US3142247A - Control system for high speed printers - Google Patents

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US3142247A
US3142247A US178444A US17844462A US3142247A US 3142247 A US3142247 A US 3142247A US 178444 A US178444 A US 178444A US 17844462 A US17844462 A US 17844462A US 3142247 A US3142247 A US 3142247A
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David F Sweeney
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ANELEX CORP
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K15/00Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers
    • G06K15/02Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers using printers
    • G06K15/06Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers using printers by type-wheel printers
    • G06K15/07Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data, e.g. computer output printers using printers by type-wheel printers by continuously-rotating-type-wheel printers, e.g. rotating-type-drum printers

Description

D. F. SWEENEY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HIGH SPEED PRINTERS July 28, 1964 A m H m m w M E H S N S a. 1 F. t e e w m 5 AV 1 \E: D w w lll'll MEEow w mEEow O w m m Al 5 moEmwzww 1 N. M32 6Q; m o H m w m m .n 2 A w w 1 n mobmzmo F 51 mm ZEEQ ATTORNEYS July 28, 1964 D. F. SWEENEY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HIGH SPEED PRINTERS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 8, 1962 INVENTOR.

DAVID E SWEENEY ana y, M a ATTOR'NEYS July 28, 1964 D. F. SWEENEY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HIGH SPEED PRINTERS 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 8, 1962 Q @4 E0 9 E L fl 0 E5 3 .Eu 55300 mm .P w a HT T $6 E21 .V l.- EL T r 8 n F E 3 moEmwzmw UM/m ta wm 5n 153N310 k A P o $6 2 v E n NE E K S o l 4 A 1 E05 SE28 mime 5224:

INVENTOR.

DAVID E. SWEENEY ATTORNEYS an QI United States Patent 3,142,247 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HIGH SPEED PRINTERS David F. Sweeney, Wellesley, Mass, assignor to Anelex Corporation, Boston, Mass, a corporation of New Hampshire Filed Mar. 8, 1962, Ser. No. 178,444 7 Claims. (Cl. 101-93) My invention relates to high speed printers, and particularly to an improved system for actuating the print hammers of a high speed printer in response to data representing the characters of a line to be printed.

Various high speed printers have been devised for printing a line of characters stored in the form of a selected code. For example, one widely used printer comprises a series of constantly rotating print rolls, one for each column in the line to be printed. Each print roil has a font of characters formed on its periphery, and each cooperates with a print hammer which, when actuated, strikes a record sheet and a transfer sheet against the print roll to record the character then in position on the record sheet. In order to actuate each hammer when the character in printing position on the associated print roll corresponds to the stored character, it is necessary to compare each character, as it comes into position, with the stored character. United States Letters Patent No. 2,805,620, issued September 10, 1957, to Leo Rosen, Howard C. Barlow and Ray L. Bowman for Control Means for High Speed Printing Apparatus, for example, shows various ways in which such a comparison may be made. Prior to my invention, the apparatus required to make comparisons for each character has been extremely complex, particularly in printers in which as many as one hundred and twenty columns per line are provided. A primary object of my invention is to reduce the amount and complexity of the apparatus required to make the character comparisons in a high speed printer.

Briefly, the control system of my invention comprises a novel ordered sequence comparitor in which a code generated in a predetermined sequence is compared with the code representing each character for a line to be printed, not bit-by-bit as is former comparators, but in terms of predetermined code sets, such that each generated code sequence is registered as the same as any character code in the same set. Ambiguity is prevented by selecting the order in which the comparison sequence is generated, and by the provision of a novel final detection circuit capable of responding only once during each comparison sequence. As will appear, the control system of my invention may be adapted for use either in systems in which input character codes are available throughout the printing of a line, or in systems in which character codes are presented only transiently, one after another until a complete line has been stored.

Certain subject matter disclosed but not claimed in this application is disclosed and claimed in application Serial No. 178,445, filed on the same day as the present application by Lynn W. Marsh, for Control System for High Speed Printers, and assigned to my assignee.

My invention will best be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, together with the following detailed description.

In the drawings,

FIGS. la and lb, when arranged horizontally side by 3,142,247 Patented July 28, 1964 ice side with FIG. 1:: at the left, comprise a schematic wiring diagram of a print control system, for high speed printers in which data representing a line of characters is available throughout the printing of the line, in ac cordance with one embodiment of my invention;

FIG. 2 is a schematic wiring diagram showing the internal details of the comparators, print hammer drivers, and the hammer drive control unit shown in block diagram form in FIG. 1; and

FIGS. 3a and 3b, when arranged horizontally side by side with FIG. 3a at the left, comprise a schematic wiring diagram of a print control system, for printers in which the data for each character to be printed is available transiently, in accordance with a second embodiment of my invention.

In the drawings, certain conventions have been adopted to facilitate a concise explanation of my invention. Conventional elements, such as logical gates, bistable multivibrators, and delay lines, have been shown in block diagram form. Units requiring detailed description, which are duplicated in the system, are shown in circuit detail at least once, within a dotted rectangle arbitrarily provided with external reference terminals, and similarly designated blocks having the same reference terminals elsewhere in the system are to be assumed to be of the same internal construction. The various components of the system are arranged on the drawings in an order selected to illustrate their functions in the system; in practice, the components would be arranged in the manner dictated by conventional wiring practice.

Referring now to FIG. 1, the first embodiment of my invention to be described is shown adapted to control a conventional printer of the type comprising a constantly rotating array of print wheels 1, mounted on a shaft 2 connected to the output shaft of a constant speed motor M for rotation in the sense shown by the curved arrows. As schematically indicated, any selected number of print wheels 1 may be provided, each corresponding to a character column in a line to be printed. Thus, the first print wheel P1 may be separated from the last print wheel Pn by any selected number of intermediate print wheels. Each print wheel such as P1 is engraved or otherwise formed with indicia comprising a character font around its periphery, and is associated with a print hammer such as H1, which is pivoted from a suitable support, not shown, and restrained by a suitable spring such as HSl. In response to the energization of a hammer coil such as HCl, provided for each print hammer, the print hammer such as H1 strikes against a record sheet and a transfer ribbon, not shown, which are fed between the hammers and the print wheels to record the character then adjacent the hammer on the record sheet. Since this apparatus is well known in the art, it will not be described in detail; a fuller description may be found in US. Patent No. 2,805,620, referred to above. It should be noted in this regard that the details of the printer do not form a part of, nor are they essential to, my invention; it is only necessary in the illustrated embodiment that the characters in a font for each column be available for printing in a fixed time sequence, and any printer in which such a sequence is enforced may readily be adapted to the apparatus of my invention.

