US3144354A - Electrographic printer - Google Patents

Electrographic printer Download PDF

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Publication number
US3144354A
US3144354A US1408360A US3144354A US 3144354 A US3144354 A US 3144354A US 1408360 A US1408360 A US 1408360A US 3144354 A US3144354 A US 3144354A
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Prior art keywords
web
developer
means
trough
paper
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Ira M Sage
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Keuffel and Esser Co
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Keuffel and Esser Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G15/00Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern
    • G03G15/22Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern involving the combination of more than one step according to groups G03G13/02 - G03G13/20
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G15/00Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern
    • G03G15/06Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern for developing
    • G03G15/08Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern for developing using a solid developer, e.g. powder developer
    • G03G15/09Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern for developing using a solid developer, e.g. powder developer using magnetic brush

Description

Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 10, 1960 INENTOR IRA SAGE TORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 l. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 10, 1960 4 mm F INVENTOR IRA SAGE TORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE 3,144,354

ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER Filed March 10, 1960 9 Sheets-Sheet 3 '.INVENTOR IRA SAGE \W A TORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 10, 1960 INVENTOR IRA SAGE w OE own;

A TORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 SAGE 3,144,354

ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER Filed March 10, 1960 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 IRA SAGE A ORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed March 10, 1960 INVENTOR IRA SAGE BY W) W A TORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed March 10, 1960 FIG. I2

M14) v aj r- V INVENTOR IRA SAGE FIG. I3

TTORNEY Aug. 11, 1964 1. M. SAGE ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER 9 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed March 10, 1960 E oE xOm JOmPzOo INVENTOR IRA SAGE ATTORNEY United States Patent 0.

3,144,354 ELECTROGRAPHIC PRINTER Ira M. Sage, North Bergen, N.J., assignor to Keulfel & Esser Company, Hoboken, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 10, 1960, Ser. No. 14,083 15 Claims. (Cl. 118-40) The present invention relates to the reproduction of images and more particularly to enlargements of images formed on transparent originals and particularly to obtaining the final desired size in the reproduction process, and more specifically the invention relates to apparatus for electrophotography in which latent images are formed on electrostatically charged web material and the image developed and fixed immediately.

Heretofore, in photography, including electrophotography, various methods and apparatus have been provided for making duplicate images, but there have not been simple and adequate means of obtaining accurate focus in enlarging and reduction operations and it has been necessary to perform the duplicating process under lighting conditions which hampered efficient operation and required high degrees of skill in the use of prior equipment and of the methods used therewith.

An object of the present invention is to overcome the difiiculties of the prior art and to provide apparatus and a method for making copies from originals and which can be done by relatively inexperienced personnel with little training.

Another object is to provide a projection apparatus with a single focus adjustment and another adjustment for the size of the copy so that upon reference to a table the adjustments can be made Without requiring visual acuity and skill in observation.

A further object is to provide an automatic control system which will make one or more copies after original settings and initiation of a starting switch with the operation continuing until the desired number of copies has been obtained, the copies being completely developed, fixed and trimmed with controlled leading and following margins.

A further object is to provide equipment for exposing, developing, fixing and cutting copies made by the electrophotographic method.

Another object is to provide a photographic process which can be performed in a high degree of illumination.

Other and further advantages will be apparent as the description proceeds, and upon reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective of the apparatus including an easel carrying a supply of paper at the top, a vacuum frame and a developing, fixing and cut-olf unit at the bottom, and a carriage supporting a projector from an overhead rail extending from the top of the easel horizontally to a support spaced so the projector can be movable toward and away from the easel and also movable vertically.

FIG. 2 is a transverse section of the projector supporting carriage, taken substantially on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, showing the horizontal sliding mounting thereof and the vertical adjustments of the projector support on the carriage.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail of the slidable mounting of the carriage.

FIG. 4 is a section taken substantially on line 4-4 of FIG. 1 showing the projector in section and the vertical adjustment with clamping means to maintain the horizontal and vertical adjustments of the carriage and projector respectively.

FIG. 4A is an elevation of the solenoid operated shutter adjacent the point source of light.

FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical section of the easel with parts in elevation showing the vacuum frame, the web supply, the charging bar, the developing, fixing and cut-off box pivoted to the lower portion of the easel and the chute for finished copies.

FIG. 6 is a vertical section taken on line 17-17 of FIG. 7 through the lower shaft of the charging bar raising and lowering mechanism and through the front helical roll for bringing the developer into contact with the paper.

FIG. 7 is a vertical section taken substantially on line 18-18 of FIG. 6, showing the developer agitating rollers, the fuser, feed rollers and cut-off.

FIG. 8 is a vertical sectional view of the feed roller taken substantially on line 19-19 of FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken substantially on line 20-20 of FIG. 5 showing the drive chain and lower limit switch for operating the charging bar.

FIG. 10 is a horizontal section taken substantially on line 21-21 of FIG. 7, showing the helical rib threads on the developer applying rollers.

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view of the arrangement of magnets for drawing the developer mixed with iron filings against the paper passing over the bottom of the arrangement of magnets.

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary vertical section taken substantially on line 23-23 of FIG. 7, showing the electrical heating wire coils and the support therefor for thermally fixing the developing powder to the paper web and also showing the vacuum ducts to cool the wires.

FIG. 13 is a vertical section taken substantially On line 24-24 of FIG. 12, showing the reflector arrangement for the fuser and the means for securing the heating coils therein and for supplying electrical energy to one end of the heating coils.

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary perspective of the duct including a wide mouth nozzle for causing cooling air to fiow against the heated paper and developer.

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary detail of the latching mechanism for securing the pivoted box housing containing the developer, fixed and cooling air nozzle in operative position.

FIG. 16 is the control circuit wiring diagram for the control box on the projector carriage with some relays omitted for simplicity showing the plug connection to the panel.

FIG. 17 is the control circuit wiring diagram for the control panel showing the socket connection to the cable from the control box.

FIG. 18 is a diagram indicating the time sequence and the overlap of controls to vary the time of exposure, length of paper feed, etc.

FIG. 19 is an elevation of the observed face of the box control showing the indicator lamps and the adjustments for exposure, length of paper feed, and number of prints to be made automatically.

Briefly, the present invention includes an easel having a vacuum frame for supporting paper capable of taking a latent electrostatic image upon exposure to the projected image from a suitable projector mounted for adjustment toward and away from the easel to control the size and also adjustable vertically.

