US3158949A - Revolver firing action means - Google Patents

Revolver firing action means Download PDF

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US3158949A
US3158949A US176235A US17623562A US3158949A US 3158949 A US3158949 A US 3158949A US 176235 A US176235 A US 176235A US 17623562 A US17623562 A US 17623562A US 3158949 A US3158949 A US 3158949A
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trigger
movement
action
hammer
hand
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George H Freed
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George H Freed
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41CSMALLARMS, e.g. PISTOLS, RIFLES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • F41C3/00Pistols, e.g. revolvers
    • F41C3/14Revolvers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A19/00Firing or trigger mechanisms; Cocking mechanisms
    • F41A19/06Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms
    • F41A19/42Mechanical firing mechanisms, e.g. counterrecoil firing, recoil actuated firing mechanisms having at least one hammer
    • F41A19/52Cocking or firing mechanisms for other types of guns, e.g. fixed breech-block types, revolvers
    • F41A19/53Double-action mechanisms, i.e. the cocking being effected during the first part of the trigger pull movement

Description

Dec. 1, 1964 G. H. FREED REVOLVER FIRING ACTION MEANS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 28, 1962 f INVENTOR.
650,@65 /z '59559 BY Dec. 1, 1964 G. H. FREI-:D
REVOLVER FIRING ACTION MEANS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 28, 1962 rNvENToR. 650/2 @E /z/ 59550 Dec. l, 1964 G. H. FREED 3,158,949
, REVOLVER FIRING ACTION MEANS Filed Feb. 28, 1962 4 SheetS-Sheet 5 A INVENTOR.
Dec. l, 1964 G. H. FREI-:D 3,158,949
REVOLVER EIEING ACTION MEANS Filed Feb. 28, 1962 4 sheets-sheet 4 fiala.
INVENTOE @E0/Q65 fr. Fea-5D United vStates Patent() File-d Feb. 2d, 1962, Ser. No. 176,235 22 Claims. (Cl. 42-65) This invention relates to tiring action mechanisms in iirearms and similar cartridge firing devices which include a magazine for containing usually a plurality of cartridges to be indexed in sequence into tiring position. More particularly, the invention relates to the means conventionally incorporated within such firing mechanisms for automatically and successively indexing each cartridge within the magazine into tiring alignment with the barrel elementof the device, andfor the attaining of proper hammer throw distance commensurate therewith.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Serial No. 145,258, iiled October 16, 1961 which is, in turn, a continuation-impart of my application Serial No. 75,947 filed December l5, 1960, now abandoned. Y
Although the invention was achieved upon adaptation of a Colt model revolver type pistol and a Smith & Wesson model revolver type pistol each to incorporate the invention, and therefore its presently preferred embodiments will be described in connectionvwith ysuch Colt and Smith & Wesson firearms, it will be understood that the invention in'its broader aspects may bev applicable to firearms and other cartridgering devices which are, or may be manufactured by others than Colt or Smith & Wesson. Accordingly, the true scope of the invention should not be considered as being limited to its particular embodiments herein described, but rather only by the appended claims.
As more fully explained in the referred to copending application, iiring :action mechanisms in conventional revolver type pistols include means for bringing a cartridge into alignment with the barrel element contemporaneously with actuation of the mechanism for tiring such cartridge. Certain undesirable limitations upon the action of the mechanism have been previously imposed by the inclusion of such chamber indexing elements in that the movements of certain other elements have been restricted in order to coordinate Ithe relative movements of all the parts during the action.
It is also pointed out in that earlier specication that it is preferable to further incorporate in such conventional mechanisms `a so-called double action movement, whereby the pistoll is rendered capable` of being cocked and iired repetitively in response solely to a squeezing of the trigger element, as well as the so-called single action movement in which the hammer element is lirst manually Withdrawn and temporarily locked in its cocked position to be subsequently released by a squeezing of the trigger element. The problems attending la minimizing of the aforementioned limitations of movement-become more ditlicult of solution, and have not previously been satisfactorily solved but rather have only been compromised, Where such double action feature is incorporated in the mechanism.
For example, one of the limitations which has been imposed by the inclusion of the contemporaneous chamber indexing actionof the mechanism is the necessity for providing a greater distance of hammer throw, i.e. the extent of movement of the hammer in moving from its releasedposition to its fully cocked position, than is desirable. In conventional tiring action mechanisms, the cartridge chamber indexing elements move in response to movement of the trigger element which, in turn, determines the extent of throw of the hammer in accordance with the requisite distance of movement of the chamber "ice indexing elements. It becomes apparent that it would be desirable to provide a mechanism in which proper chamber indexing action may be incorporated Without compromising any distance of hammer throw which it is desired that the mechanism also provide, as such is an object of the invention.
It also becomes apparent that it would be even more desirable to provide a mechanism which further incorporates the preferred double action feature and in which proper chamber indexing action occurs, yet in which any desirable distance of hammer throW, Whether the mechanism be actuated by single action or by double action movement, might also be provided, and such is another object of the invention.
ln these respects, it is known by those having skill in the art that, for the purpose of improving shooting accuracy, the distance of hammer throw, and therefore the distance of hammer fall in swinging upon its release -to strike the cartridge to be tired, should be as short as possible so as to cause lock time to be proportionately faster. It is known that a Smith & Wesson iiring action mechanism is now available, at a premium in cost, which provides only a single action movement, but which provides a distance of hammer throw which is about oneeighth of an inch shorter than is conventional. The importance to marksmen of a shortened throw becomes apparent when it is considered `-that demand .for Smith 8: Wesson pistols which incorporate this fasterlock time feature is high, even though the distance of hammer throw is only very slightly shorter than usual, and even though such action is provided at a sacrifice of a double action movement of the mechanism, which is not included. Accordingly, another object of the invention is to provide a firing action mechanism which provides substantially less distance of hammer throw, and therefore a substantially faster lock time than has been attainable'heretofore in a mechanism which includes the aforementioned chamber indexing means. For example, in the presently preferred embodiments of the invention, a true short throw hammer is provided, the distance of hammer movement being only about one-half of the conventiona distance of such movement. Moreover, it is intended that the invention shall provide a firing action mechanism which is capable of providing such short throw of the hammer whether the same be actuated by a single action movement thereof, or a double action movement thereof, the mechanism further including the latter.
As is also more fully explained in the referred to copending application, a further inadequacy is found in conventional firing action mechanisms which include the chamber indexing means in that, upon actuation, the cartridge receiving chamber which contains the oartridge next to be tired is not always properly indexed by the mehanism into full alignment with the pistol barrel by the time the hammer is released, or triggered from its cocked position to tire the cartridge. If the cartridge chamber is not so aligned at the time the containedV cartridge is fired, the bullet or slug in travelling from the chamber into the barrel will partially strike and shave itself on the barrel end, thereby causing dangerous spattering of lead, possiblefjamming. of the mechanism, and distortion of the head of the slug which, in turn, causes inaccuracy in the iiight of the projectile after it leaves the barrel. It is also pointed out that the problem of attaining such` full cartridge chamber indexing becomes more difcult lof solution when the mechanism further incorporates means providing the forementioned shortened throw ofthe hammer, and Where the mechanism provides a double action movement.
The referred to copending application describes in detail what are believed to be the causes, as well as effective means for eliminating such malfunctioning in firing action mechanisms, and itis an object of the present invention to also provide means whereby the possibility for such cartridge chamber misalignment, at the time of firing the `contained cartridge, is substantially eliminated. It will become apparent that the means which the present invention provides in this respect will be effective for the purpose whether or not a double action movement of the mechanism is provided, and regardless of any predetermined extent of hammer throw as may be established, and it is another object of the invention to provide such means as Iare adaptable for incorporation into firing action mechanisms, generally, although it will be understood that such means are necessary for the purpose where such double action movement and short throw hammer feature are also incorporated. Accordingly, the portions of that earlier specification which are relevant to such objects of the present invention are hereby incorporated into this specification by reference.
In general, the preferred embodiment of the invention i of the referred' to copending application provides means `for accelerating the upward movement of a conventional type harid element, in engagement with the rotatable cylinder of the pistol, in conjunction with the movements of the trigger and hammer when bringing the latter to its cocked position. The cantridge receiving chamber of the cylinder,r which contains the cartridge next in sequence to be fired, is indexed by the mechanism into full alignment with the pistol barrel by the time the hammer has pivoted to` its fully cocked position, and the, same results are intended by the present invention'. By that invention,v rectilinear movement of the hand element with respect to the trigger is permitted by means such as an. elongated slot ofthe trigger in which the hand element is disp-laceably mounted, and such slidable connection or its equivalent is also within the contemplation of the present invention. In the preferred embodiment of` that invention, the hand element is urged its upward accelerated movement by a trigger spring mounted in the trigger slot.