In the illustrated embodiment, the position of the characters on the print wheels 1 is registered by an index pulse generator 3 and a character pulse generator 4, both controlled by the print wheel drive shaft 2. The index pulse generator 3 comprises a ferromagnetic disc 5 mounted on the shaft 2 and provided with a single projecting tooth 6. The tooth 6 cooperates with a magnetic pickotf comprising a ferromagnetic frame 7 mounted on a suitable support, not shown. As schematically indicated, the frame comprises part of a magnetic path which includes the body of the disc and two air gaps, one a constant gap between the end 7a of the frame 7 and the body of the disc 5, and a variable gap between the other end of the frame and the periphery of the disc 5. Flux may be provided in this path by magnetically polarizing the tooth 6 with respect to the body of the disc 5, by magnetizing the frame 7, or both. An index pulse is induced in a coil 8 wound on the frame 7 as the tooth 6 passes the frame, thus momentarily reducing the second air gap. The location of the tooth 6 on the periphery of the disc 5 with respect to the characters on the print wheels 1 and the frame 7 is such that an index pulse is generated just before a predetremined first character in each font passes before the associated print hammer, so that the index pulse indicates the beginning of a scan of the characters on the print wheels.

The character pulse generator 4 may be similar to the index pulse generator, except that it is arranged to emit a pulse just before each character arrives in printing position. As shown, it may comprise a ferromagnetic disc 9 provided with a plurality of projecting teeth such as It), the disc being fixed on the shaft 2 for rotation therewith and adapted to cooperate with a relatively fixed magnetic frame 11 on which a pickolf coil 12 is wound. As de scribed for the index pulse generator, the teeth 10, the frame 11, or both, are magnetically polarized. The relative arrangement of the parts is such that, just before each character arrives in printing position, a character pulse is induced in the coil 12. The reason for anticipating the arrival of the characters by a small amount is that time must be allowed for the electrical system, to be described, to function, and for the hammer to move the short distance necessary to print the character as it arrives in position.

By conventional apparatus, which it is unnecessary to describe in detail, the record sheet and transfer ribbon are stepped forward after the printing of each line, and during this period data for a new line is supplied. After the record sheet is in position and the new data has been stored, a print cycle is initiated in which the stored data is decoded and the corresponding characters are printed. Since the apparatus of my invention is involved only in the control of the print hammers during the print cycle, the apparatus for initiating this cycle has been schematically shown as a manually operable switch 133, closed when it is desired to print a line of characters to supply a print pulse to the system from a suitable power supply, here schematically shown as a battery 14.

When the switch 13 is closed, a positive pulse from the battery 14 is coupled through a suitable capacitor C1 to an input terminal b of a conventional bistable multivibrator, or flip-flop, FFI. This flip-flop, as well as other flip-flops to be described, may be of any suitable known construction having complementary output terminals set to a first state in response to a pulse applied to one of two complementary input terminals and to an opposite state in response to a pulse applied to the other input terminal. A suitable circuit is shown, for example, in Fig. 198 on page 203 of TM 11-690, Basic Theory and Application of Transistors, published in March 1959 by Headquarters, Department of the Army. The output terminals 0 and d of the flip-flop FFl may be connected to the collectors of the transistors Q1 and Q2 in the publication. The bias voltages will be assumed to be such that in one state of the flip-flop FFl, its output terminals 0 and d are at ground and a positive voltage, respectively, and in the other state, at the positive potential and ground, respectively.

The other input terminal a of the flip-flop FF]. is connected to an output terminal of a binary counter 26, to be described. The connections are such that when the switch 13 is closed, the pulse applied to the input terminal b of the flip-flop F1 1 drives it to a logical 1 state in which its output terminal 0 is positive. After completion of the printing of the printing operation, the binary counter 26 applies an end-of-print pulse to the input terminal a of the flip-flop FFl, to reset it to a logical 0 state in which the terminal 0 is at ground potential.

When the flip-flop FFI is in its logical 1 state, a positive voltage level from its output terminal 0 is applied over the lead 15 to energize a data source schematically indicated at 17. The data source 17 may be any conventional storage unit, provided with gating means for entering and extracting character data in any selected digital code. As here schematically shown, however, it may comprise a series of groups of switches, such as the group comprising the switches 18, 19, 20 and 21, which may be manually set in a binary code sequence corresponding to a selected character to be printed, with the lowest ordered bit represented by the switch 18; thus, the sequence 1101 would be represented by 18 closed, 19 open, and 20 and 21 closed. One such group of switches is provided for each character in the line, and as many characters as are desired may be provided for; for simplicity, however, I have shown apparatus for handling only two characters; the switches 22, 23, 24 and 25 provide storage for the second character.

During the print cycle, when the flip-flop FFl is in its logical 1 state, data stored in the data source 17 is applied to comparators, one for each character to be printed. Thus, the character code represented by the state of the switches 18, f9, 20 and 21 is applied to the input terminals a, b, c and d, respectively, of a comparator CP1, and the character code represented by the state of the switches 22, 23, 24 and 25 is applied to the input terminals a, b, c and d of a comparator CP2. The internal construction of these comparators will be described in detail below.

The output terminal c of the flip-flop FFl is also connected over the lead 15 to one input terminal of a conventional AND gate A1. This AND gate, as well as other AND gates to be described, may be of any conventional construction, and, for example, may be of the type shown in Fig. 208A on page 213 of the above cited TM 11-690. For convenience, it will be assumed that a positive input voltage provides a positive output pulse in this gate, so that an n-p-n transistor, with appropriate bias potentials, would be employed instead of the p-n-p type shown in the publication.

