion of said playing means, the combination therewith of solenoid means for actuating and guiding said playing means, said solenoid means comprising, outstanding coil means arranged on said support means laterally of said one end portion of said playing means and having a rectangular inner periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means, and armature means extending laterally outwardly from said one end portion of said playing means and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said coil means about said axis upon actuation of said playing means, said armature means having a rectangular outer periphery elongated transversely generally longitudinally of said playing means and outstanding guide means slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said coil means.
11. In a piano including, a support, an upstanding pivot pin arranged on said support, and an elongated key mounted on said pin for generally vertical oscillation about a generally horizontal transverse axis of said pin remote from and extending generally transversely of the front end of said key, the combination therewith of a solenoid for actuating and guiding said key, said solenoid comprising, upstanding coil means arranged on said support beneath said front end of said key and including an upright non-metallic core of uniform rectangular transverse section elongated generally longitudinally of said key and a coil of wire wrapped around said core, and an armature extending downwardly from said front end of said key and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said core about said axis upon actuation of said key, said armature having outstanding non-metallic guides slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core.
12. In a piano including, a support, an upstanding pivot pin arranged on said support, and an elongated key mounted on said pin for generally vertical oscillation about a generally horizontal transverse axis of said pin remote from and extending generally transversely of the front end of said key, the combination therewith of a solenoid for actuating and guiding said key, said solenoid comprising, upstanding coil means arranged on said support beneath said front end of said key and including a non-metallic spool having an elongated upright core of uniform rectangular transverse section elongated generally longitudinally of said key and provided at each end with an outstanding flange of rectangular shape elongated generally longitudinally of said key and a coil of wire wrapped around said core between said flanges, an elongated armature extending downwardly from said front end of said key and being freely oscillatable longitudinally in said core about said axis upon actuation of said key, said armature having a uniform rectangular transverse section elongated generally longitudinally of said key and outstanding non-metallic guides slidable along the transversely elongated inner peripheral surfaces of said core, and a non-metallic stop arranged on the upper one of said flanges and engageable by said key at the bottom of its downward oscillation.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 681,261 Powers Aug. 27, 1901 1,003,201 Phillips Sept. 12, 1911 1,148,719 Sandell Aug. 3, 1915 1,165,903 Reed Dec. 28, 1915 1,252,076 Kupperstein Jan. 1, 1918 1,389,625 Churchward Sept. 6, 1921 1,530,123 Jones Mar. 17, 1925 1,831,749 ONeill Nov. 10, 1931 2,105,793 Nor-burn et al. Jan. 18, 1938 2,767,607 Barone Oct. 23, 1956

Claims (1)

1. SOLENOID MEANS FOR ACTUATING AND GUIDING PIANO PLAYING MEANS, SAID SOLENOID MEANS COMPRISING, COIL MEANS HAVING A TRANSVERSELY ELONGATED INNER PERIPHERY, AND ARMATURE MEANS FREELY OSCILLATABLE LONGITUDINALLY IN SAID COIL MEANS ABOUT A REMOTE AXIS EXTENDING GENERALLY TRANSVERSELY OF THE TRANSVERSELY ELONGATED PORTIONS OF SAID INNER PERIPHERY, SAID ARMATURE MEANS HAVING OUTSTANDING GUIDE MEANS SLIDABLE ALONG THE TRANSVERSELY ELONGATED PORTIONS OF SAID INNER PERIPHERY.
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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3618124A (en) * 1969-04-18 1971-11-02 Magnavox Co Facsimile transducer
US4084615A (en) * 1974-07-30 1978-04-18 Milliken Research Corporation Dyeing and printing of materials
US4205593A (en) * 1977-04-21 1980-06-03 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Pneumatic pressure control device
US4513652A (en) * 1981-09-08 1985-04-30 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Solenoid actuator for use in automatic performance piano
US4524669A (en) * 1981-06-11 1985-06-25 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Key-driving/detecting mechanism for keyboard instrument
US6194643B1 (en) 1998-09-04 2001-02-27 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US20010017075A1 (en) * 1998-09-04 2001-08-30 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US6888052B2 (en) 1998-09-04 2005-05-03 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US20060179997A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2006-08-17 David Meisel Actuation system for keyboard pedal lyre
US20060272469A1 (en) * 1998-09-04 2006-12-07 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US681261A (en) * 1899-04-13 1901-08-27 Magnetic Piano Company Automatic piano.
US1003201A (en) * 1908-08-08 1911-09-12 Thomas Ernest Raymond Phillips Electric automusical instrument.
US1148719A (en) * 1914-12-30 1915-08-03 Mills Novelty Co Electric piano.
US1165903A (en) * 1913-01-29 1915-12-28 Telelectric Company Playing apparatus for musical instruments.
US1252076A (en) * 1917-11-23 1918-01-01 Morris M Kupperstein Electrically-operated gold-beating machine.
US1389625A (en) * 1919-06-24 1921-09-06 Wilson Welder & Metals Company Electrical solenoid
US1530123A (en) * 1922-03-03 1925-03-17 Henry A Jones Mechanical instrument player
US1831749A (en) * 1928-01-27 1931-11-10 Charles A O'neill Electrical piano
US2105793A (en) * 1936-06-29 1938-01-18 Charles S Norburn Pipe organ
US2767607A (en) * 1953-07-27 1956-10-23 Robert J Barone Electric and portable piano

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US681261A (en) * 1899-04-13 1901-08-27 Magnetic Piano Company Automatic piano.
US1003201A (en) * 1908-08-08 1911-09-12 Thomas Ernest Raymond Phillips Electric automusical instrument.
US1165903A (en) * 1913-01-29 1915-12-28 Telelectric Company Playing apparatus for musical instruments.
US1148719A (en) * 1914-12-30 1915-08-03 Mills Novelty Co Electric piano.
US1252076A (en) * 1917-11-23 1918-01-01 Morris M Kupperstein Electrically-operated gold-beating machine.
US1389625A (en) * 1919-06-24 1921-09-06 Wilson Welder & Metals Company Electrical solenoid
US1530123A (en) * 1922-03-03 1925-03-17 Henry A Jones Mechanical instrument player
US1831749A (en) * 1928-01-27 1931-11-10 Charles A O'neill Electrical piano
US2105793A (en) * 1936-06-29 1938-01-18 Charles S Norburn Pipe organ
US2767607A (en) * 1953-07-27 1956-10-23 Robert J Barone Electric and portable piano

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3618124A (en) * 1969-04-18 1971-11-02 Magnavox Co Facsimile transducer
US4084615A (en) * 1974-07-30 1978-04-18 Milliken Research Corporation Dyeing and printing of materials
US4205593A (en) * 1977-04-21 1980-06-03 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Pneumatic pressure control device
US4524669A (en) * 1981-06-11 1985-06-25 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Key-driving/detecting mechanism for keyboard instrument
US4513652A (en) * 1981-09-08 1985-04-30 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Solenoid actuator for use in automatic performance piano
US20010017075A1 (en) * 1998-09-04 2001-08-30 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US6194643B1 (en) 1998-09-04 2001-02-27 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US6444885B2 (en) 1998-09-04 2002-09-03 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US6781046B2 (en) 1998-09-04 2004-08-24 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US6888052B2 (en) 1998-09-04 2005-05-03 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US20060272469A1 (en) * 1998-09-04 2006-12-07 David Meisel Key actuation systems for keyboard instruments
US20060179997A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2006-08-17 David Meisel Actuation system for keyboard pedal lyre
US7439426B2 (en) 2005-02-15 2008-10-21 David Meisel Actuation system for keyboard pedal lyre

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