However, it is pointed out in that earlier specification that abnormal resistance to rotative movement of the cylinder is sometimes encountered, as by a cartridge being oversize in length or not being fully seated within the cartridge chamber such as would cause its head to bind within the cylinder headspace by contact with the head'- space end of the pistol fname, which resist-ance. might depress or resist the action of such trigger spring and. thus prevent the desired prompt upward movement of the hand element. In certain embodiments of that invention, means are providedv for overcoming such resistance to cylinder movement.
It is an object of the present invention to provide still more effective means to, cope with such resistance to cylinder rotative movement, yet promote similar accelerated upwardy movement of the hand element for the aforesaid purpose. Specifically, the present invention in this respect is` intendedl to provide means for more positively and perhaps more effectively overcoming such resistance to cylinder movement as it occurs or, alternatively, for causing the mechanism to jam so as to prevent firing of the cartridge in the event such resistance is so great as to prevent the cartridge chamber from attaining full alignment with the barrel, as when such resistance is greater lthan that as the mechanism of the present invention would normally overcome. In respect to this alternative, it is seen that a further object of the invention is to provide `a safety means in the firing action mechanism of such firearms and similar devices as will prevent firing of a cartridge therein when suchv cartridge is not fully in alignment with the barrel of the device.
In addition to providing more positive control over hand element movement, and thereby to more closely simulate the positive control in this respect as is attainable by conventional mechanisms and which may be considered beyond an acceptable level.
advantageous as compared to the embodiments of the invention described in the copending application, the present invention seeks to perhaps simplify the respective mechanism elements as are involved in the chamber indexing action, and thereby to facilitate the manufacturing process and to make perhaps even more economical the conversion of a conventional firing action mechanism to incorporate the features and advantages of the invention. Similarly to the means provided by the earlier invention, it will be found that the present invention may be conveniently attained in a conventional mechanism of the type by replacement `or adaptation of only a few essential elements thereof. For example, in one embodiment of lthe invention, only the trigger and hand element of a conventional mechanism would require replacement or adaptation.
It is still another object of the invention to provide, in a firing action mechanism which incorporates a double action movement, means whereby the distance of hammer throw as is afforded by the mechanism will be substantially the same whether the mechanism be actuated by either a single action `or a double action movement. Heretofore, in tiring action mechanisms as have incorporatedY the double action movement feature, it was believed that, because of the required Sear arrangements, the distance of hammer throw when moving the hammer manually to its fully cocked `position must necessarily be greater than that distance which the hammer will throw when the mechanism is actuated by the double action movement. Yet, it is believed by many who are skilled in the art that, as between the two types of movement, it is more preferable that the shortest possible hammer throw be available in the single action movement. In other words, a short throw hammer is always desirable but, as regards shooting accuracy, single action firing is the more noticeably improved where a very short distance of hammer fall is provided, However, where the mechanism incorporates a double action, difficulty arises when attempting to provide a shortened throw of thehammer during the single actiony movement since, for one thing, any substantialy adjustment in. this respect may cause the hammer throw during, the double action movement to be less than the minimum which, is required to cause the hammer to strike a cartridge with sufiicient force to fire the same. This as well as other difficulties are due to the aforementioned difference in the distance of hammer throw as between the two types of movement as they are found in conventional firing action mechanisms. It may al-so be mentioned that where the tension, or bias, of the mainspring i-s increased in conjunction with such adjustment to hammer throw so as to increase hammer force, cooking effort is more often increased By the prese-nt invention, means' are provided to substantially equalize the respective distances of hammer movement, when the mechanism is actuated by single action and' double action type movemen-ts.
It will also. be understood that in this respect the invention provides a mechanism which is adaptable for providing a very minimum distance of hammer throw during the single action movement without involving significant reduction of such distance during the double action movement', and, further, without' necessity for significantly altering 'the amount of effort as will be required to move the hammer to its cocked position. Moreover, it will be apparent that such equalization of hammer throw affords equalization of the impact of the hammer on the cartridges whether the pistol be fired by either single action or double action movement of its firingA action mechanism, which impact equalization in turn promotes uniformity in the feel of the pistol when fired in either manner.
Thus, the present invention in its preferred embodiments provides a firing action mechanism which incorporates a double action movement, yet provides a com-A mon and Very short distance of hammer throw whether the mechanism is actuated either by single action or double action movement, and which eliminates the possibilities for misalignment with the barrel of a cartridge at the time of its ring by achieving full chamber indexing by the time the hammer element has moved to its fully cocked position, the last mentioned feature further providing means for overcoming incidental resistance to such chamber indexing movement in a manner which renders the mechanism incapable of being triggered if such resistance is not overcome. It has not been heretofore understood how all of these features and advantages can be attained in a firing action mechanism of the type.
In a modified form of the present invention, means which are operable substantially in accordance with the invention of the referred to copending application are further included for the purpose of maintaining pressure, in the direction of its chamber indexing rotation, on the cartridge receiving cylinder of the pistol at the instant the hammer strikes a cartridge for firing the same. Thus, while the preferred embodiments may be adapted to provide such maintaining of indexing pressure, it is contemplated that an alternative mode of operation of the mechanism in this respect will be available, if desired. v
As will be more fully understood, the present invention has certain'features in common with those of the invention of the aforementioned copending application. For example,lthat invention provides means both permitting and compelling accelerated rectilinear movement of a hand element with respect to the trigger of the device during the movement of the mechanism by which the hammer element is brought to its fully cocked position, the hand element moving in engagement with a cartridge containing cylinder to rotate the same in indexing one of the cartridges into alignment with the barrel element. In the preferred embodiment of that invention, such means for promoting accelerated rectilinear movement of the hand element tatkes the form of a vertically extending slot of the trigger in which the conventional laterally prov truding axle portion of the hand element is mounted, the
hand axle being urged upwardly'in the trigger slot by a trigger spring which is also mounted in the slot.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a
hand element responsive to that small amount of additional movement of the trigger, beyond its position commensurate with the fully cocked position of thehammer element, as is necessary to cause the trigger and hammer sear elements to ride apart, after the hammer has attained its fully cocked position, to release the hammer to lire the indexed cartridge. This dwell feature also permits inclusion, if desired, ofa trigger spring element, as described in my aforementioned copending application, for maintaining indexing pressure of the hand element on the cylinder at the time of release of thehammer, but it will be seen that the ltrigger cam surface may be adapted for the same purpose.
In addition, whereas conventional trigger elementshave only one sear portion which engages either the single action sear or the double action sear of the hammer element, the present invention provides both a single action sear and a double action sear of the trigger element, the location and arrangement of these trigger sear elements being suchas to provide a substantially equal'distance of hammer throw using a conventional type hammer element, whether the mechanism movement be either by single action or double action. Moreover, the relative lengths 6 and arrangement of the trigger and hammer sear elements with respect to each other is such as will provide a short throw of the hammer during either movement.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description thereof wherein reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE l is a fragmentary side elevation of a Colt model pistol embodying the invention as the pistol would appear prior to a ring actuation thereof, the pistol being shown with its handle grip plates removed and with certain other portions partially cut away for a better understanding of the firing action mechanism;
. FIGURE 2 is an enlarged and fragmentary side elevation of certain essential components of the firing action` mechanism of the pistol of FIGURE l, but showing the mechanism as it would appear upon actuating the trigger to its position immediately prior to release of the hammer element for firing the pistol by a so-called double action movement of the mechanism;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, but showing the mechanism as it would appear upon moving the hammer to its fully cocked position, and prior to squeezing the trigger for ring the pistol by a so-called single action movement of the mechanism; t
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view of the pistol of FIGURE l, the section taken at line 2 2 of that gure;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view, to the scale of FIGURE 4, of the Vtiring action mechanism in its position as shown in FIGURE 2, the section taken at lines 5-5 of that figure;
FIGURE 6 is a similary enlarged fragmentary show ing of the hand and trigger elements of the firing action mechanism in its position as illustrated in FIGURES l and 4,V the view being taken at the reverse side of these elements as indicated by lines 6 6 in FIGURE 4; whereas FIGURE 6A is a showing of the hand and trigger elements of the firing action mechanism in its position as illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 5, the view also being taken at the reverse side of these elements as indicated by lines 5A-5A in FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary and partially cut away view of a modified form of trigger as may be used in a modified form of firing action mechanism in accordance with the invention; while FIGURE 7A is an end elevation of the FIGURE 7 showing;
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged fragmentary side elevation of certain essential components of the firing action mechanism of a Smith & Wesson model revolver type pistol adapted to incorporate the invention, the mechanism being shown in its position prior to a firing actuation thereof;
FIGURE 9 is a similar view of the mechanism of FIG- URE 8, but showing the mechanism as it would appear upon moving the hammer to its fully cocked position,` and prior to squeezing the trigger for firing the pistol by a so called single action movement of the mechanism;
FIGURE 10 is a simliar view of the mechanism of FIGURE 8, but showing the mechanism as it would appear upon moving the hammer to its fully'cocked position, and prior to squeezing the trigger for ring the pistol by a so called double action -rnovement of the mechanism;
FIGURE l1 is a view showing the trigger and hand elev ments of a mechanism similar to that yof FIGURE 8, but
elevation of `a modified form of firing action mechanism,
the mechanism incorporating the trigger of FIGURE 13 7 and being shown as it would appear prior to actuating the same; and
FGUR'E 15 is a view of the mechanism of FIGURE 14 as the same would appear upon moving the hammer thereof to its fully cocked position, and prior to squeezingV the trigger for iiring the pistol by a so called single action movement of the mechanism.