The output of the AND gate A1 is connected to one input terminal a of a second flip-flop FF2, which may be of the same construction as the flip-flop F1 1. The output terminal a of the index pulse generator 3 is connected to the other input terminal of the AND gate A1 and to the input terminal b of the flip-flop FF2. The output terminal c of the flip-fiop FFZ is connected to one input terminal of an AND gate A2, and the output terminal a of the character pulse generator 4 is connected to the other input terminal of the AND gate A2. During the paper feed and character loading portion of the printer cycle, when the flip-flop F1 1 is in its 0 state, the shaft 2 makes one or more complete revolutions, and the index pulse generator 3 emits at least one index pulse. This pulse will set the flip-flop FFZ to a state in which its output terminal c will be at a potential, representing a O logical level, which will not permit the AND gate A2 to pass character pulses emitted by the character pulse generator 4. Repeated index pulses will not affect the state of the flip-flop FF2, so that the AND gate A2 will remain cut off until the print cycle is initiated by the closing of the switch 13.

When the switch 13 is closed, the flip-flop FFI goes to its 1 state and the AND gate A1 is enabled to pass the next index pulse to set the flip-flop FFZ to its opposite state; the concurrent application of the index pulse to the flip-flop on the opposite terminal will have no effect, as is known in the art and Will be apparent from a consideration of the circuit detailed in Fig. 198 of TM 11-690, cited above. With the flip-flop FFZ in its opposite state, a logical 1 in the form of a positive voltage will be applied to the AND gate A2 to enable it to emit a pulse for each applied character pulse until the next index pulse. Since the pulses emitted from the AND gate A2 are thus keyed to the preceding index pulse, they identify the characters coming into printing position on the print wheels in the sequence in which they appear, and one set of character pulses so emitted represents one complete sequential scan of the character fonts. This sequence is used to generate a character scanning code having a unique code sequence for each character on the print wheels, in a manner which will be made clear below.

The output terminal of the AND gate A2 is connected to one input terminal of each of the AND gates A3, A4, A5 and A6. The other input terminal of each of these gates is connected to a different one of the output terminals b, c, d and e of a scan code generator, here shown as a binary counter 26. While any conventional code generator capable of emitting a predetermined sequence of digital code sequences could be employed for this purpose, one suitable binary counter is shown which comprises four trigger circuits T1, T2, T4 and T3, whose reference numerals indicate the relative binary order of the output of each trigger circuit. These trigger circuits are interconnected to form a binary counter which will generate code sequences in descending binary order on its output terminals b, c, d and e in response to successive positive-going input pulses applied to its input terminal a. The trigger circuits may be constructed in the manner shown in detail in Fig. 15.54 on pages -55 of Hunter, Handbook of Semiconductor Electronics, published in 1950 by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, although any other suitable circuit could be employed, if so desired, without departing from the scope of my invention. The details of these circuits and their mode of operation are explained in the reference publication; it is sufiicient for the understanding of my invention to point out that in response to a positive-going pulse applied to the central input terminal b of a trigger circuit such as T1, its complementary output terminals 2 and d will switch from one state to an opposite state, and that a succeeding pulse will switch these terminals back to their initial state. The binary zero state is assumed to be the one in which terminal e of the trigger circuit T1 is at ground potential and terminal at is at a positive potential. In the binary 1 state, terminal e will be at a positive potential and terminal d will be at ground potential. In passing from the 1 state to the 0 state of the trigger circuit, a positive-going pulse will be transmitted through a capacitor C3 from the output terminal 6 of the trigger circuit T1 to the central input terminal of the trigger circuit T2, causing it to reverse its state. The output of the trigger circuit T2 is similarly connected to the input of the trigger circuit T4, and the trigger circuit T4 is connected to the trigger circuit T8, in the manner shown in the drawing. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that with these connections, a series of input pulses Will cause the trigger circuits to change state, T1 on each pulse, T2 on every other pulse, T4 on every fourth pulse, and T8 on every eighth pulse. Thus, the output terminals e of the trigger circuits will cycle through the binary sequence 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, etc., while the output terminals 0? will cycle through the complementary sequence 1111, 1110, 1101, 1100, etc. At the seventeenth pulse, the counter will be reset to Zero and the count will begin anew. As shown in FIG. 1b, the complementary output terminals d of the trigger circuits are connected to the output terminals b, c, d and e of the counter. The reason for the selection of the complementary sequence for the character scan sequence will be made apparent below.

The output terminal e of the trigger circuit T8 is connected through a suitable coupling capacitor C6 to an output terminal f of the counter. At each seventeenth input pulse, a positive-going pulse will be applied to the terminal 7, which pulse is used as an end-of-print signal in a manner set forth in detail below.

It is desired to produce this end-of-print pulse after the end of each character scan. Accordingly, a connection is made through suitable isolating diodes, as shown, to the input terminal c of of each of the trigger circuits to apply a pulse through the capacitor C1 at the beginning of each print cycle, to set all of the trigger circuits to their logical zero states. Thus, the counter will always start at zero and the first input pulse applied to input terminal a of the counter will step the counter to its second state, so that the output pulse will appear at terminal f on the sixteenth input pulse. After the first cycle of operation, the pulse applied to terminals 0 of the triggers will have no effect, because the counter will be in the zero state when this pulse is applied.

While the counter and the data source have been described in terms of a four-bit code, it will be apparent that characters requiring larger or smaller codes could be employed without requiring more than an obvious extension or contraction of the system.