The easel carries a supply roll of paper at the upper end and has means for developing the latent image at the lower end with means for rendering the paper receptive to a latent image which specifically is a corona discharge electrocharging bar movable from the top to the bottom and back to the top for each copy or reproduction made. The developing means at the lower end of the easel provides for bringing a developer into position, which developer specifically is a triboelectric thermoplastic macausing adherence of the developer to the paper.

'terial, which is electrostatically drawn against the charged and exposed surface of the paper by means of a magnet assembly, the paper and developer being then hea telil, e paper and developer are rapidly cooled and fed to a cutoff which is operated to remove the excess leading margin and is operated a second time in each cycle to cut the completed copy with a small following margin.

A control system provides for setting the time of exposureof the projector and thereafter automatically causing the developing and cutoflf and the feed of fresh unexposed paper to the easel for the subsequent copies, means being provided for automatically duplicating a plurality of copies without requiring further attention after 'the initial setting and operation of a starting button.

Upon more detailed reference to FIG. 1, an easel 40 supported on L-shaped legs 110 carries a supply of paper in a roll housed in a compartment adjacent the upper portion of the easel and closed by a door 41 to maintain a relatively constant humidity upon the roll of paper 41A, and such paper is guided over the front surface of the easel where it is sensitized by the vertical movement of a charging bar 42 passing over the paper 41A on the easel. A latent image is formed on the charged paper by a projector 43 carried by a carriage 44 mounted on a pair of tubular rails 45 extendingfrom the top of the easel 40 to a trapezoidal support 46. The rails 45 extend through apertures in a box beam 45A above the easel supported on a transverse brace 45C and are secured in position by screws 45B thereby putting the weight of one end of the rails 45 and part of the weight of the carriage on -L-shaped supports 110. The other ends of rails 45 are open top pivoted developer housing box 47 pivoted to the v lower rear portion of the easel 40. A control panel compartment in the easel is closed by a second door 48 on the back of the easel to provide access to a control panel which automatically performs the duplicating operation.

-A control box 49 is mounted on the carriage 44 to provide for the adjustment required in making copies so that the operator can be positioned at the projector 43 and perform all the functions. The front of theeasel is deemed to be the surface facing the projector and the r tom ends of the side plates are secured by means of a flange 55. The flange 55 is fixed to the outer tube 53, thereby providing a rigid Vertical guideway for the telescoping tube 52. To counterbalance the projector and to provide" for vertical adjustment thereof a split collar 57 surrounds the telescoping tube 52 and is fixed by one portion to the lower end of guide tube 53, the free ends of the collar being connected together by a clamping screw 58 having a wing type extension handle 59 whereby the split collar 57 can be clamped tightly around the telescop ing tube52 to maintain vertical adjustment thereof and of the projector supported thereby. A counterbalancing spring 60 is secured to a pin 61 fixed to the lower end of telescoping shaft 52, with the other end of the spring 60 secured to an eye fixed to a removable square plate washer 62 which rests on the upper end of the square tube 53 in a rectangular recess provided in the top plate 54 of the carriage, whereby the tension of the spring 60V serves to counterbalance the weight of the projector while the clamping screw 58 operated by handle 59 locks the vertical adjustment.

The carriage 44 is mounted for movement toward and away from the easel by means of rollers 63 mounted on angles 63A supported on supports 64 of channel sections and each support 64 is secured to the top plate 54 by means of a bolt 64A passing through an elongated transverse slot in plate 54 to provide for lateral adjustment and a bolt 64B passes through a slot in a transversely extending bar 64C and is threaded into the bottom flange of the cooperating support 64 and such bar extends com pletely across to the channel support 64 at the other side as clearly shown in FIG. 2.

It will be apparent that a support 64 is provided at each corner of the plate 54 with rollers 63 and the adjustment provided by bolts 64A provides for accurate guiding action in the movement of the carriage on the supporting bars 45. To secure the carriage 44 in position there is provided a movable plate 65 having acentral aperture therein which receives the square guide tube 53, whereby the plate 65 is guided for vertical movement and such plate is clamped against the under surfaces of the tubular rails 45 by means of the linkage arrangement shown in FIGS. 4 and 11 which includes a first link 66 connected at its upper end to the plate 65 and at its lower end to one link 67 of a toggle, the link 66 being guided in lugs 68 fixed to the square guide tube 53 and having apertures for the sliding movement of link 66. The other end of the toggle link 67 is pivotally connected to a second toggle link 69 and also to an operating knob 70 which passes through an opening in the side plate 56L, the L and R indicating the left and right sides of the projector as the operator is facing the paper supporting surface ofthe easel. The other end of the toggle link 69 is pivotally connected by pivot 71 to the square guide tube 53. The arrangement and sizes of the parts are such that the operating handle 70 may move the toggle linkage 6769 from the full line position in which the clamping plate 65 is released from engagement with the guide rail 45 to permit adjustment of the carriage toward and away from the easel. When the operating rod 70 and the links are in position so the upper surface of the clamping plate 65 is clampingly engaged against the rails 45, thereby securing the carriage 44 against movement toward and away from the easel. It will thus be seen that the keyhole shaped projector support 50 can be moved vertically with respect to the carriage and locked in adjustedvertical position by clamp 57 and moved toward and away from the easel and locked in adjusted position by plate 65. I Theprojector 43 includes a base 72 'fixed to the elongated bottom plate 73 of the keyhole-shaped projector support 50 by means of bolts or the like and base 72 has a dovetail slot in its upper surface for receiving a dovetail tongue which adjustably supports the condenser lens mounting 76 which supports condenser lenses 77. The condenser lens mount rotatably supports the film support disc 78, whereby the condenser lens system and the filmcarrying disc 78 may be adjusted relative to the projector base 72. To obtain this adjustment a rack gear 79 is secured in a slot in the dovetail tongue and is engaged by a gear 80 rotatably supported on a shaft 81 in the base 72. The gear 80 is operable by a pinion gear 82 fixed to a shaft and operated by a knob whereby'the adjustment of the condenser lens and the film-supporting disc can be accomplished.