Referring first to-FIGURE l, the invention is shown as embodied in a revolver type pistol 2t), such as a Colt revolver, which has a frame, generaily indicated by reference numeral 21, to which is attachedla barrel element 22 and a pivotable cylinder crane 23. A cartridge chamber cylinder 24 is rotatably mounted on a spindle of the crane 23 in conventional manner. Referring brieiiy to FG- URE 4, it will be understood that the cylinder 24 has a plurality of annularly spaced and axialy aligned cartridge receiving chambers 2S formed within the cylinder for receiving a corresponding plurality of cartridges (not shown), each of which may be brought into alignment with the barrel 22 of the gun by rotationr of the cylinder, as is well known.
As is also well known by those familiar with the art, it will be understood that in loading the cartridge receiving chambers 25 with cartridges, the cartridges are inserted bullethead rst into the chambers, from the rearward side 24a of the cylinder 241, and that the peripherally projecting base flange of each cartridge is normally intended to lie iush against the rearward end 24a of the cylinder such that the ange will reside within the headspace H of the pistol, the headspace H being the open area defined by the spacing between the cylinder rearward end 2da and the headspace end 21a of the frame 2. If each cartridge is not properly seated, or if too. muchgrease is on the cartridge, or if the cartridge is slightly oversize, etc., it may protrude too far into the headspace H and, when the cylinder 24 is rotated, may stick or bind against the headspace end 21a of frame 21, thereby causing resistance to proper rotative movement of the cylinder 24'. The cylinder rotative movementis caused by the action of the firing action mechanism which operates to cock and. iire the pistol, as will now be described.
The pistol 2@ has a tiring action mechanism, generally indicated by reference numeralv 26. (FIGURES 2 andl 3) for ring in sequence the cartridges contained in cartridge receiving chambers 25. The tiring action mechanism includes a trigger 2'7 which is pivotally mounted to the frame 2 by a trigger pin 28, a hammer 29 which is pivotally mounted to the frame 2l by a hammer pin 30, a rebound lever 3l which is pivotally mounted at one ofits ends 31a to frame 2l by a piny 32, a pistol mainspring 33, and a ratchet pawl or hand element 3d' for rotating the cylinder 24 substantially contemporaneously with trigger actuation to index one of the cartridge receiving chambers 25a (FlGURES 4 and 5) into tiring alignment with the barrel 22. In rotating the cylinder 24, the hand element 34 engages a ratchet element 35 which is attached to the cylinder.
A hammer stirrup 36. is pivotally mounted on the hammer 29 by hammer stirrupr pin 37, and it will be understood that the free end of one of the leaf portions 33a of mainspring 33 is in bias pressure engagement with the end 35a of the hammer stirrup in a manner urging hammer Z9 toward its released position as shown in FiGURE l. The other leaf portion 3317 of mainspring 33 is in bias pressure engagement with rebound lever 31 in a manner normally urging the hand element 34 and trigger 2'7v into their initial, preiring positions as shown in FIGURE l. The two leaf portions 33m and 33h merge at the mainspring end 33e whichis received in a recess 38` of the frame 2l, as shown.
The free end Bib of the pivotaole rebound lever 3l is tapered in the illustrated conventional manner and engages a protruding axle housing portion 34a of hand 34 in which a hand axle 39 is attached. The laterally protruding hand axle 39 is received within a trigger slot 4i) for both pivotal and rectilinear movement with respect to the trigger 2'7 The pivotal portion of the movement is that which is conventional in pistols of the type during chamber indexing movement of the hand 34 towards the cylinder 24. However, the rectilinear portion of the hand movement with respect to the trigger is that which is necessary to permit the hand 3d to move toward the cylinder at the requisite rate, for purposes as will be apparent, which rate is greater than that with which the trigger itself will move in the same direction.
The trigger slot d0 serves as a guide track for guiding the hand axle 39, which is therein received as a follower, in its rectilinear movement with respect to trigger 27. The direction of elongation of the slot 4t) is generally in the direction of the conventional movement of the hand element 34, during trigger actuation, towards cylinder 24 for the purpose of engaging ratchet 35 to index a cartridge receiving chamber 25 into alignment with barrel 22. Thus, the lower end 40a of slot 40 (the end which is opposite that towards the aforementioned direction of movement of hand 34) may, for the purposes of the present description, be considered as substantially coinciding with the simple bearing type aperture (not shown) which is provided in a conventional trigger of the type for receiving the hand axle 39, the distance of the slot 40 from the trigger pin aperture 28a (see FIGURES 6 and 6A) also being the same as in such a conventional trigger. The trigger 27 also includes a trigger sear portion 41 which, in the preferred embodiment, is adapted in a manner as will be described.
Referring briefly to FGURE 11, it will be understood that, as an alternative to providing a slot 40 in the trigger wherein the conventional hand axle 39 rides, an equivalent slide connection between the trigger and hand element may be eitected by providing a fixed hand element guide pin 139a of the trigger andan elongated slot 14Go of the hand element. In such embodiment, the guide pin 139er of the trigger projects laterally from the trigger body portion at substantially the location of the aforementioned simple bearing type aperture as is provided for the pivotal mounting ofthe hand element in conventional triggers. The hand element slot 14011 is arranged and disposed to effect the intended rectilinear movement during the action, as will be apparent.
Continuing with the description of the ring action mechanism 26, its general arrangement is similar to that of conventional mechanisms in pistols of the type as regards the interacting relationships between the trigger 27 and hammer 29, and it will be understood from FIGURES 2 and 3 that upon pivoting of the trigger 27 in the direction of arrow A, or of the hammer 29 in the direction of arrow B, and depending upon whether the hammer is manually cockedfor single action firing (as illustrated in- FIGURE 3) or is cocked coincidentally with trigger actuation for double action tiring of the pistol (as illustrated in FIGURE 2)., the trigger sear portion 41 will engage either the single action hammer Sear 52 or the double action hammer sear 53. The double action hammer sear 53 is formed by a surface of a hammer sear strut 54 which is pivotallyf mounted; on hammer 29 as by a strut pin 55. The sear strut 54 has a stop 56 which engages a coacting stop` 57 of hammer 29 in response to the bias of a strut spring 58, as shown.
Referring to FIGURES 2 and 3, the ring action mechanism arrangement conventionally includes a cylinder stop element, or bolt 59, which is pivotally mounted for rocking type movement on a bolt pin 60 attached to frame 21. rlhe bolt 59 has an end 61 which is adapted to sequentially engage and disengage each of the peripherally spaced cylinder detents` 62 within the cycle of each chamber indexing rotative movement of the cylinder 24. Bolt 59 has an opposite end 63 adapted to engage a laterally projecting lug 64 of rebound lever 31. The rebound lever 31 is biased into engagement at its free end 31b with the hand element 34 (at its housing portion 34a) by the urging of mainspring 33 for the purpose of returning the hand element 34 and trigger 27 to their preiiring positions after hammer 29 has been released to tire a cartridge. But, it will be seen that the rebound lever 31 will pivot against its bias, in the direction of arrow C, as hand element 34 moves upwardly in engagement with the cylinder ratchet 35. During such upward pivotal movement of the rebound lever 31, the end 63 of bolt 59 will also be urged upwardly by engagement of the laterally projecting rebound lever lug 64.