It will be seen from the above description that at each character pulse gated to the AND gates A3, A4, A5 and A6 by the AND gate A2, the code stored in the counter 26 will be gated to the input terminals 1, g, h, and i of the comparators CPI and CPZ. As each code sequence in the scan is thus applied to the comparators, it is compared with the character code stored in the comparator. At the same time, a sample pulse is applied to the input terminal j of each comparator, and, if the character then coming into position on the print wheels, which corresponds to the scan code sequence, is a member of the set complementing each 1 in the character code for the stored character in a given comparator, the sample pulse is gated to the output terminal e of the comparator. The output terminal e of each comparator is connected to an input terminal a of a print hammer driver circuit, such as DR1 and DR2, to be described. The print hammer drivers are controlled by a hammer drive control unit 27, to be described, which controls the print hammer drivers in such a Way that, at the first pulse applied to the input terminal a of a print hammer driver such as DRI during a given print cycle, the associated print hammer coil such as HC1 is energized to print the character then in position. However, succeeding pulses during the same print cycle will not cause energization of the print hammer coil. The necessity for this mode of operation will be made apparent below.

The output of the AND gate A2 is also applied to the input of a suitable delay line D1. This unit, as well as other delay lines to be described, may be of any conventional construction; for example, it may be of the type shown and described in United States application Serial No. 106,840, filed May 1, 1961, by Lynn W. Marsh for Pulse Retiming System, Which is assigned to my assignee. It is sufiicient for the understanding of my invention to note that the delay line D1 will produce a positive-going output pulse a predetermined time after a positive-going input pulse is applied.

The output pulses produced by the delay line D1 are applied to the input terminal a of the counter 26, so that the counter is set to the next binary state after its current state has been gated to the comparators. The reasons for this mode of operation are, first, that it is necessary to use the Zero state of the counter in the character scan sequence, as will appear, and second, that it would be undesirable to gate the counter output during a change of its state.

Refer now to FIG. 2, in which the details of the comparators, the print hammer driver, and the hammer drive control unit 27 are shown. Considering first the comamaze? parators, all of these units may be identical; therefore, only the unit CPI is shown in detail. As shown, each bit of the stored character code (from the data source 17 in FIG. 1b) is applied to one input terminal of a different one of four AND gates A7, A8, A9 and A10. The corresponding bit of the character scan code (from the counter 26 in FIG. 1) is applied to the other terminal of the associated AND gate. Thus, each of the AND gates A7, A8, A9 and A10 will produce a positive output potential, corresponding to a logical 1 level, if and only if both of the input bits are positive, corresponding to logical 1 levels.

The outputs of the AND gates A7-A10 are applied to a logic unit LU1, which is typical of the other similarly designated units to be described. In this unit, the output terminals of the AND gates A7, A8, A9 and A10 are connected to the input terminals of an OR gate R1. This OR gate may be of any suitable construction capable of producing a positive output potential in response to a positive potential applied to any one or more of its four input terminals, such as the OR gate shown in Fig. 206A on page 211 of the above-cited TM 11-690, which may be provided with additional input terminals as pointed out on page 211.

The output of OR gate 0R3 is connected to the y input 9 terminal of an x gate 23. A suitable circuit for the gate 28 is shown in FIG. 15.43 (a) on pages 15-46 of the above-cited Handbook of Semiconductor Electronics. It will suffice for the understanding of my invention to note that this circuit will produce a positive potential on output terminal 1 of the logic unit LUI if and only if a positive potential is applied to its input terminal x but not to its input terminal y. As shown, the sample pulses (from the AND gate A2 in FIG. 1) are applied to the x terminal of unit 28, so that a print command pulse will appear at output terminal e of the comparator CPI if and only if a sample pulse has been applied to the input terminal 1' of the comparator, and no two corresponding bits of the stored character and character scan codes are both logical 1s.

Assume for simplicity that there are 16 characters on each print wheel, and identify their order of appearance in printing position following an index pulse by the numerals from 1 to 16. Let the stored characters be coded from 0 to 15 in the ascending binary sequence. For each character, the corresponding codes will then be given by the following table;

Stored Character Character No. Character Scan Code Code To illustrate the mode of comparison, suppose that character number 12 was stored for the print wheel corresponding to comparator CP1. The input terminals :1, b and d of the comparator CPI would then be at a positive potential, and the input terminal c would be open, representing the character code 1011. As the scan progressed following the first index pulse in a given print cycle, the AND gates A7, A8, A9 and A10 would have the inputs and outputs given by the following table, in which C represents a stored character code input bit, S represents a scan code input bit, and 0 represents the output of the D (I AND gate, with positive potentials being indicated by logical 1, and ground potential or an open terminal indicated by logical 0:

Gate

Character Number A10 A9 A8 A7 C S O C S O O S 0 C S O 1 1 1 0 l 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 O 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 O 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 O 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 O 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 O 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 It will be seen that none of the AND gates A7, A8, A9 and A10 will produce an output in response to the scan codes corresponding to characters 12 and 16, and that at least one of the AND gates will produce an output in response to every other scan code. Referring to FIG. 2, it will be recalled that logic unit LU1 will emit a print command pulse when and only when a sample pulse is applied to its input terminal x and none of the AND gates A7, A8, A0 and A10 supply a pulse, through the OR gate 0R1, to the input terminal y of the unit LU1. Accordingly, a print command pulse will be produced only when the 12th and 16th characters come into position. As will appear, the print hammer drivers such as DR1 will energize their hammer drive coils such as HCl only once during a print cycle, so that only the 12th character on the print wheel will be printed in the example here considered.

The operation of the comparator with other stored character codes may be seen from the following table, in which the scan codes which will cause a print command pulse to be generated for each stored character code which may be supplied to a comparator are indicated by an x in the column designated by the decimal value of the binary number corresponding to the stored character.

Number Character Scan Code Since it is readily implemented with a simple binary counter, the descending binary code sequence is preferred for scanning in the comparator of my invention. However, a large number of other scan code sequences is possible, which sequences may be obtained by reordering the descending inary sequence in such a way that each scan code sequence applied to the comparators will produce an output with one and only one character code in addition to those previously scanned. A typical rearrangement is shown in the following table, using a three bit Stored Character Code Character Number Character Scan Code NNNNNNNN It will be seen that a stored character represented by binary zero (000) will respond to any scan code, and any scan code other than 111 will also produce a response with at least one other character code. Thus, a principle of reordering is that if 000 is not excluded, 111 must be the first scan code. Also, any character code will respond to the scan code 000, so that if this scan code is used, it must be last in the scan sequence. If desired, the scan code may be truncated, as where fewer characters than a full binary set are used, by taking away the last sequences in the scan code first.