An objective lens system is fixed to the base 72 by means of a hollow cylindrical-supporting member 84 having a reduced tubular member in which the objective lens System85 is mounted. Mounted on the other end of the projector base 72 is a point light source housing 109 and the elongated keyhole shutter housing 86 which are fixed to the base 72. The forward end of housing 86 is open receiving the rearward extension of the con into the shutter housing 86 to provide for focusing. Focusing adjustments are made by the operation of knob controlling pinion gear 82 and gear 86 coacting with rack gear 79. The condenser lens mount 76, as previously described, rotatably carries the film-supporting disc 78 which is rotatably mounted on pivot bolt 87 which passes through an aperture in the center of disc 7 8 which carries a bushing to provide for accurate guidance, the bolt 87 and a plurality of other bolts outside of the periphery of the disc 78 serving to secure a telescoping cylindrical section 88 to the condenser lens mount 76 and such cylindrical section 83 telescopes into the cylindrical supporting member 84 for the objective lens mount. An intermediate cylindrical section 89 is keyed to cylindrical section 88 and support 84 to provide for full movement of the condenser lens mount from the full line position shown in FIG. 4 to the dotted line position, thereby providing for focusing with a single adjustment.

It will be noted that the intermediate section 89 is provided with three inwardly extending lugs 89A at its rear edge and such lugs 89A extend into grooves 89B in the telescoping cylindrical section 83 while the front end of the section 89 is provided with an outwardly extending flange 89C which is adapted to abut inwardly extending stop screws 89D removably mounted at the rear end of cylindrical support 84 which carries the objective lens system 85. It will be noted that three equally spaced grooves 8B and the three equally spaced stop screws 891) are provided, with the stop screws being positioned intermediate the grooves 893 and lugs 89A in a circumferential direction. Stop screws 89?: are provided on the forward end of section 88 to cooperate with lugs 89A to thereby assure that the telescoping sections always overlap to provide a substantially light-tight telscoping structure.

The film-carrying disc 78 is provided with a central bushing for rotation about the bolt 87 and is provided with three window openings for receiving a film transparency. The transparency is held in position between glass plates between which the transparency is sandwiched.

It will be evident that the condenser lens mount 76 telescopes into and out from the shutter housing 86 to provide for focusing and the shutter 108 is operated by a solenoid SSH which serves to permit light to pass from a point light source or lamp LP housed in heat-radiating housing 199. The shutter 168 includes a diamond shaped linkage system, shown in FIG. 4A to include a fixed pivot 108A about which flag elements 1083 are rotatable by links W3C pivotally connected to the flag elements at one end and to the solenoid core 193D and therefore operable by olenoid SSH.

In addition to the simplification of the focusing of the projector by the single adjustment of the position of the condenser lens, the projector has a compensating action for limiting the intensity of the light where the size of the projected image is small such as where the projection is 1 to l or a small enlargement. The objective lens is so arranged that only a small portion of the light from the condenser lens passes through the objective lens system where the enlargement is small or where actual reduction of the projected image is obtained and this is due to the fact that the peripheral rays from the condenser lens pass outside of the objective lens mount thereby reducing the total quantity of light passing through the objective lens system.

In many projectors, the total light from the projector lamp passes through the objective lens system whether the projector is projecting an enlargement or a reduction of the plate and therefore the intensity of light is much greater in the conventional projector on reduction or on projections of small enlargements and consequently the time of exposure must be more accurately controlled where the intensity of the light becomes excessive.

Although in the present arrangement the intensity of light does increase inversely in proportion to the size of 6 the enlargement, the variation in intensity is not so great as in conventional projector systems and therefore the time of exposure is not as critical and consequently the projectors of the present invention have advantages over the prior projectors.

It will be apparent that the distance of the projector from the easel or screen will be accurately measured as well as the distance of the condenser lens from the objective lens system and to accurately provide for correct adjustment, a rack and pinion is provided between the projector carriage and one of the tubular rails and a distance counter positively connected thereto to indicate the precise position of the projector carriage. Similarly a counter is positively connected to the shaft 82A to indicate the position of the condenser lens with respect to the objective lens and the point source of light and a scale or chart is provided to show the correct adjustments and to show the extent of enlargement in accordance with the readings of the carriage position counter and the reading of the condenser lens mount counter.

The carriage is also moved along by means of the shaft operating the pinion meshing with the rack on the tubular rail thereby providing a simple and accurate adjustment. In addition an automatic interconnection between the position adjustment of the carriage and the position adjustment of the condenser lens mount makes it possible to obtain both adjustments by means of a single operating member.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 5, the easel 40 is shown supported on acute angled L-shaped supports 110 with the upper ends of the legs being provided with horizontal extensions 111 from which the easel housing 112 is suspended so that the center of gravity lies well within the base defined by bases of the L-shaped supports. A vacuum easel frame for supporting paper forms the front of the easel and includes a front plate 113 having a plurality of perforations 113A therethrough and side, top and bottom walls and a rear wall 114 forming a hollow structure for providing a vacuum chamber obtained by a communicating pipe fitting 115 opening into the hollow vacuum frame.

T he front and back walls 113, 114 extend beyond the side walls and a top shaft 116 and a bottom shaft 117 are rotatably mounted in the vacuum frame and carry sprockets at each end with chains 118 extending around the sprockets so that simultaneous movement of the chains is accomplished at each side of the easel. Mounted on the forward run of the chains 118 is a charging bar 119 and mounted on the rear run of the left chain 118 is a counterweight cam 120 for actuating limiting switches LS1, LS2 at the top and bottom, respectively. The charging bar 119 is provided with a rearwardly extend ing arm 119A to which a block 1198 is fixed by suitable bolts and carries a guide roller 119C which engages the rear surface of the sideward extension of the front plate 113 and a bolt 119D secures the block to the chain 118 thereby assuring parallel movement of the charging bar 119 in accordance with the movement of the chains 118, it being apparent that both ends of the charging bar are similarly supported. A reversible motor M1 through a gear reduction unit and chain 118A drives the bottom shaft 117 to raise and lower the charging bar 119. The limit switch LS1 is mounted on an angle member carried by the extension of the rear plate 114 and has its operating arm in the path of the counterweight cam 120, whereby the movement of the counterweight cam 120 serves to operate the switch LS1. Similarly, the limit switch LS2 is operated when the counterweight is in the lowermost position and the charging bar is in its raised position shown.

The Developer, Fixer and Cut-Ofi The developer housing 47 is an open-top box pivotally mounted by means of hinges 141 to a bottom frame structure 142 of the easel and is locked in operative position by means of latches 143 secured on a shaft 144 which is rotatably mounted in the easel bottom frame structure 142 and is operated by a handle 145 fixed to the shaft, the latches engaging cooperating pins or lugs 146 whereby the developer box can be retained in operative position or can be released to permit pivoting about the hinge 141 to permit access to the box and the developing and cutting structure therein.