The bolt 59 is thereupon pivoted about the axis of its bolt pin 60 so that its end 61 moves downwardly out of engagement with one of the cylinder detents 62, into which the end 61 has previously been biased by the urgingof the bolt spring 65. Upon further movement of rebound lever in the direction of arrow C in response to continued upward movement of the hand element, the bolt end 63 rides on the rebound lever lug 64, thereby permitting the bolt 59 to pivot in lopposite direction, responsive to the urging of the bolt spring 65, so that its end 61 may thereupon be biased perhaps rst into contact with cylinder 24 at a location between two adjacently spaced cylinder detents 62, but in any event into seating engagement within the cylinder detent 62 which is next in sequence around the cylinder upon the chamber indexing movement of the cylinder 24 having been completed. Such engagement of the bolt end 61 within any cylinder detent 62 will limit the rotative movement of the cylinder 24 in indexing one of its cartridge receiving chambers 25 into alignment with barrel 22 of the pistol, as is understood by those having skill in the art. As is also well understood, upon the trigger and hammer sear elements riding apart in response to additional movement of trigger 27 in the direction of arrow A to lire the pistol, and upon the trigger 27 being released by the inger, the urging of mainspring 33 'will cause the rebound lever 31 to pivot in direction opposite to that shown by arrow C, whereupon the rebound lever lug 64 will drop past the bolt end 63 to position the lug 64 therebelow for initiating another cycle of rocking movement of bolt 59 in response to a subsequent actuation of the mechanism. For
this purpose, the bolt S9 is made of thin stock towards its end 63 so that, due to the respective confronting congurations of bolt end 63 and the side edge of the rebound lever lug 64, the bolt end 63 will resiliently deform in lateral direction, with respect to the bolt end 63 at the end of the cycle of actuation.
It will be understood from a comparison of FlGURlES 4 and 5 that, during tiring actuation movement of the mechanism 26, the hand element 34 is intended to move slidably with respect to the pistol frame 21 in direction 'Y towards the cylinder 24 for the purpose of appropriately engaging the ratchet 35-thereof tocause cartridge indexing rotation of the cylinder contemporaneously with the movements of the trigger and hammer. The hand element 34 has a free end 34h and a notched shoulder 34e, and is in laterally offset relation with respect to the axis of rotation of cylinder 24. Upon pivotal movement of trigger 2'7 in the direction of arrow A (FIGURE 2), or of hammer 29 in the direction of arrow B (FIGURE 3), the hand element will sequentially engage first the ratchet lug 35a. by its free end 34h, and thence the ratchet lug 35h,
by its notched shoulder 34C, to cause rotation of the cylinder fully to the extent necessary for indexing one of the cartridge receiving chambers 25a into firing alignment with the barrel 22 in well known manner.
During such slidable movement the hand element 34 rides between, and is guided bythe tixed guide element dtiwhich is attached to the frame 2l, and the ixed guide element 67 .which is -formed byan interior surface of a lremovable side plate 63 of the frame. The side plate 63 is attached to the frame 21 by side plate screws 69 and 7@ (FIGURE l) and encloses and conceals the major portions of the firing action mechanism 26 within the frame 21, its removal permitting access to the ring rebound lever 31 returns the hand element 34, as Welly as trigger 27, to their normal, preiring positions thereby completing the chamber indexing cycle.
Considering the movement of hammer 29, it should be noted that, in the preferred embodiment of the invention, the fully cocked position of hammer 29, as indicated by the full line showings thereof in FlGURES 2 and 3, is such as provides a relatively short distance of hammer tall upon its release to strike a cartridge, as compared to the distance of hammer fall in a conventional tiring action mechanism having generally the same basic mode or" operation. Such shortened throw of the hammer 29 is achieved by adaptation of the trigger and hammer sear elements as, for example, by shortening the length of trigger sear portion 41, or the length of hammer sear strut 54, or by otherwise adjusting the lengths thereof relative to each other, as is well known to those familiar with the art. For purposes of comparison, the distance of hammer throw in such conventional mechanism is indicated by dotted lines CFC (conventional Ifull cock), the released position of hammer 29 being indicated by dotted lines R. It will be noted that, in either a single action movement or a double action movement of the mechanism 26, the throw of the hammer in withdrawing the same from its released position to its fully cocked position in the preferred embodiment of the present invention is approximately one-half of that in the basic conventional mechanism, yet the invention is intended to achieve complete and full chamber indexing by the time the hammer 29 has attained its short throw fully cocked position. ln addition, it should be noted that, by means of the present invention as will next be described, the distances o hammer cocking movement during both the single action movement and the double action movement are substantially equal.
For an understanding of the means whereby the distanceof hammer throw when cooking the mechanism 26 manually in a single action movement is made substantially equal to that when the mechanism is actuated by Va squeezing of the trigger 27 in a double action movement, reference is tirst made to FIGURE 6 wherein the relevant portions of trigger 27 are illustrated with perhaps better clarity. lt is seen that the trigger sear portion t1 yforms a conventional sear at its extreme end which, in previous triggers, has been employed to trigger the hammer during both the singleaction movement and the double action movement of the basic mechanism. However, by the present invention, such extreme end of trigger sear portion 11i-1 is employed for triggering the hammer only during the double action movement of mechanism 26, and it will therefore be referred to herein as the double action sear of the trigger 27.
The trigger sear portion 41 is notched, as shown, at its underside to form a single action sear 81 of the trigger 27. The location of such notch, and therefore of the trigger single action sear 81, inwardly of the extreme end of trigger sear portion 41, and therefore from the trigger double action sear Si?, is determined upon consideration of the predetermined desired distance of hammer movement in moving to its double action `fully cocked position as shown in FIGURE 2, and of the slightly different position which trigger 27 will assume with respect to hammer 29 when locked in engagement with hammer single action sear S2 if the hammer 29 is to move substantially the same cocking distance in a single action movement of theirnechanisrn.V The slightly different positioning of the trigger during the respective movements is, of course, due tothe clearance distance between the single and double action sears of the hammer. It will further be noted that, where such hammer sear clearance distance is maintained at a minimum so as to also elect substantially equal distances of trigger pull as may sometimes be desirable in the respective movements, the notch which forms the trigger single action sear 81 will also provide clearance between trigger sear portion 41 and hammer single action sear 52 during the double action movement of the mechanism.
ln some cases, however, as for example where it is thought that the release, or triggering of the hammer upon a distance of pull of the trigger which is shorter than is conventional would be undesirable, the distance of trigger pull during the double action actuation of the mechanism may be made longer, to approximate the conventional distance of trigger pull, by provision of an arcuately shaped dwell surface 82 along the top edge and adjacent the end of trigger sear portion 4l, as indicated. Thus, referring to FIGURE 2, it will be understood that a longer distance of trigger pull in the direction of arrow A, prior to the time of release of hammer 29 by the riding apart of the trigger and hammer double action sears, may be provided in a manner which does not require a greater distance of hammer cooking movement. The trigger dwell surface S2 has arcuate shape corresponding with the radius of pivotal movement of trigger 27 about trigger pin 2S such that, beyond a desired point, no further pivotal movement of hammer 29 in the direction of arrow B takes piace in response to further pivotal movement of trigger 27 in the direction of arrow A.
Referring now to the features of mechanism 26 which provide chamber indexing rotative movement of cylinder 24 as accompanies the movement of hammer 29 towards its fully cocked position, the rate of movement of the hand element 34 towards cylinder 24 during the action is such as will cause the hand element to have moved from its position as shown in FIGURE 4 to that as shown in FIGURE 5 within the period of movement of hammer 29 from its released position as shown in FIGURE l to its fully cocked position as shown in either of FIGURE 2 or 3. Because of the fixed interrelationships of the hammer and trigger sear elements, it becomes apparent that, if the rate of movement of hand element 34 is to be appropriatefor the purpose where certain given conditions of ope-ration are imposed (such as the illustrated short throw hammer condition, for example), the hand element 34- must move relative to trigger 27. Such relative movement of the hand element 34 is permitted by the trigger slot 40 in which its axle 39 is mounted, and the preselected proper rate of its movement is determined by means asA will now be described.
Referring again to FlGURE 6, and also to FIGURES 4, 5 and 6A, it is seen that hand element 34 is provided with a laterally protruding portion 33 which provides at a lower edge thereof what will be referred to herein as a hand sear 84. The portion 83, and consequently the hand sear 34, is oriented in fixed' position at a distance spaced from hand axle 39 as determined by relationships to be described.