More specifically, a scan code sequence in which there are in s will produce a response with 2 -1 character code sequences, including the zero sequence 000 0. Thus, if such a sequence is designated as S and the respouse is to be unambiguous, S must be preceded by a set of 2 2 other scan code sequences besides the sequence 11 1 and not including the zero sequence, which include fewer than m 0s and which would produce a response with all but one of the sequences with which S would produce a response. For example, if the sequences are ranked in sets in accordance with the number of 0s as S S S S then they might be arranged in that order with the individual members of the sets S S etc., arranged in random order to form a class of scan code sequences operative in the comparator of my invention. However as illustrated by the descending binary sequence, it is not necessary to exhaust all of the sequences containing less than in 0s before introducing a sequence S but only to scan for all of its possible l-complementing sequences except the full complement, which contains m 1s. Thus, the first scan code sequence containing two Os must be preceded by 2 2=2 scan code sequences each containing one 0. For example, the sequence 1011011 must be preceded by the sequences 1011111 and 1111011, in either order, to exclude all of the character codes except 0100100. However, the next S sequence may be added following only one additional S sequence, if it is related to one of the previous S sequences. Thus, 1111101 could be added to the sequence, followed by 1011101. A scan code be- 55 ginning as follows might then be formed:

Stored Character Code Character Number Character Scan Code NNNNNN tor for generating any desired code sequence may be made by mounting a series of toothed discs, such as the character pulse generator disc 9 in FIG. 1, on the shaft 2, each provided with a pickoff coil such as 12 in FIG. 1, and each having selected teeth removed to produce a sequence of logical 1 and 0 levels as each tooth position passes the pickolf coil.

Referring again to FIG. 2, the hammer drive control unit 27 and the print hammer driver DR1 will next be described. Since the other print hammer drivers, such as DR2, are the same as DR1, and are controlled in the same way by the hammer drive control unit 27, they will not be described in detail.

The hammer drive control unit 27 comprises a silicon controlled rectifier S1, having its load terminals (1 and b connected in series with the secondary winding 29 of a pulse transformer PT1, a suitable current limiting resistor R1, and a suitable source of voltage such as a battery B1. A conventional diode 30 is connected between the base terminals 17 and c of the controlled rectifier S1 as shown. A suitable coupling capacitor C9 is connected between an input terminal a of the control unit and the base terminal 0 of the controlled rectifier S1, which serves to couple an applied positive-going end-of-print pulse to the base terminal c. The pulse transformer PT1 is provided with a primary winding 31, connected between input terminal 11 of the unit 27 and ground; when the switch 13 in FIG. 1 is first closed, this winding 31 induces a blocking pulse in the winding 29, for purposes to be described.

As is Well known in the art, a controlled rectifier such as S1 will not conduct current in response to a forward biased voltage across its load terminals unless its control base terminal such as c is biased positively with respect to its load base terminal such as b. Thereafter, the controlled rectifier will continue to conduct, regardless of the bias potential, until the current in the load circuit is interrupted. Assuming that the controlled rectifier S1 is not conducting, a positive pulse applied between the input terminal a of the unit 27 and ground will switch it to its conducting state, causing load current to flow through the secondary winding 29 of the pulse transformer PT1 and the resistor R1. This current will continue to flow until a start print pulse is applied to the secondary winding 29 of the pulse transformer PT1 by the primary winding 31 in response to the closing of the switch 13 in FIG. 1b. This pulse will momentarily reverse-bias the controlled rectifier, causing it to switch back to its non-conducting state. Thus, during the interval between an end of print pulse applied to the input terminal a of unit 27 and an ensuing start print pulse applied to the input terminal b, a voltage will appear across the output terminals 0 and d of the unit 27, which voltage is used as a supply for the print hammer drivers.

A print hammer driver such as DR1 is provided for each hammer drive coil such as HC1. As shown, the hammer drive coil HC1 is connected in series with the load circuit of a silicon controlled rectifier S2, of the same type as the silicon controlled rectifier S1 in the hammer drive control unit 27. The hammer coil HC1 is at times energized, under conditions to be set forth, through a circuit extending from the positive terminal of an electrolytic capacitor C7 through a variable current trimming resistor R2, the hammer coil HC1, the controlled rectifier S2 in its conducting state, and back to the negative terminal of the capacitor C7. A conventional diode 33 may be connected across the capacitor C7 as shown, to protect it against transient negative voltages.

A charging circuit for the capacitor C7 extends from the output terminal 0 of the hammer drive control unit 27 through a conventional diode 32, which serves to isolate the print hammer driver DRI from the other print hammer drivers, a current limiting resistor R3 which serves to time the charging of the capacitor C7, the current trimming resistor R2, the capacitor C7, and thence to the grounded terminal 0! of the hammer drive control unit 27.

A control circuit for the controlled rectifier S2 is provided in the same manner as for the controlled rectifier S1. Thus, a blocking diode 34 is connected across the base terminals b and c of the controlled rectifier S2, to prevent the control base terminal c from going negative during conduction between the input terminal a and the base terminal b, and also to permit the control terminal to be biased positively with respect to the base terminal b when it is desired to switch the controlled rectifier S2 to its conducting state. A capacitor C8 is connected between the base terminal 0 of the controlled rectifier and the output terminal e of the comparator CPl, to couple a positive pulse to the base terminal 0 for each print command pulse emitted by the comparator.

It is desirable to discharge the capacitor C7 much more rapidly than it is practical to charge it. Accordingly, in the hammer driver circuit, the resistance of the current trimming resistor R2 is preferably much less than that of the current limiting resistor R3, so that the discharge time of the capacitor C7 may be quite short with respect to the charging time.

The operation of the print hammer driver DRI may best be considered beginning with the conditions prevailing just before the start of the print cycle. At this time, the controlled rectifier S1 in the hammer drive control unit 27 is conducting, and charging current is supplied to charge the capacitor C7, through the charging circuit previously traced.