To counterbalance the weight of the box 47 a tension spring 147 is secured at one end to one end wall of the box 47 and a pulley 148 is mounted on the other wall receiving a cable 149 extending from the other end of the spring 147 and such cable 149 extends upwardly and is secured to a fixed portion of the easel bottom frame structure 142, thereby counterbalancing the box 47 to relieve the operator from lifting the entire weight.

Supported on the bottom wall 113B of the vacuum frame is a magnet assembly shown in FIGS. 6, 7 and 11 which includes parallel magnetizable angle bars 152 and 153 held in assembled relation by end brass bar members 155 and suitable machine screws 155A threaded into the ends of bars 155. An elongated brass front plate 150 and a rear aluminum plate 151 are secured to the angle bars 152 and 153. Extending between the magnetizable angle bars are a plurality of permanent magnets 154 with like poles adjacent one angle bar and the opposite poles adjacent the other angle bar and held in place by cement 154A at the corners. The structure is adjustably supported by means of screws 155B passing freely through bottom plate 113B of the vacuum frame and threaded into tapped holes in end bar members 155 as shown in FIGS. 6, 7 and 11. The head 1550 of each screw 155B abuts the bottom plate 113B holding the magnet assembly in suspended relation. Abutment screws 155D are threaded through tapped holes in plate 113B and abut end bars 155 to accurately position and lock the magnet assembly in proper position so that developer is evenly applied to the paper. The assembly also includes a bottom brass plate 156 which merges into the brass plate 150 to provide a smooth paper-contacting surface. End brass plates 156A are secured in position at the ends of the horizontal flanges of angle bars 152 and 153. Supported on the front wall and side walls of the box 47 is a beam 157 and rearwardly therefrom is a second beam 158 supported from the side walls between which beams bearing supports 159 are mounted to carry suitable bearings in which developer transfer rollers 160, 161 are rotatably supported. A developer trough 162 underlies and extends beyond the front and rear of magnetizable rollers 160 and 161 and is supported in end plates 163 which have suitable seals for engaging cylindrical portions of the developer transferring rollers 160, 161 to prevent the material thereof from passing into the bearings. The arrangement of the rollers with the helical ribs and the plate 156 is such that developer powder carried in the trough 162 will be drawn up into contact with the paper passing between the rollers 160 and 161 and the plate 156. Preferably, an additional layer of paper is provided to cover the plates 150 and 156 so that the paper 41A carrying the latent image will be guided below the additional layer of paper to contact the developer carried up by the rollers. It will be noted that the front wall of the box 47 extends forwardly of the front face of the easel and the forward extension is closed by a pivoted cover 164 hinged with a piano hinge to the upper edge of the front wall.

The developer agitating rollers 161 and 160 are provided with driving gears 165, 166 at their left and right ends, respectively, which are driven by motors MDL and MDR, respectively, through suitable gear reduction units so that the speeds of the agitating rollers 160 and 161 are different and the direction of rotation is opposite, tending to move the developer at the bottom from the front and rear portions of the developer trough 162 toward the space between the rollers 160 and 161 carrying the developer into contact with the paper web 41A which paper passes between the agitating rollers 160 and 161 and the brass plate 166. The magnet arrangement tends to retain the developer powder against the paper. The direction of rotation and the screw threads on developer rollers is such that front roller 160 moves the developer to the left as viewed from the front of the easel and roller 161 moves the developer to the right.

The developer powder includes iron particles in which will be retained on a 200 mesh screen and pass through a mesh screen.

A suitable toner is known as 32-2, a product of the Radio Corporation of America, which is a styrenated terpene having the proper triboelectric characteristics to be retained on the electrically charged paper on which the latent image is formed. The developer is made of a mixture of 95% iron filings and 5% of the toner. The toner is heated in an oil bath to a temperature of 175 to 200 degrees centigrade and mixed for 45 minutes and then cooled and is then broken up in a hammer mill which is kept cool during the pulverizing action and the styrenated terpene is reduced to 5 to 10 micron size. The paper is a zinc oxide coated paper in which the zinc oxide is produced by the French process and is known commercially as Green Seal No. 8, a product of the New Jersey Zinc Company, and has suitable charge-accepting characteristics, the zinc oxide being in the proportion of 2 /2 parts of zinc oxide to 1 part of silicone resin with a suitable product being SR82 of the General Electric Company. The resin has a high dielectric quality to obtain the proper characteristics for electro-photography.

As the paper passes rearwardly over a wall 167 adjacent beam 158 then over a reflector trough 168 which is suitably supported in spaced relation from the wall 167 by means of a channel beam 169 which is secured to the side walls of the developer box 47 by means of bolts 169A (FIGS. 12 and 15) passing through notches in end plates 169B fixed to the channel beam 169 securing the channel beam 169 to the side walls of the developer box, thereby supporting the reflector and heating element containing trough 168 in proper position relative to the paper web 41A passing over the open top of the trough. The trough 168 is provided with end walls 170 having apertures therethrough and also being provided with collars 171 which receive elbow fittings 172 connected to exhaust tubes 173 which extend to an exhaust fan operated by a motor MEX. Fixed to each end wall 170 by means of screws 175 is a heat resistant insulating block 174 to which conductive plates 176 are secured by screws 177 and such conductor plates 176 are provided with wirereceiving bores extending in the direction of the trough for receiving the ends of heating coil element 178 with such ends being secured in position by means of set screws 179 having sockets for Allen head wrenches. The heating coils are supported at spaced intervals by means of tubular insulators 180 extending across the trough 168 and being supported in position by a wire passing through the insulator and through apertures in the walls of the reflector trough with the insulators for the lower coils 17 8 being staggered with relation to the insulator support 180 for the upper coils 178 whereby uniform heating is obtained at the open top of the trough 168.

To supply electrical energy to the conductor elements 176 a threaded metallic conductor 181 is threaded into a tapped bore at the bottom edge of each contact 176 and is supported by suitable insulators 182 mounted in an aperture at the corresponding end of the trough 168 being held in position by suitable nuts which also provide for connection to the source of power, the channel beam 169 being provided with enlarged apertures for accommodating the insulators and also for accommodating the elbow fittings 172, thereby providing for easy assembly and removal of the heating trough from the developer box.