FIGURE 6 shows the trigger 27 and hand element 34 in their relative positions of engagement when the mechanism 26. is in its pre-tiringV condition as shown in FIG- URE 1, the hand axle 39 being adjacent the lower end ti-,tta of trigger slot 4t?. It is seen that the hand sear 34 normally lies. adjacent the upper edge surface 85 of trigger 27 as such surface is conventionally formed in a cut out fashion for clearance between the trigger and frame 2l duringl the action. Upon pivoting the trigger 27 in the direction of arrow A (FIGURE 6A), whether such pivoting be caused by iinger pressure (double action movement) or by the pressure of engagement of hammer single action Sear 52 with the underside of trigger sear portion. il (single action movement), it will be understood that by reason of the tapered' juxtapositioning of hand scar 84, an upwardly projecting cam surface 86 of the trigger 27 will exert pressure on hand. sear S4 and urge the same in the upward direction relative to trigger 27 `as is indicated by the arrow in FIGURE 6A. Thus, within a relatively short space of pivotal movement of the trigger 27, the hand element 34 will be urged upwardly in engagement with the cylinder ratchet 35 at a relatively rapid rate, the hand axle 39 moving upwardly within trigger slot dil. It is seen that the lowermost edge 84a of hand sear will be in sliding contact with the trigger cam surface 86 during the movement of the trigger, and that the rate of upward movement of the hand element 34 relative to the trigger may be predetermined, by adjustments to the location of hand sear lowermost edge 8d and the rate of climb of the trigger cam surface 86, in `accordance with any predetermined distance of trigger throw as may be desirable in the action.
FIGURE 6A shows the relative positions of the hand element and trigger as they will substantially appear upon the hammer 29 having attained its fully cocked position in either a single action movement or a double action movement of the mechanism 26, as indicated by either FIGURE 2 or FIGURE 3. At such time, the cylinder Zd has been rotated fully to the ext-ent necessary to bring cartridge chamber 25a from its position as shown in FIGURE 4 to that shown in FIGURE 5. However, it will be understood that, to cause the trigger and hammer sear elements to ride apart so as to release the hammer from its fully cocxed position in either case, a small amount of additional movement of trigger 2'7 in the direction of arrow A is necessary. Since no further upward movement of hand element 34 is desired during such further movement of the trigger, the upward end of trigger cam surface S6 is provided with a dwell portion 86a on which the hand sear lowermost edge 84a will ride during such additional trigger movement without causing further upward movement of the hand element. By reason of the predetermined location of projection of trigger double action sear for proper coaction with hammer double action sear 53, the provision of dwell portion 86a on the trigger cam surface 86 gives the appearance of a notch having been formedat the location ot merging of cam surface 86 with trigger scar portion 4l.
It will be noted that the means as has been described for promoting the requisite rectilinear movement between hand element 34 and trigger 27 provides an advantage ov-er certain of the embodiments of the invention described in my aforementioned copending application in that the direct engagement between the trigger and the hand element scar during the action providesA a positive force urging the hand element in its upward movement. Thus, if a sticky cartridge as previously mentioned is encountered, and which would otherwise interrupt the rotative movement of cylinder 24, such positively applied force will enable the overcoming of such resistance as is presented, or will promote reactive force preventing further movement of the trigger inthe even preventing further movement of the trigger in the event such resistance is greater than that which can be overcome. It is therefore apparent that la safety feature is provided since, by such interruption of trigger movement, further movement of hammer 29 towards its fully cocked position is also prevented, and the mechanism is therefore incapable of being triggered until a cartridgeA chamber 25 has been indexed fully intoalignment with barrel 22.
Referring now to the mechanism action as illustrated in- FIGURES 2 and 3, it will be observed that at all times during the movement, whether by single action or double action actuation, the rebound lever 3l is in engagement with hand element axle housing portion 34a, under the bias pressure of mainspring 33. Thus, as is conventional, the pressure exerted on trigger Z7 which causes its pivot-al movement must be such as to overcome the bias pressure of mainspring 53 so as to pivot rebound lever 3l against the same, in the direction of arrow C.
Continuing with a description of the operation of tiring action mechanism 26, FIGURE 1 shows the mechanism as its parts will appear prior to their actuation for firing a cartridge (not shown) within cartridge receiving chamber 25a (see FIGURE 4). FIGURE 2 shows an intermediate disposition ofthe parts during a double action movement thereof, the hammer 29 being now in its double action fully cocked position and'immediately prior to its release to move under the urging of mainspring 33 into ring contact with the cartridge within chamber 25a. The position of the hammer 29 when in such firing contact with the cartridge (FIGURE 1) is referred to herein as the released position of the hammer 29. In actuating the mechanism between its positions as shown in FIGURES l and 2, the pistol is grasped by the handle portion in conventional manner with the forefinger applied to trigger 27. Squeezing of the trigger causes its pivotal movement, about trigger pin 28, in the direction of arrow A in FIGURE 2. The trigger movement brings the trigger Sear 41 into pressure engagement with the underside of the double action hammer sear 53. Further pivotal movement of the trigger lifts the sear strut 54 and hence, by theV interaction of the strut and hammer stops 56, 57, causes the hammer 29 to pivot, in the direction of arrow B, toits fully cocked position as shown.
Continued finger pressure on trigger 27 causes a slight additional amount of trigger pivotal movementsuch that the trigger sear il rides oli of the double action seal 53 of the hammer, whereupon the bias pressure of the pistol mainspring 33 on thel hammer stirrup 36 causes hammer 29 to swing sharply in direction opposite to that shown by arrow B to its release position as indicated by dotted lines R. Y
FIGURE 3 shows an intermediate disposition of the parts during a single action movement thereof, the harnmer 29 being now in its single action fully cocked position and immediately prior to its release to move under the urging of mainspring 33 into tiring contact with the cartridge within a chamber such as chamber a. It will be recalled that the single action fully cocked position of hammer 29 is substantially the same as its double action fully cocked position. In actuating the mechanism between its positions as shown in FIGURES l and 3, the hammer is manually pivoted, in the direction of arrow B, its single action sear 52 engaging the trigger sear portion 41 until it locks with trigger single action sear Si' in conventional manner. As will be understood by those familiar with the art, such pivoting of hammer 29 causes pivotal movement of trigger 27 in the direction of arrow A due to such engagement of the parts.
After hammer 29 has been moved to its single action fully cocked position, the pistol 29 is grasped by the handle portion in conventional manner with the foreiinger applied to trigger 27. Pressure on trigger 2.7 causes a slight additional amount of trigger pivotal movement in the direction of arrow IA such that the trigger single action sear `Si rides ott of the single action sear 52, of the hammer, whereupon the bias pressure of the pistol mainspring 33 on the hammer stir'rup 36 causes hammer 29 to swing sharply in direction opposite to that shown by arrow B to its released position as indicated by dotted lines R.
During both the single action movement and the double action movement of the mechanism `fait, the pivotal movement of trigger 27 urges hand element 34 in engagement with cylinder ratchet 3S in the previously described manner and thus provides the contemporaneous chamber indexing rotative movement of cylinder 24.
Referring now to FIGURES 7 and 7A, a modied form of trigger 27 is shown, as may be used in the mechanism 26. This modified form of trigger is somewhat similar to that which is more fully described in my aforementioned copending application. In addition to having a trigger slot du, `the single action trigger sear fil as well as the double actiontrigger sear 89, and a trigger cam surface 86 as previously described, the trigger of FIGURES 7 and 7A includes a spring receiving orice 43 formed within the body portion 27a of the trigger, and a trigger projecting portion 42 which is attached to the side surface of trigger body portion 27a, as by welding or brazing, at a location immediately below the trigger slot 4G. By its lateral protrusion, the trigger projecting portion 42 lies within the planeV of movement of rebound lever 3l when the trigger is installed in the mechanism. The ori*- iice 43 communicates with the lower end 49a of the trigger slot 4G and has a coil type spring 4-4 disposed therewithin. The spring 44 is biased towards the aforementioned upward direction of movement of the hand element, and is retained within orice -43 as by a set screw i5 in threaded engagement with orifice internal threads 43a which are formed at the open end of the orice adjacent an edge of trigger body portion 27a. A button head 46 or the like may be provided at thatend of the spring 44 which projects into the slot 40 for bias engagement with hand axle y39. Thus, the bias of spring 44 on hand axle 39 will normally urge the latter away from the lower end 40a of the slot 40.
kGO
Similar modified forms of trigger 27 are described in my aforementioned copending application, and it will be understood that any of the same might be used as an alternative to the trigger shown by FIGURES 7 and 7A.