When a print cycle is initiated by closing the switch 13 in FIG. 1b, a start print signal is supplied to the hammer drive control unit 27 in the manner described above, and the output terminal 0 of the hammer drive control unit will go to ground potential. Discharge of the capacitor C7 is blocked at this time by the diode 32 and the controlled rectifier S2 in its non-conducting state.

At some time during the rotation of the print wheel shaft 2 in FIG. 1a, the character code stored at the input terminals a, b, c and d of the comparator CPI in FIG. 2 will match the scan code applied to its input terminals g, h and i, and a print command pulse Will be applied to the input terminal a of the print hammer driver DRI in the manner described above. This print command pulse will switch the controlled rectifier S2 to its conducting state, and the capacitor C7 will be discharged through the hammer drive coil HCl, causing the stored character to be printed. With the capacitor C7 discharged, any succeeding print command pulses emitted by the compara tor CP1 will be ineffective.

At the end of the scan sequence, the counter 26 in FIG. 1b will emit an end-of-print pulse, which will reset the controlled rectifier S1 in the hammer drive control unit 27 to its conducting state. Thereafter, charging current will be supplied to the capacitor, such as capacitor C7, of the print hammer driver circuits, until the next print cycle is initiated.

The overall operation of the embodiment of my invention just described will next be described with reference to FIGS. la, 1b, and 2. Since the operation of the apparatus for each column to be printed is the same, only the printing of a single character in the first column, using the print wheel P1, will be described. Using the binary scan and character codes given above, assume that it is desired to print the fourth character on the wheel P1, for which the corresponding code is 0011. This code is first stored in the data source 17 by closing the switches 18 and 19. It is assumed that the motor M is in operation, and that the print wheels 1 are rotating. Next, the switch 13 in FIG. 1b is closed, causing the flip-flop FFl to produce a positive voltage level on its output terminal c. This voltage performs three functions. First, referring to FIG. 2, it produces a pulse output across the secondary winding 29 of the pulse transformer PTll, which cuts off the controlled rectifier S1, and restores the output terminal c of the hammer driver control unit 27 to ground potential. This action terminates the charging of the print hammer driver DRE. as previously described. Second, the application of a positive voltage to the lead 15 applies the data stored on switches 18, 19, 20 and 21 to the input terminals a, b, c and d of the comparator CPI, so that the terminals 0 and d are open and terminals a and b are at a positive potential. Third, the AND gate A1 is enabled to pass the next index pulse.

When the tooth C on the index pulse generator disc 5 passes the frame 7, a pulse is applied to input terminal a of the flip-flop FFZ, which has no effect because the flipflop is already in its logical 0 state, and the pulse is also applied through the AND gate Al to the input terminal 11 of the flip-flop FFZ, causing it to shift to its logical 1 state. This action enables the AND gate A2 to pass the next character pulse.

As the character pulses are generated, the AND gate A2 performs three functions. First, a sample pulse is applied to the input terminal j of the comparator CP1. Second, during each character pulse the AND gates A3, A4, A5 and A6 are enabled to apply the potentials appearing on the output terminals b, c, d and e of the binary counter 26 to the input terminals i, h, g and 1, respectively, of the comparator CPL Third, each character pulse is applied to the delay line D1. A delayed time thereafter, the delay line D]. then applies a pulse to the input terminal a of the binary counter 26 to shift it to the next state. Referring now to FIG. 2, in the example given, the terminals c and a of the comparator CPl are unenergized, and the input terminals a and b are energized. Thus, the AND gates A9 and A10 are cut off and the AND gates A7 and A8 are enabled to produce a pulse for any logical one in the scan code applied to terminals 1 and g. As the fourth character comes into position, the scan code 1100 will be generated, and terminals h and i of the comparator CPI will both be at ground potential. Accordingly, there will be no input to the OR gate in the logical unit LUl, so that the sample pulse simultaneously applied to the x terminal of the x5 circuit will cause a print command pulse to be applied to the input terminal a of the print hammer driver DRll. The capacitor C7 will then discharge through the hammer drive coil HCl in the manner previously described causing the fourth character on the print wheel P1 to be printed. Print command pulses will also be emitted on the eighth, twelfth, and sixteenth scan code sequences, but, with the capacitor C7 discharged, these signals will be ineffective.

After the sixteenth character pulse, the binary counter 26 emits an end-of-print pulse, which performs two functions. First, it is applied to the input terminal a of the hammer drive control unit 27 in FIG. 2 to restore the controlled rectifier S1 to its conducting state and resume the charging of the capacitors in the print hammer drivers. Second, it is applied to the input terminal a of the flipfiop FF l to restore it to its 0 state, thus disabling the data source 17 and the AND gate A1 in FIG. 1a.

The next index pulse emitted by the generator 3 will restore the flip-flop FFZ to its 0 state, disabling the AND gate A2. Since the flip-flop FFl cannot be reset until the switch is again opened and then closed, additional index pulses and character pulses which may occur will be ignored. When the switch 13 is opened, the apparatus will be restored to its original condition.

Referring now to FIGS. 3a and 3b, a modification of the apparatus of my invention for use with transient data presented serially in parallel form is shown. Data may be supplied to the system by applying character codes, one code sequence at a time, to the input terminals (1, b, c and d in FIG. 3a. Thus, for example, assume that the fifth character on the print wheel P1, having the character code 0100, was to be stored, a positive pulse would momentarily be applied to input terminal b in FIG. 311. It is assumed that together with each character codean additional pulse will be applied to an auxiliary input terminal m, which will be termed a load character pulse. Suitable apparatus for supplying data in this form is well known, and need not be described. If desired, it could 13 be supplied by manually set switches in the manner shown in FIG. 1b.

Before describing the details of the system of FIG. 3a and 3b, the arrangement of the components and their functions will be briefly described. In general, the apparatus is adapted to be used with a printer of the type described in connection with FIGS. 1a and lb, provided with a series of print wheels, each having a hammer controlled by one of the print hammer drivers DR1, DR2, DRn, which may be identical with the print hammer drivers DR1 shown in FIG. 2. These print hammer drivers are controlled by a hammer drive control unit 7, shown in FIG. 3b, which is shown in more detail in FIG. 2. The index pulse generator 3 and character pulse generator 4 are the same as those units shown in the previously described embodiment, as is the counter 26.