To readily cool the paper as it emerges rearwardly from the heating trough 168, a broad nozzle in the form of a flattened duct 183 extends completely across the paper Web for directing cooling air on the paper and toner which has been heated by the heating trough 168, air being supplied to the ends of such nozzle 183 by flexible hoses 184 supplied with air under pressure from a fan driven by blower operating motor MB, the nozzle 183 having a closed bottom 185 and a battle 186 which is supported from the front wall 137 and extends close to the sloping rear Wall 188 to leave a slit extending completely across the nozzle to assure uniform flow of air out of the nozzle 183 against the paper and the fused toner to readily cool such paper and toner to prevent charring of the paper and to assure adhesion of the toner to the paper.

The paper web 41A is drawn through the development box by means of an upper feed roller 189 supported from the easel in bearing members 199 secured to the bottom frame structure 142 of the easel, preferably with some type of adjustment to secure proper alignment. The roller 189 is driven by means of a sprocket 191 and a chain 192 from a motor and a gear reduction unit MP. An idler roller 193 is rotatably supported in bearing blocks 194 which are vertically adjustable in accordance with the displacement of screw-operated cam 195 supported on blocks 1% fixed to the development box 147 with apertures in the side walls of the development box 147 to permit access to the adjusting screw 195A for the cam 195, the upper block 194 being guided for vertical adjustment in yoke-shaped members 197 held in position by suitable bolts 198 which may also clamp the bearing blocks 194 when they are in their final position, such bolts extending to the exterior to provide for making the adjustment when the development box is closed. The rolls 139 and 193 are preferably made solid to reduce bending and obtain a uniform feed throughout the width of the web.

As the web of paper emerges from the feed rollers 189, 1% it is fed to a cut-off shear including a stationary blade 199 and a rotatable cooperating blade 290 which are mounted on a cutter-supporting frame including end plates 291 and angle members 2&2 connecting such end plates with a stationary cutter bar support 253 fixed to the frame, said support being provided with a rabbet 2% which receives a blade support 2595 having a rabbet therein which receives the stationary cutter blade 199, the stationary cutter blade support being secured in position by a plurality of screws 2% passing loosely through the cross bar 293 and into the blade support 205.

The rotatable cutter 2% is supported by means of a rotatably mounted bar 2t37 supported for complete rotation in hearings in the plates 291 and such bar 207 is provided with a longitudinally extending rib 208 in which a plurality of adjusting bolts 209 are threaded and such bolts 209 engage one flange of an angle bar 210 which is adjustably secured to the rotatable bar 207 by bolts 211 threaded into the rotatable bar 2197 and passing through elongated slots in the other flange of the angle bar 210. The outer face of the one flange of angle bar 210 abuts a cutter blade support 212 which is secured to the one flange by suitable screws 213 and such support is provided with a rabbet for receiving the rotatable cutter blade 290 which is secured in the rabbet by means such as screws or the like.

It will be noted that the cutting edge of the rotatable cutter blade 2% is cut at an acute angle to the free surface while the cutting edge of the stationary cutter blade 199 is cut at an obtuse angle to the free surface and the cutting edges are properly adjused by the adjusting screws 209 and 206A and secured in position by the screws 211 and 206. To guide the paper in proper relation from the feed rollers 189, 190 to the cutter, a shelf 214 made of a first set of wire fingers is supported from the bar 203 and extends toward the feed rollers while a second set of guide fingers 215 are supported from the tube 216 to which the fingers are welded or otherwise secured with the tube having end plates 217 with slotted openings through which bolts pass to secure the second guiding finger assembly to end plates 201 so the paper web will be accurately guided to the cooperating edges of the stationary and rotatable cutters. To guide the paper from the point of cutting, a third set of guide fingers 218 are mounted on a tube having end plates 219 which provide for adjustable securement to the end plates 2&1 of the cutter frame and such third set of fingers extend outwardly of the development box and have their free ends connected together by a strip 219 with the outer ends of the fingers being reversely bent and having sufi'icient resiliency so that contact with the rear of the development box does not damage the fingers.

A suitable guide plate or the like 220 cooperates with the third set of fingers 218 to cause the paper to be guided out of the development boX at the hinge opening between the development box 47 and the lower frame portion 142, and the paper will drop by gravity onto a chute 221, a flange 221A extending above the chute 221 guiding the finished print to the front of the easel where the leading edge is stopped by a flange 223. The trailing edge may pass rearwardly over the hump in the chute 221 if the print is of greater length than the distance between the rear of the box 47 and the flange 223.

Circuit Operation After the developer trough 152 is partially filled with developer and the paper 41A has been threaded from the supply roll over the front of the easel and under the magnet arrangement over the fuser heater and into the bite between feed rollers 189 and 190, and a film 91 has been placed into position for reproduction, the timer T2 is set for exposure time, timer T3 is set for length of image, and the counter set for the number of copies. The carriage 44 is moved to the desired position for a given enlargement determined by measuring the distance from the easel to a definite point on the projector such as the plane of the film 91. The focusing is made by a chart calibrated for accurate focus for a definite distance from the easel. The measurements of distance can be made by observing a scale on rails 45 and on an index on the carriage. The focusing can be determined by observing the image or by a calibrating chart based on the position of the condenser bars relative to the light source and objective lens system. A scale is provided between base 72 and condenser lens mount 76 with a suitable vernier index on one.

Operation is initiated by first closing the main breakers from main supply line LlM and L2M thereby energizing line L1. Switch SM ON in the control box 49 is then closed completing a circuit through contacts 7 and safety interlock normally open switch IS. Switch IS is closed only when the panel cover 48 is closed, the circuit energizing relay R2 through contacts 8A closed relay switches R52 and RS2A and thereby providing power through the main circuit breaker from main line L2M to panel line L2 and contact 8 energizing indicating lamp IM. A holding circuit for the relay R2 is maintained through the off main switch from L1 of the box through contacts 8A, switch RS2, interlock switch IS relay R2 to line L2M of the panel. The mercury vapor point source lamp LP then is energized by closing switch SHg which completes a circuit through contacts 9 energizing relay R5 closing relay switch RS5 which also energizes the power supply to lamps LP and lights indicator lamp IHg.