Describing-the mode of operation of tiring action mechanism 26 where the same incorporates the modified form of trigger, it was mentioned in connection with the previously described mode ot operation of the mechanism that rebound lever 31 is in slidable engagement with hand element axle housing portion 34a at all times during either a single action movement or a double action movement of the mechanism. It was also stated that, in the previously described mode of operation, the hand element 34 is at all times during the action positively urged into engagement with cylinder ratchet 35 by the pressure of engagement between trigger cam surface $6 and the hand scar lowermost edge'ta, the dwell portion 86a on the trigger cam surface 8d providing a hold in the hand element upward movement at the time when the mechanism 26 is triggered.
in some instances, as for example where close tolerances of ytit between the elements is undesirable in the manufacturing process or where it is contemplated that considerable wear of the elements may be experienced during use, it may be desirable to provide additional means for assuring continued engagement pressure of the hand element 34 on cylinder ratchet 35 at the time when the mechanism is triggered, where, due to wear or tolerances of i'it, it is expected that similar urging as is provided by trigger cam surface 86 being in engagement with hand sear edge 84a will be inadequate. Such additional means are provided by the modiiied form of trigger which is shown in FIGURES 7 and 7A.
As more specifically described and illustrated in my referred to copending application, it will be understood that the trigger projecting portion -42 is adapted to engage the rebound lever free end Slb during the movement of the mechanism which accompanies movement of hammer 29 to its fully cocked position. In the presently preferred mode of operation, however, the trigger projecting portion 42 is adapted to so engage rebound lever free end Sib only during the final stage of such movement, so as 'to relieve the bias pressure of rebound lever 31 on hand element axle housing portion 34a `just prior to the time when hammer Z9 has arrived in its fully cocked position. Such relieving of the engagement between rebound lever 3l and hand element 34 permits the trigger spring 44 to exert its bias pressure on hand axle 39, and to continue to exert its bias pressure on hand axle 39, during such nal stage of movement of the hammer 29 to its cocked position and during the period of release of hammer 29 upon triggering of the mechanism Thus, the trigger spring 44 effects pressure engagement between hand element 34 and cylinder ratchet 35 at least at any time when the aforementioned positive urging between trigger cam surface 86 and hand sear edge 84a ceases during the aforementioned period of their dwell. In this manner the cylinder Z4Vis urged against bolt stop 59, and it will be understood that any slack between the parts as may be attributable to wear or inaccurate tolerances of lit will be eliminated.
In FIGURES 8-11, it is shown how the invention is adaptable for application to the conventional Smith & Wesson type tiring action mechanism 126. As is known to those familiar with the art, a pistol embodying such mechanism includes a rotatable cartridge receiving cylinder 12d having an attached cylinder ratchet 135 and peripherally spaced cylinder detents 162 which are sequentially engaged by a cylinder stop or bolt 152 which functions similarly to the bolt 59 of the Colt action mechanism. The mechanism 126 further includes a hammer 129 which is pivotable about hammer pin 130 between the released position thereof in firing contact with a cartridge (not shown) to be red as shown in FIGURE 8, and either a single action fully cocked position thereof as illustrated in FIGURE 9 or a double action fully cocked position thereof as illustrated in FIGURE 10.
As in the previously described embodiment of the invention, the trigger 127 is provided with a separate single action sear 181 as well as a double action sear 181i so that the throw of hammer 129 when moved to its fully cocked position in either case will be substantially the same. The double action sear 180 and single `action scar 181 are formed in the trigger sear portion 141.
The hammer 129 has a single action hammer sear 152 which engages the single action sear 181 of the trigger 127, upon manual movement of the hammer to its single action fully cocked position, in the same manner as such engagement is effected in the Colt type mechanism embodiment. However, because of the fairly close clearance distance as is provided in a Smith & Wesson hammer element between its double action sear strut 154 and its single action sear 152, the trigger sear portion 141 is provided with a clearance recess 190 adjacent the trigger double action sear 180 so that, during a single action movement of the mechanism the trigger will not be blocked in its movement by the trigger double action sear 1S@ coming intoy engagement with the double action hammer sear 153 at the lowermost end of' the sear strut 154. During a double action movement of the mechanism 126 as illustrated in FIGURE l0, it will be observed that the trigger double action sear 180 nevertheless properly engages the double action hammer sear 153:l inconventional manner for pivoting hammer 129 to its double action cocked position.
The firing action mechanism 126 further includes a hand element 134 which is mounted on trigger127 for slidable, as well as conventional pivotal movement relative thereto.v Such relative slidable movement between the trigger and hand element is in direction towards cylinder 124 during. the action, as described in connection with the colt type mechanism embodiment. Slidable connection is provided by an elongated slot 140 of the trigger in which the hand element axle 139 is mounted as a follower. Alternatively, and as shown in FIGURE ll, the trigger 127 may be provided with a laterally projecting fixed guide pin 13911, `and the hand element 134 provided with an elongated slot 14041, as previously mentioned.
The upward urging of the hand element 134 in response to pivotal movement inthe direction of 4arrow A. of trigger 127l is provided by the trigger cam surface 186 which engages the lowermost edge 1:84a of the hand sear 184 as is provided by protruding portion 133' of the hand element, the action being similar to that as previously described. It should be noted that, by reason of the conventional shape of Smith & Wesson triggers, a dwell in the upward movement of hand element 134 will probably be automatically provided by the conventional disposition or" the upper edge surface of the sear portion 141 of the trigger so that no further provision for such dwell appears to be necessary in the Smithl & Wesson type mechanism embodiment.
Return of the trigger 127 and hand element 134 to their entrenan 16 prering positions is effected in Smith & Wesson pistols by provision of a rebound slide 131 which rides on a rebound slide stud 187 and is urged into pressure engagement with trigger 127 by a rebound slide spring 188, as is well known.
For a better understanding of the Smith & Wesson type mechanism embodiment, it should perhaps be noted that Smith & Wesson hand elements are further conventionally provided with a fixed pivot stud which engages and rides within the conventionally incorporated arcuate slot 195 of the trigger 127, and which is biased for such arcuate movement within the slot by -a torsion spring 197. The torsion spring 197 engages and exerts a downward bias on the upper edge of hand element pivot stud 195, and is conventionally mounted as shown on stud 193 of trigger 127, its other free end engaging trigger stud 199. As is well known to those having skill in the art, the function of torsion spring 197 and the arcuately slidable connection between hand element pivot stud 195 and the arcuate slot 196 is only to provide pivoting of the hand element 13e during the action so that the hand element free end 134i: moves towards the end of cylinder ratchet 135. This arrangement is considered a substitute for the provision of fixed guide 67 in the Colt type mechanism embodiment, and such connection as it provides only relative pivotal movement between these parts should not be confused with the true slidable, connection between hand element 134 and trigger 127 as is provided by the present invention.
It should further be noted that in the Smith & Wesson type embodiment of the invention as illustrated in FIG- URES 8-11, the trigger and hammer scar elements are arranged and constructed with respect to each other such as to provide a relatively short throw of the hammer 129 in moving to its fully cocked position either by single action movement or by double action movement of the mechamsm.
Referring now to FIGURES 12-15, an alternative means for providing full chamber indexing commensurate with Va short throw hammer action of a Smith & Wesson type mechanism is shown. For purposes of comparison, FIGURE l2 shows the relevant essential elements of the conventional Smith & `Wesson type mechanism as has been known heretofore. These essential elements were referred to in connection with the description of the FIGURES 8-11 embodiment of the invention, and are correspondingly numbered.
However, in accordance with the invention, a trigger element as illustrated in FIGURE 13 is incorporated in the firing action mechanism 226 whose operation is illustrated in FIGURES 14 and 15. In FIGURE 13, the conventional shape at the trigger scar portion 24M of a standard Smith & Wesson type trigger is indicated by dotted lines. In accordance with the invention, the trigger sear portion 141 is provided with a clearance recess 291i adjacent the trigger double action scar 280 so that, during a single action movement of the mechanism the trigger will not be blocked in its pivotal movement by the trigger double action sear 23) coming into engagement with the double action hammer sear 153 at the lowermost end of the scar strut 154. Although not illustrated, during a double action movement of the mechanism 226, it will be found that the trigger double action sear 2311 nevertheless properly engages the double action hammer sear 153 in conventional manner for pivoting hammer 129 to its double action cocked position.
The trigger 227 of FIGURE 13 is further provided with a slide surface 2S6 extending between its double action sear 235i and its single action sear 281, the latter being provided by a notch formed in the trigger as shown.
Referring now to FIGURE 14, a firing action mechanism 226 which incorporates the trigger 227 is illustrated as it would appear prior to actuating the mechanism for firing a cartridge within a cylinder 124. FIGURE 15 illustrates the parts in their positions upon manually pivoting the hammer 129 to its single action fully cocked position. It will be noted that a standard type Smith & Wesson hand element 234 is incorporated in the mechanism, and that the same has a hand axle 239 which is only pivotally mounted in a bearing aperture 240 of the trigger (see FIGURE 13) as is conventional.' A frame pin 200 is mounted in fixed position proximate, and projecting in front of hammer sear strut 154.