The print command signal for each print hammer driver is provided by an associated logic unit, such as LU1, LU2 and LUn. These log-ic units may be of the construction shown for unit LU1 in FIG. 2. In the system shown in FIG. 3a, the data for each character to be printed is shifted through a series of storages until it is stored in a storage unit associated with the proper print hammer driver. Thus, for the first print hammer driver DR1 there is provided the first storage unit SIA for the first bit of the character code, and storage units SIB, SIC and SID for the remaining bits of the character code. Associated with the print hammer driver DRZ is a similar series of storage units, S2A, S213, S2C and 82D. Likewise, the nth print hammer driver DRn, as well as intermediate units, is provided with a series of storages SnA, SnB, 812C and SnD. As it will appear, considering only the first bit of the character code, which corresponds to the nth column to be printed, it is first stored in the unit SIA, then shifted into the storage unit 82A, and finally into the storage SnA, from which it is transferred to the logical unit LUn, together with the remaining bits of the character code stored in the units SnB, 811C and SnD, to actuate the print hammer driver DRn when the appropriate scan code is generated. The manner in which this function is carried out will be made clear below.

The input terminals a, b, c and d in FIG. 3a are connected to the input terminals a of a series of flip-flops FF3, FF4, FF5 and FF6. The application of a positive pulse to these input terminals of the flip-flops will cause them to shift to their logal 1 states in which their output terminals d are at ground potential. These terminals are each connected to one terminal of an output coupling capacitor, such as the capacitor 45 shown for the flip-flop FF3, and the other terminal of each capacitor is connected to ground through a suitable clamping diode such as the diode 46. Thus, setting of the flip-flops to their logical 1 states will not produce an output pulse, because the diode 46 will not permit the output to go below ground, but resetting them to their logical 0 states will produce positive-going output pulses.

The terminal in to which the load character pulse is applied is connected to the input terminal of a delay line D2, which may be of the same type as the delay line D1 in FIG. 1a. The output of the delay line D2 is connected to the input terminals 12 of the flip-flops FF3, FF4, FPS and FF6. Thus, each flip-flop is reset a delayed time after each character code is presented to it, causing it to emit a positive pulse if a logical one, or a positive pulse, was presented to the input terminal a of that flipflop by the applied character code.

The input terminal m is also connected to one input terminal of each of a group of OR gates 0R4, 0R5, 0R6 and 0R7, which may be the same as OR gate ORI in FIG. 2, except that they include only two input terminals. The output of these OR gates are connected to a series of driver amplifiers 40, 41, 42 and 43. The functoins of these amplifiers will be described after describing the storage units in somewhat more detail.

Referring now to the storage unit SIA, this unit comprises a switch core SCl of saturable ferromagnetic material, which is provided with four windings a, b, c and d. An energizing circuit for the Winding a of the switch core SCI extends from the output of the flip-flop FF3 through the winding a, through an isolating diode 47, and over a common lead 48 to the output terminal 0 of the flipfiop FF2, for purposes to be described. Thus, a positive pulse from the flip-flop FF3 will cause current to flow through the winding a of the switch core SCI, driving it to saturation in one direction, if the flip-flop FF2 is in its logical 0 state, with its output terminal 0 at ground potential, but if the flip-flop FF2 is in its logical 1 state, the diode 47 will be blocked and will prevent the flow of current through the winding a. The winding 0 of the switch core SCI is connected to a delay unit DZA, comprising a conventional diode 49 and a capacitor 50. The output of the delay unit DlA is connected to one terminal of the input winding a of a switch core SC2 in the second storage unit 82A. The other terminal of the winding a on the core SC2 is connected through a blocking diode 51 to the common lead 48, which is in turn connected to the output terminal 0 of the flip-flop FFZ.

The output of the delay unit DIA is also connected to one terminal of the winding b of the switch core SCI. The other terminal of the winding 1) is connected through a blocking diode 52 to a common lead 53. As shown, the common lead 53 is connected to the output terminal d of the flip-flop FF2.

With these connections, it will be apparent that a voltage induced in the winding 0 will not cause an output pulse from the delay unit DIA unless it is positive-going, and that a positive-going pulse which does produce an output will be effective to cause current to flow through the winding a of the switch core SC2 if the flip-flop FF2 is in its logical 0 state, but not with it in its logical 1 state, and will cause a current to flow through the winding b of the core SCI in the logical 1 state of the fiipflop FF2 but not in the logical 0 state. The utility of these connections will be made to appear.

The windings d of each of the switch cores SCI, SC2 and SC3 are connected in series to the output terminals of the amplifier 40 in FIG. 3b. Similar connections are made to the output terminals of amplifiers 41, 42 and 43, from the switch cores in the remaining storage units. When the associated OR gate produces a positive pulse, each amplifier produces a negative pulse, which serves to shift each switch core to the saturated state opposite to that which a positive pulse applied to its winding a would produce.

Referring now to FIG. 3b, the print cycle may be initiated in essentially the same way as described in connection with FIGS. 1a and 1b. Thus, the closing of the switch 13 applies a pulse from the battery 14 through the capacitor C1 to set the flip-flop FFI to apply a positive voltage to the lead 15. The control of the AND gates A1 and A2 and the flip-flop FFZ may be the same as that described for the first embodiment. Also, the AND gates A3, A4, A5 and A6, may be connected in the same Way to the output of the counter 26. As before, the delay unit D1 applies pulses to the counter 26 a delayed time after the AND gates A3-A6 samples the scan code stored in the counter, and at the end of the scan an end-of-print signal is applied by the counter 26 to reset the flip-flop FFI. In this embodiment, the delay of the delay line D1 is matched to the delays of the units such as DIA, DZA, etc., in the storage units, for reasons which will appear.