To start the timed operation, button switch BS is closed manually thereby completing a circuit to timer T1 in the panel from line L1 of the control box B through contacts 12 to timer T1 to line L2 of the panel, the supply of current being maintained to the timer T1 through holding cam operated switch T11S which continues the operation of timer T1 for a complete rotation of timer T1 corresponding to the interval shown in the time chart, said switch being held in closed position by cam T11C on the shaft of timer T1. After a short interval the vacuum pump VP is operated by energizing relay R7 when switch T12S is closed by its cam T11C, such relay operating relay switch RS7 thereby causing operation of vacuum pump motor MVP, such vacuum pump motor operating for the period shown opposite T2-2C on the chart, and the vacuum holding the paper on the easel.

The charging bar is caused to move by cam switch T1-3S, being operated by its cooperating cam completing a circuit to the charging bar operating motor M1 in a direction to move the charging bar downwardly. Such motion continues until normally closed limit switch LS1 at the top of the easel is opened by engagement of its lever with the counterweight 120. Thereafter, cam operated switch T1-4S is closed by its cam making a closed circuit through normally closed limit switch LS2 through the reverse windings of motor M1 causing reverse operation, thereby returning the charging bar to its uppermost initial position where it is stopped by the opening of limit switch LS2 at the bottom being opened by counterweight cam 120. Simultaneously or immediately prior to the initial downward movement of the charging bar the high voltage circuit is energized by cam switch Tl-SS operated by its cooperating cam to energize the high voltage supply HV providing power to the charging bar 119 and thereby applying an electrostatic charge to the paper as the charging bar is moved thereover.

A fifth cam Tl-SC is a transfer cam that closes its cooperating switch for the time period indicated to cause initial operation of timer T2 located in the control box B. Timer T2 controls the period of exposure of the charged paper 41A to operate solenoid SSH to open the shuttter 108 from the lamp LP.

The circuit to the timer T2 is completed from the panel line L2 through cam operated switch T15S, contacts 14, timer T2, to line L1 in the control box B. Thereafter the heater of the fuser is provided with power by movement of the switch blade of double throw single pole switch T1-6S from its spring biased contact 3 which causes operation of the fuser exhaust motor MEX which normally cools the fuser. Cam T16C causes switch T1-6S to engage contact 4 to energize relay R4 which causes relay switch RS4 to be closed thereby supplying current to the fuser heater coils 178 a sufficient time in advance of movement of the paper to assure fusing of the developing powder on the leading edge portion of the image. The fuser exhaust motor MEX is operating at all times except when the fuser circuit is closed.

The seventh cam of timer T1 is a transfer cam that operates a switch T1-7S which initiates operation of timer T3 in the control box B 'and initiates operation of the timer T5 in the panel P, and, consequently, other means are provided for continuing operation of timersT2, T3 and T5. The timer T3 in box B is supplied with current by energization of relay R6 and normally closed switch T3-4S while timer T5 is maintained in operation by its hold cam T5-1C driven by timer T5, the timer T 2 having its operation continued by the cam and switch T1-SC, T1-5S, the timer T2 controlling the time of exposure through cam T2-1C being adjustable to vary the period and controlling cam switch T2-1S to contact A controlling the solenoid for operating the shutter of the projector.

The timer T5 through cam T5-2C operates knife motor MK for the initial cut, suitable means being provided to stop the motor MK after each cut, the initial cut severing the leading end of the paper from the image.

The timer motors T2 and'T3 for controlling the exposure and the length of paper web to be fed are inde-' pendently adjustable so that the termination of the timing cycle controlled by such timers T2 and T3 can be preset by the operating knobs therefor. T2 controls the termination of the exposure and T3 controls the developer transfer roller operating motors MDL, MDR, the paper drive motor MP and the continuation of energizing the coils 178 of fuser F. It should be observed that the termination of the operation of the timer T3 terminates such operations, in effect, bringing the right ends of the timed intervals shown on the chart for timers T2 and T3 towards the left by amounts corresponding to the initial adjustment of each timer and each of the cams. The

initiation of the operation of timer T3 is controlled by the transfer cam T1-7C and therefore the operation of timer T3 may be varied to any suitable value in accordance with the operation desired by proper initial adjustment for starting the cam asembly at the desired starting point. Timers T2 and T3 operate their cams in one direction through a solenoid controlled clutch and the timers T2 and T3 are spring biased to produce reverse movement of the cams to the selected starting point as soon as the drive circuits for timers T2 and T3 are interrupted.

The other timers T1, T4 and T5 operate a complete cycle and rotate their cams a full rotation for each operation. a

After completion of the exposure, and after the fuser gets up to developing temperature, the paper feed motor MP and blower motor MB are energized through cam switch T3-3S being supplied with power from box contact 23, relay switch RS6 to lead X, thereby providing power from line L1 of the panel to lead X and from lead X to switch T3-3S contact 2 and motors MP for the paper drive and MB for the blower, the motors MP and MB being connected in parallel to contact 2 and panel line L2.

The timer T3 operates a cam T3-2C which operates a double throw single pole switch T3-2S which is normally spring biased toward contact 3 to complete a circuit to the exhaust motor MEX. By operation of cam T3-2C switch T3-2S is closed to contact 4 completing a circuit from lead X through contact 4 to relay R4 thereby continuing the operation of the fuser by maintaining relay switch RS4 closed. The switch T3-2S normally operates the exhaust fan motor MEX which motor is normally operative when the fuser is not providing heat and such motor is rendered inoperative by the cam T3-2C causing its switch T3-2S to break contact 3 and to make contact 4 to thereby operate the fuser by maintaining relay switch RS4 closed. The arrangement is such that when the fuser is heating the exhaust fan therefrom is inoperative but when the fuser is not supplied with power the exhaust motor is energized to rapidly cool the fuser and prevent burning of the paper.

The developer agitating motors MDL and MDR are operated by the closing of cam operated switch T3-1S by its cooperating cam in timer T3 and thereafter normally closed switch T3 -4S is opened by cam T3-4C, the switch T3-4S being closed for the period indicated in the time chart. Before switch T3-4S opens transfer cam T3-5C closes switch T3-5S which causes operation of timer T4 and holding cam T41C of timer T4 closes switch T41S thereby continuing operation of timer T4 after switch T3-5S opens thereby assuring a complete operation of timer T4 under the influence of its holding cam, and operation of timer T4 causes cam operated switch T42S to be closed for a suflicient period of time to operate knife motor MK to make the final cut. Timer T5 has a cam T 5-2C which had previously operated switch T5-2S to operate knife motor MK to cause the initial cut on the leading edge of the exposed section of paper.

The timer T2 determines the time of exposure and the timer T3 determines the length of paper movement to compensate for different heights of images on the paper.