Upon manual pivoting of hammer 129 in the direction of arrow B (FIGURE 15) it will be understood from a comparison of FIGURES 14 and 15 that the pressure of engagement between the single action hammer sear 152 and the trigger slide surface 236, due the tapered relationship between these elements, will promote pivoting of the trigger 227 in the direction of arrow A. The single action hammer Sear-152 will ultimately lock in engagement with single action sear 281 of the trigger Vas is conventional. The length and angular disposition-of trigger slide surface 286 and the location of the trigger single action sear 281 is such that the trigger 227 pivots a sufficient4 distance in the direction of arrow A such as will carry the hand element 234 upwardly in engagement with cylinderratchet 135 a distance adequate to rotate cylinder 124 and index a cartridge chamber fully into alignment with the barrel (not shown) of the pistol. y
Referring to FIGURE. 15, the frame pin 200 is precisely positioned so as to slightly depress the hammer sear strut 154, against the bias of its strut spring 158, in the final stage of hammer cocking movement. In a single action movement of the mechanism, such depression of hammer scar strut 154 promotes clearance between the trigger double action sear 280 and the double action hammer sear 153.` In a double action movement, such depression of hammer sear strut 154 provides an earlier triggering of the` hammer by permitting the riding apart of the trigger double action Sear `280 and the double action hammer sear 153 at a time sooner than otherwise. p
Thus has been described a firing action mechanism, in several of its embodiments, as will achieve all of the objects of the invention. Y
What is claimed is:
1. In combination, a trigger element including means mounting the same for pivotal movement in a revolver type pistol, and hand element mounted for subs-tantially slidable movement in such pistol, said hand and trigger elements having connection means therebetween permitting rectilinear movement of the hand element relative to the trigger element during said pivotal movement of the latter, said connection means comprising means dening an elongated 'slot of one of said elements and a slide follower portion of the other of said elements engaging said elongated slot of the former, and said hand and trigger elements further havingcam means therebetween, said cam means inducing said retilinear movement of the hand element relative to the trigger, and along said elongated slot, in response to such pivotal movement of the trigger element.
2. In a revolver type cartridge iring device having a tiring action mechanism including a hammer mounted for pivotal cocking movement and a trigger mounted for pivotal triggering movement: the improvement comprising means providing both a single action movement and a double action movement of said firing action mechanism, said means comprising a single action sear and a depressible double action sear of the hammer and a single action scar and a double action sear of the trigger, said double action sear of the trigger engaging said double action hammer sear during said double action movement of the mechanism and said single action sear of the trigger engaging said single action hammer sear during said single action movement of the mechanism, said single action sears of said hammer and trigger having length with respect to each other to provide a short distance of cocking movement of the hammer whereby the device is characterized as providing a short throw hammer during said single action7 movement, and a pin mounted in lixed position for engagement by said double action hammer scar whereby the latter is depressed by said pin during said single action movement to provide operational clearance between said double action sears of the hammer and trigger, said position of the pin further being such that said double action hammer sear is also depressed by the pin during said double action movement, said double action sears of said hammer and trigger having length with respect to each other to provide a short distance of cocking movement of the hammer whereby the device is characterized as providing a short throw hammer during said double action movement.
3. In a cartridge tiring device having a barrel element and a cartridge receiving cylinder mounted for rotation to a position thereof aligning a contained cartridge with said barrel element: a firing action mechanism comprising avtrigger mounted for movement towards a position thereof triggering the tiring Vaction mechanism to fire such cartridge, a hand element mounted for movement in engagement with said cylinder to move the latter to its said position, said hand element having sear means, said trigger having cam means engaging said hand element sear means dur-ing said movement of the trigger, and said hand element being mounted for rectilinear movement with `respect to said trigger, whereby said cam means of the trigger urges said hand element in its said cylinder engagement movement in response to said movement of the trigger.
4. In a cartridge firing device having a barrel element and a cartridge receiving cylinder mounted for rotation to a position thereof aligning a contained cartridge with said barrel element: a tir-ing action mechanism comprising a trigger mounted for pivotal movement from a released position to a position thereof triggering the firing action mechanism to lire such cartridge, a hand element mounted for upward movement in engagement with said cylinder to move the latter to its said position, said trigger having an upwardly facing surface portion extending generally towards that end of said trigger which moves upwardly during its saidV pivotal movement, said upwardly facing surface of the trigger including an upwardly protruding cam portion, and said hand element having a downwardly facing sear portion engaging said cam portion of the trigger during said pivotal movement of the latter, said hand element being mounted for rectilinear movement with respect to said trigger, whereby said cam portion of the trigger urges said hand element in its said cylinder engagement movement in response to said pivotal movement of the trigger.
5. In a cartridge firing device, a firing action mechanism according to claim 4 wherein said cam portion of the trigger includes a first portion and a dwell portion, said first portion engaging said hand element scar portion during the major portion of the period of said pivotal movement of the trigger whereby said cylinder engagement movement of the hand element is substantially completed during said period of engagement of said rst portion, and said dwell portion engaging said hand element sear portion during the remaining terminal portion of said period of pivotal movement of the trigger whereby said cylinder engagement movement of the hand element is substantially arrested during said period of engagement of said dwell portion.
6. In a cartridge firing device, a firing action mechanism according to claim 5 wherein said dwell portion maintains positive pressure of said engagement between said hand element and said cylinder during said remaining terminal portion of said period of pivotal movement of the trigger.
7. In a cartridge firing device, a firing action mechanism according to claim 4 wherein said trigger includes means defining an elongated, substantially vertically slot disposed below its said upwardly facing surface, and said hand element has a laterally protruding axle in slidable engagement with said trigger slot, said hand axle being 19 disposed substantially at the lower end of said trigger slot when said trigger is in its said released position and moving towards the upper end of said trigger' slot during said pivotal movement of the trigger.
8. In a cartridge tiring device, a firing action mechanism according to claim 4 wherein said trigger has a laterally projecting guide pin disposed below its said upwardly facing surface, and said hand element includes means defining a substantially vertical slot in slidable engagement with said trigger guide pin, the upper end of said hand element slot being disposed substantially adjacent said trigger guide pin when said trigger is in its said released position and moving away from said trigger guide pin during said pivotal movement of the trigger.
9. ln a cartridge ring device having a barrel element and a cartridge receiving cylinder mounted for rotation to a position thereof aligning a contained cartridge with said .barrel element: a firingaction mechanism comprising a trigger mounted for pivotal movement from a released position to a position thereof triggering the ring action mechanism to tire such cartridge, a hand element mounted for upward movement in engagement with said cylinder to move the latter to its said position, a rebound lever mounted for pivotal movement and having an end normally engaging said hand element, and spring means biasing said rebound lever in direction towards its said normal engagement with said hand element, said trigger having an upwardly facing surface portion extending generally towards that end of said trigger which moves upwardly during its said pivotal movement, said upwardly facing surface of the trigger including an upwardly protruding cam portion, and said hand element having a downwardly facing sear portion engaging said cam portion of the trigger during said pivotal movement ot the latter, said hand element being mounted for rectilinear movement with respect to said trigger, whereby said cam portion of the trigger urges said hand element in its said cylinder engagement movement in response to said pivotal movement of the trigger, and said trigger further having a protruding portion engaging said rebound lever during said pivotal movement of the trigger to relieve the normal pressure of engagement between the rebound lever and said hand element to permit said rectilinear movement of the latter relative to said trigger.
l0. In a cartridge firing device, a tiring action mechanism according to claim 9 wherein said tiring action mechanism further comprises a spring mounted between said trigger and said hand element and biasing said hand element in the direction of its said cylinder engagement movement with respect to said trigger, whereby said spring exerts bias pressure on said hand element to maintain said engagement of the latter with said cylinder when said trigger is in its said position triggering said firing action mechanism.
l1. In a cartridge ring device, a tiring action mechanism according to claim 10 wherein said trigger includes means defining a substantially vertical slot disposed below its said upwardly facing surface, and said hand element has a laterally protruding axle in slidable engagement with said trigger slot, and said spring between said trigger and said hand element is disposed within said trigger slot between the lower end thereof and said hand element axle.
12. For a revolver type cartridge tiring device having a rotatable cylinder and a trigger mounted for pivotal movement: a hand element for mounting between said trigger and said cylinder, said hand element having a cylinder engagement end and a trigger mounting end, trigger connection means at said trigger mounting end, and a Sear portion protruding laterally from one side of the hand element and being disposed in spaced relation with respect to said trigger connection means in direction towards said cylinder engagement end, said sear portion presenting an edge facing towards said trigger mounting end for engaging a cam surface of said trigger.
13. For a revolver type cartridge firing device, a hand element according to claim 12 wherein its said trigger connection means comprises means dening an elongated slot, the direction of elongation of said slot being substantially in the direction of the length of said hand element between its said ends.
14. For a revolver type pistol having a rotatable cylinder, a trigger mounted for pivotal movement between a released position and a pistol ring position thereof, and a spring biased rebound lever for returning the trigger from its said pistol tiring position to its said released position: a hand element for mounting between said trigger and said cylinder, said hand element having a cylinder engagement end and a trigger mounting end, an axle housing portion protruding laterally from one side of the hand element at said trigger mounting end, the distance of protrusion of said axle housing portion from said one side of the hand element being substantially equal to the width of said rebound lever for receiving the latter thereon, a trigger-mounting axle protruding from the end of said axle housing portion and having length substantially equal to the width of said trigger,
and a sear portion protruding laterally from said one side of the hand element and being disposed in spaced relation with respect to said axle housing portion in direction towards said cylinder engagement end, the distance of protrusion of said seat portion being substantially greater than that of said axle housing portion, said sear portion presenting an edge facing towards said trigger mounting end for engaging a surface of said trigger.
16. A trigger for mounting in a revolver type cartridge tiring device wherein a hand element moves in response to pivotal movement of the trigger to index a cartridge into position to ,be red, said trigger comprising a body portion, pivot means of said body portion for pivotally mounting said trigger in said device, and an upwardly facing surface of said body portion in radially spaced relation with respect to said pivot means and extending generally towards and terminating at that end of said trigger which moves upwardly during its pivotal movement, said upwardly facing surface including a double action Sear portion at its said terminal end and an upwardly protruding cam portion disposed inwardly of said sear portion for engaging and so moving said hand element during said pivotal movement of the trigger.
16. A trigger according to claim 15 wherein said trigger further comprises means defining an elongated, substantially vertical slot of said body portion for mounting said hand element on the trigger, said slot being disposed substantially adjacent and below said upwardly facing surface.
17. A trigger according to claim 15 wherein said cam portion includes a first portion and a dwell portion, said dwell portion being disposed toward said upwardly moving end of the trigger with respect to said rst portion, and said dwell portion further being disposed with respect to said pivot means for arresting said cartridge indexing movement of the hand element during a portion of said pivotal movement of the trigger.
18. A trigger according to claim 17 wherein said trigger further comprises means defining an elongated, substantially vertical slot of said body portion for mounting said hand element on the trigger, said slot being disposed substantially adjacent and below said upwardly facing surface, and a spring mounted within and attached at the lower end of said elongated slot for exerting its spring bias in the direction of elongation of the slot.
19. A trigger according to claim 18 wherein said trigger further comprises a rebound lever engagement lug attached to said .body portion below said elongated slot and projecting a distance outward from the end edge of said body portion generally in the direction of said upwardly moving end of the trigger.
20. In a revolver type cartridge tiring device having a rotatable cylinder for receiving a plurality of cartridges to be sequentially iired, and a firing action mechanism including a hammer mounted for pivotal cooking movement, a'trigger mounted for pivotal triggering movement, and a hand element mounted for movement in engagement with said cylinder to rotate the same: the improvement comprising means providing both a single action movement and a double action movement of said tiring action mechanism, said means comprising. a single action sear and a depressible double action sear of the hammer and a single action seal and a double action sear of the trigger, said double action sear of the trigger engaging said double action hammer sear during said double action movement of the mechanism and said single action sear of the trigger engaging said single action hammer sear during said single action movement of the mechanism, said single action sears of said hammer and trigger having length with respect to each other to provide a short distance of cocking movement of the hammer whereby the device is characterized as providing a short throw hammer during said single action movement and said double action sears of said hammer and trigger having length with respect to each other to provide a short distance of cocking movement of the hammer whereby the device is characterized as providing a short throw hammer during said double action movement, connection means between said hand element and said trigger to permit rectilinear movement of said hand element relative to said trigger in response to said pivotal 22 during both said single action movement and said double action movement of the mechanism.
21. In a revolver type cartridge tiring device, the improvement according to claim 20 wherein smd double action sear of the trigger comprises an outwardly projecting end thereof, said end including an upper surface which is recessed to provide clearance between said double action sear of the trigger and said double action sear of the hammer during said single action movement of the mechanism.
22. in a revolver type cartridge firing device, the irnprovement according to claim 20 wherein said double action sear of the trigger comprises an outwardly projecting end thereof, said end including an upper surface having a rst portion for engaging said double action hammer sear to thereby induce said cooking movement of the hammer during said double action movement of the mechanism and an arcuate dwell portion adjacent said rst portion, said arcuate dwell portion engaging said double action hammer sear during only the terminal portion of said pivotal movement or'the trigger, and said arcuate dwell portion being shaped to substantially arrest said cocking movement of the hammer, whereby the distance of such pivotal movement of the trigger vduring said double action movement of the mechanism is increased.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS i

Claims (1)

  1. 4. IN A CARTRIDGE FIRING DEVICE HAVING A BARREL ELEMENT AND A CARTRIDGE RECEIVING CYLINDER MOUNTED FOR ROTATION TO A POSITION THEREOF ALIGNING A CONTAINED CARTRIDGE WITH SAID BARREL ELEMENT: A FIRING ACTION MECHANISM COMPRISING A TRIGGER MOUNTED FOR PIVOTAL MOVEMENT FROM A RELEASED POSITION TO A POSITION THEREOF TRIGGERING THE FIRING ACTION MECHANISM TO FIRE SUCH CARTRIDGE, A HAND ELEMENT MOUNTED FOR UPWARD MOVEMENT IN ENGAGEMENT WITH SAID CYLINDER TO MOVE THE LATTER TO ITS SAID POSITION, SAID TRIGGER HAVING AN UPWARDLY FACING SURFACE PORTION EXTENDING GENERALLY TOWARDS THAT END OF SAID TRIGGER WHICH MOVES UPWARDLY DURING ITS SAID PIVOTAL MOVEMENT, SAID UPWARDLY FACING SURFACE OF THE TRIGGER INCLUDING AN UPWARDLY PROTRUDING CAM PORTION, AND SAID HAND ELEMENT HAVING A DOWNWARDLY FACING SEAR PORTION ENGAGING SAID CAM PORTION OF THE TRIGGER DURING SAID PIVOTAL MOVEMENT OF THE LATTER, SAID HAND ELEMENT BEING MOUNTED FOR RECTILINEAR MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO SAID TRIGGER, WHEREBY SAID CAM PORTION OF THE TRIGGER URGES SAID HAND ELEMENT IN ITS SAID CYLINDER ENGAGEMENT MOVEMENT IN RESPONSE TO SAID PIVOTAL MOVEMENT OF THE TRIGGER.
US176235A 1962-02-28 1962-02-28 Revolver firing action means Expired - Lifetime US3158949A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3242607A (en) * 1964-10-12 1966-03-29 Roy J Tappehorn Firearm firing mechanism, especially for revolvers
US4128957A (en) * 1977-01-06 1978-12-12 Stephen Andrew Lee Revolver-type hand gun
US20130020371A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Portable combustion gas-powered tools with combustion chamber lockout system

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US263684A (en) * 1882-09-05 Lock for fire-arms
US520468A (en) * 1894-05-29 Revolver-lock mechanism
US881374A (en) * 1907-05-08 1908-03-10 Joseph H Wesson Revolver
US2324674A (en) * 1939-07-03 1943-07-20 J D Buchanan Firearm action
US2927390A (en) * 1955-01-31 1960-03-08 Karl R Lewis Single and double action revolver firing mechanism

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US263684A (en) * 1882-09-05 Lock for fire-arms
US520468A (en) * 1894-05-29 Revolver-lock mechanism
US881374A (en) * 1907-05-08 1908-03-10 Joseph H Wesson Revolver
US2324674A (en) * 1939-07-03 1943-07-20 J D Buchanan Firearm action
US2927390A (en) * 1955-01-31 1960-03-08 Karl R Lewis Single and double action revolver firing mechanism

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3242607A (en) * 1964-10-12 1966-03-29 Roy J Tappehorn Firearm firing mechanism, especially for revolvers
US4128957A (en) * 1977-01-06 1978-12-12 Stephen Andrew Lee Revolver-type hand gun
US20130020371A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Portable combustion gas-powered tools with combustion chamber lockout system
US9114516B2 (en) * 2011-07-21 2015-08-25 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Portable combustion gas-powered tools with combustion chamber lockout system

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