It will be observed that the beginning of the exposure occurs at a definite time after timer T1 is operated and that the paper feed etc. occur only after completion of exposure. If the exposure is short, a delay occurs from the completion of exposure to beginning of paper feed. The initial out also occurs at a definite time but the final cut and the time of stopping the paper feed are dependent on the adjustment of the control of timer T3, the control therefor affecting the end of each item of the cycle rather than the start. To obtain a plurality of copies an automatic control selector counter Y is provided and has switch screws that maintain a closed circuit across the contacts of starting switch BS until the pre-selected number of copies have been made. The count of the copies for the selected predetermined number of times is based on pulses produced by knife timer T4 and its cam T4-3C and switch T43S which produces the pro-selected number of pulses corresponding to the number of copies. This operates a stepping switch the predetermined number of times and then breaks the circuit across the contacts of switch BS after which the time cam switch T1-1S is opened stopping timer T1 and stopping the cycles.

The control timers T2 and T3 are of type 412 and 422 of the Cramer Controls Corporation, Centerbrook, Conn., who provide for the automatic exposure an automatic paper feed of the correct values in accordance with the settings.

The selector counter Y is of the type HZ series micro reflex reset counter manufactured by the Eagle Signal Corporation of Moline, Illinois, who provides a stepping switch structure in which each pulse produced by the copy counter switch T4-3S produces a step or indicating a count after the pro-selected number of pulses or counts have been made in accordance with the number of copies desired, the switch holding structure which maintains a circuit between the contacts of starting switch BS is broken thereby terminating the operation upon the completion of the predetermined number of copies.

The entire operation can be accomplished in relatively bright yellow light since the yellow light does not appreciably affect the latent image. It will be noted that indicator lamps I are provided in the control box to indicate when power is supplied to the various elements of the machine giving the attendant full information on the condition of the machine. The indicator lamps are identified with letters following corresponding to the element of the machine in operation.

It will be apparent that various changes may be made within the valid interpretation of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. Means for developing and fixing an image on a web comprising a support, an open top developer housing having entrance and discharge ends, said housing being pivotally mounted at its discharge end on said support for limited movement about a horizontal pivot, an open top developer trough mounted on said housing closely adjacent the entrance end thereof, the limited pivotal movement of said housing assuring retention of developer in said trough at all times, roller means rotatable about an axis parallel to said horizontal pivot in said developer trough for carrying a developer into contact with an exposed web, means spaced toward the discharge end of said housing for fixing the image on said web, feed means for said exposed web including an idler roller mounted on said housing closely adjacent said horizontal pivot and substantially parallelv thereto and a driven roller on said support cooperating with said idler roller to feed the web, a cutter mounted on said support for severing the leading and trailing ends of the web at locations providing a leading and trailing margin for the image and means to guide an exposed web with an electrostatic latent image on the surface facing said trough.

2. The invention according to claim 1 in which the roller means for carrying developer include a pair of magnetizable rollers provided with helical ribs, means to rotate the developer conveying rollers in opposite direction to carry the developer toward the open top of said developer trough into contact with the exposed Web, the means for fixing including a heater in an upwardly opening reflector, a cooling lower nozzle on the discharge side of the heater in the reflector for blowing cooling air directly against the fixed developer, and means to automatically actuate the feed rollers, the heater in said upwardly opening reflector, the developer carrying rollers and the cutter to completely and uniformly develop and fix the image on the Web.

3. The invention according to claim 2 in which an exhaust means is provided in communication with said reflector to draw cooling air past the heater after the 14- heating is completed to avoid dangerous heating, and means are provided for operating said exhaust means after the heater is deenergized.

4. Apparatus for developing a latent electrostatic image on a web comprising a supporting member, a pair of magnetizable bars mounted on said support, a series of magnets disposed between said bars with like poles in contact with one bar and opposite poles in contact with the other bar, a sheet of insulating material covering the operative faces of said bars and providing a guide for an exposed web, a trough for a magnetizable fluent developing material disposed beneath said bars and spaced therefrom so as to provide a path for the web, and means to guide the web so the electrostatic image on the web faces said trough, a developer housing having an open top pivotally mounted for movement about a horizontal axis on said supporting member with said trough fixedly mounted in said housing, said housing being limited in pivotal movement whereby the normal contents of said trough will be retained therein in all positions of said housing, magnetizable roller means to carry the developing material into contact with a web positioned between said magnetizable bars and said trough so the magnetizable bars will attract magnetizable developer onto said web, a heater mounted in said housing closely adjacent the developer trough, feed means for carrying a web of material past said developer trough and said heater, and a cutter adjacent the discharge of said feed means for severing the portion of the web with the image from the remainder of the web.

5. The invention according to claim 4 in which the means to carry developer include a pair of magnetizable rollers rotatably mounted in said trough and movable closely adjacent said magnetizable bars, means to rotate said rollers in opposite directions and thereby carry developer from said trough to the web passing between said magnetizable bars and said rollers.

6. The invention according to claim 5 in which the rollers are provided with helical-shaped ribs to additionally carry the developer transversely of the movement of the web.

7. Apparatus for developing an electrostatic image on an exposed electrophotgraphic web comprising a horizontally disposed open top developer trough closed at its ends and having a powdered toner with magnetizable carrier particles therein, a pair of magnetizable helical rollers mounted in side by side relation within said trough, means to rotate said helical rollers in opposite directions so the adjacent contiguous portions of each roller move upwardly, a plurality of horizontally disposed bar magnets positioned above and in transverse relation to said helical rollers in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of the upper surfaces of said helical rollers, a first pole bar in contact with the one poles of said bar magnets, a second pole bar in contact with the other poles of the bar magnets, an open top heating trough mounted adjacent the Web discharge of said developer trough, heating means at the open top of said heating trough, exhaust means connected to the lower portion of said heating trough for drawing air past the heating means, feed rollers positioned adjacent the web discharge from said heating trough, a cutter positioned adjacent the web discharge from said feed rollers, said feed rollers serving to feed exposed electrophotographic web past said developer trough, heating trough and cutter, means to apply cooling air in a jet between said heating trough and said feed rollers, timing means for causing preheating of the heating means in said heating trough, the feeding of said helical rollers and feeding of said feed rollers until the exposed portion of the web passes beyond the cutter and for then operating the cutter to sever the exposed and developed web in controlled timed relation.

8. Apparatus for developing an electrostatic image on a continuous web which is exposed in a vertical position comprising a support, a horizontally disposedopen top developer trough immediately beneath the vertical exposure position, a pair of magnetizable helical agitating rollers in said developer trough beneath the top thereof, means to rotate said helical rollers in opposite directions so that the developer is urged upward between said rollers, a magnet system including two pole bars with each pole bar substantially above the corresponding helical roller, an upwardly opening reflector closely adjacent the web discharge of the developer trough over which the web passes, means to produce heat in said reflector to fix the developer toner to the web, exhaust means communicating with the reflector to draw air past the heater and away from the web with the fixed toner thereon to cool the web sufliciently rapidly to prevent damage to the web, an air blower directed onto the web at the discharge from said reflector, and feed rollers beyond said air blower to provide the feed of the web from the exposure position past the developer trough,

heater and reflector, and air blower.

9. The invention according to claim 8 in which a cutter is located on the discharge side of the feed rollers to sever the image portion of the web from the continuous web.

10. Apparatus for developing an electrostatic image on a continuous web after exposure comprising a support, a horizontally disposed open top developer trough immediately adjacent and beneath the exposure position, a pair of magnetizable helical agitating rollers in said developer trough beneath the top thereof, means to rotate said helical rollers in opposite directions so that the developer is urged upwardly between said helical rollers, a magnet system including two bar poles with each bar pole substantially immediately above and closely adjacent the corresponding helical roller providing a passage for the exposed web betweensaid helical rollers and said bar poles, a heater closely adjacent the web discharge of the developer trough directing heat against the web with a toner image thereon, means to rapidly cool the web with the fixed toner thereon preventing damage to the web as the web emerges from said heater, means to guide the web with the electrostatic image facing said developer trough and between said developer trough and said magnet system, and a single pair of feed rollers to feed the web from a supply to the exposure position past the developer trough, heater and cooling means.

11. The invention according to claim 10 in which a cutter is located on the discharge side of the feed rollers to sever the exposed, developed, and fixed image portion of the web from the supply.

12. Apparatus for applying a magnetic developer to an electrostatic latent image on a web comprising a trough for the magnetic developer, means to mount the trough with its open side adjacent the latent image surface of a relatively movable web, a pair of magnetizable rollers rotatably mounted in said trough arranged in transverse relation with respect to the direction of move- 'ment of the web, and on one side of said web, said magnetizable rollers being provided with outwardly extending ribs at an angle to the axis thereof, means to rotate said rollers in opposite directions so that magnetic developer on the ribs will contact all image carrying portions of the web, a magnetizable bar positioned opposite each magnetizable roller and on the other side of the movable web, means to apply opposite magnetizable polarity to said bars whereby a field of force is applied through the developer and rollers, and means to feed a web between said rollers and saidbars with the electrostatic image surface facing the trough and the rollers whereby magnetic developer will be drawn against the said one side of said web.

13. The invention according to claim 12 in which the ribs are helices and the magnetizable bar cooperating with each roller is parallel thereto.

14. The invention according to claim 12 in which heater means are provided on the discharge of said developer trough for heating the toner adhering to the web to fix the toner, and means to protect the web from theheat of said heater upon completion of the fixing operation.

15. The invention according to claim 12 in which means are provided for mounting the trough for movement toward and away from said bars.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,705,405 Hodler Mar. 12, 1929 2,094,543 Lackey et al Sept. 28, 1937 2,321,249 Rudnick June 8, 1943 2,604,871 Larson July 29, 1952 2,684,532 Sumstad July 27, 1954 2,740,198 Edgett Apr. 3, 1956 2,844,489 Gemmer July 22, 1958 2,846,333 Wilson Aug. 5, 1958 2,854,947 Giaimo Oct. 7, 1958 2,868,469 Sullivan Ian. 13, 1959 2,877,957 Hyman Mar. 17, 1959 2,878,732 Mayo et al. Mar. 24, 1959 2,881,659 Eagle Apr. 14, 1959 2,914,403 Sugarman Nov. 24, 1959 2,932,278 Sims Apr. 12, 1960 2,934,649 Walkup Apr. 26, 1960 2,934,650 De Witt Apr. 26, 1960 2,942,573 Crumrine June 28, 1960 2,959,153 Hider Nov. 8, 1960 2,979,026 Renter Apr. 11, I961 3,003,462 Streich Oct. 10, 1961 3,005,388 Limberger Oct. 24, 1961 3,075,493 Cerasani et al. Jan. 29, 1963

Claims (1)

1. MEANS FOR DEVELOPING AND FIXING AN IMAGE ON A WEB COMPRISING A SUPPORT, AN OPEN TOP DEVELOPER HOUSING HAVING ENTRANCE AND DISCHARGE ENDS, SAID HOUDING BEING PIVOTALLY MOUNTED AT ITS DISCHARGE END ON SAID SUPPORT FOR LIMITED MOVEMENT ABOUT A HORIZONTAL PIVOT, AN OPEN TOP DEVELOPER TROUGH MOUNTED ON SAID HOUSING CLOSELY ADJACENT THE ENTRANCE END THEREOF, THE LIMITED PLYTAL MOVEMENT OF SAID HOUSING ASSURING RETENTION OF DEVELOPER IN SAID TROUGH AT ALL TIMES, ROLLER MEANS ROTATABLE ABOUT AN AXIS PARALLEL TO SAID HORIZONTAL PIVOT IN SAID DEVELOPER TROUGH FOR CARRYING A DEVELOPER INTO CONTACT WITH AN EXPOSED WEB, MEANS SPACED TOWARD THE DISCHARGE END OF SAID HOUSING FOR FIXING THE IMAGE ON SAID WEB, FEED MEANS FOR SAID EXPOSED WEB INCLUDING AN IDLER ROLLER MOUNTED ON SAID HOUSING CLOSELY ADJACENT SAID HORIZONTAL PIVOT AND SUBSTANITALLY PARALLEL THERETO AND A DRIVEN ROLLER ON SAID SUPPORT COOPERATING ITH SAID IDLER ROLLER TO FEED THE WEB, A CUTTER MOUNTED ON SAID SUPPORT FOR SEVERING THE LEADING AND TRAILING ENDS OF THE WEB AT LOCATIONS PROVIDING A LEADING AND TRAILING MARGIN FOR THE IMAGE AND MEANS TO GUIDE AN EXPOSED WEB WITH AN ELECTROSTATIC LATENT IMAGE ON THE SURFACE FACING SAID TROUGH.
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