The hammer drive control unit 27 is sequentially operated by the start print signal from the flip-flop FFI and the end-of-print signal from the counter 26, to control the charging of the capacitors in the print hammer drivers DR1, DR2, etc., in the manner described above in connection with FIGS. la and 1b and 2, and this description will not be repeated.

The operation of this embodiment of my invention will now be described, assuming that the 9th, 1st, and 13th areas i? characters are to be printed in the first, second and last columns of a line to be printed. The character for the last column must be entered first, so that the characters will be presented in the order 13, 1, and 9. Assume that the switch 13 is open, so that the flip-flops FFI and FFZ will be in their logical states. Likewise, flip-flops F1 3, FF4, FPS and FF6 may be assumed to be in their logical 0 states.

Loading of the first character, assumed to be the 13th character in the print wheel series having a character code 1100, is accomplished by applying a positive pulse to the input terminals a, b and m in FIG. 3a. Flip-flops FPS and FF4 will thus be set to their logical 1 states, in which their output terminals d are at ground potential. The pulse applied to input terminal m actuates the OR gates 0R4, 0R5, 0R6 and 0R7 to produce output pulses. These pulses are inverted by amplifiers 40, 41, 42, and 43 respectively. This action produces a set of negative output pulses; confining attention to the amplifier 453, its output pulse is applied to each of the windings d of the switch cores SCI, SCZ and SCn. In the initial state, each of these cores will be saturated, in a manner which will appear, in the same sense directed by the applied pulse, such that no output pulses will be produced. Accordingly, this pulse, and the similar pulses produced by amplifiers 41, 42, and 43, will have no effect on the system.

Referring to FIG. 3a, a delayed time after application of the load character pulse to input terminal m, the delay line D2 will produce an output to reset the flip-flops FF3 and FF4 to their logical 0 states. Since the flipfiops FPS and FF6 are already in their logical 0 states, they will not be afiected. However, the flip-flops FF3 and FF4 will produce positive-going output pulses. The pulse from the flip-flop FF3 will cause current to flow through the winding a of the switch core SCI, since the flip-flop FFZ is in its logical 0 state. The switch core SCI will then be driven to saturation, causing a pulse to be induced across the windings b and 0. However, the polarity of this pulse is such that it will be blocked by the diode 49, so that the delay unit DIA will produce no output. The pulse produced across the winding 1) will be of the wrong polarity to afiect the logic unit LUI; in any event, no sample pulses are applied to the input terminals 0 of the logic units during the loading of characters. In a similar manner the pulse from the flip-flop FF4 will be stored in the unit SIB.

Next, the first character, having the character code 0000, is stored by applying a pulse only to the input terminal m. This pulse will be gated through the OR gates 0R4, 0R4, 0R6 and 0R7 to cause amplifiers 40, 41, 42, and 43 to produce outputs in the manner described above. Confining attention to amplifier 40, since there is no storage in the switch cores SCZ through SCn, the current through the windings d on the switch cores in these units will be ineffective. However, the current through the winding d of the switch core SCI will drive the core to saturation in the opposite sense to that produced by the previous pulse through the winding a. This action will cause a pulse to be induced across the winding 0 of the proper polarity to appear, a delayed time later, across the capacitor 50. Since the diode 52 is blocked at this time, this delayed pulse will not cause current to flow through the winding b of the switch core SCI. However, it will cause current to flow through the winding a of the switch core SCZ, causing it to be driven to saturation and storing a logical one in the same manner as the switch core SIA was previously set. The remaining storage units operate in essentially the same way, such that the information previously stored in the storage units SIA, SIB, SIC and SID is transferred to the storage units 52A, 82B, SZC and 82D.

The delayed pulse appearing across the capacitor 50 will be applied to input terminal a of the logic unit LUI. However, since no sample pulses are applied to input terminal e of the logic units during the loading cycle, the presence or absence of pulses at input terminal a during this time has no effect on the operation of the system. j

A delayed time later, the delay line D2 will apply a pulse to the flip-flops FF3, FF i, FPS and FF6. Since all of these flip-flops are already in their logical 0 states, no outputs will be produced. The next operations would be the loading of the characters between the last column and the second column. Since it is believed that this. operation will be apparent from the description given, it will be assumed that only three columns are provided, such the the Sn storages become the S3 storages.

Next, the character for the first column to be printed, here assumed to be the ninth character having the character code 1000, is entered by applying a positive pulse to input terminals a and m in FIG. 3a. The flip-flop F1 3 will be set to its logical 1 state. At the same time, the pulse applied to input terminal m will be gated to the amplifiers -43 to energize the windings d of the switch cores. Assuming that there are no storages intervening between SEA and SnA, this pulse will cause the logical 1 stored in switch core SC2 to be transferred to the switch core SCn after the delay provided by the delay unit DZA. Since there is a logical 0 stored in the switch core SCI, switch core SCZ will not be reset, but will remain in its logical 0 state. Next, the delay unit D2 will produce an output, causing the flip-flop FF3 to revert to its logical 0 state which will store logical 1 in the switch core SCI. The remaining bits of the character code are entered in their respective storages in the same manner as described for the first bits of each code group. Thus, at this time the character code for the ninth character is stored as a logical 1 in unit SEA and logical 0s in units SIB, SIC and SID. The first character, having the character code 0000, is stored by logical 0s in each of the storage units SZA, S213, 82C and SZD. The 13th character, having the character code 1100, is stored by logical 1s in the unit 811A, and SnB, and by logical 0s in the unit SnC and SnD.

Next, the print cycle is begun by closing the switch 13. The flip-flop FFI will now be set to its logical 1 state to enable the AND gate A1, so that the next index pulse from the generator 3 will produce an output from the AND gate A1 to set the flip-flop FFZ to its logical 1 state.

With the flip-flop FFZ in its logical 1 state, its output terminal 0 is at a positive potential, enabling the AND gate A2 and blocking all of the a windings of the switch cores by cutting off their associated blocking diodes, such as the diode 47 associated with winding a of the switch core SCI. Terminal d of the flip-flop FF]. is at ground potential, such that current may flow through the windings b of the switch cores.

At the first character pulse from the generator 4, the AND gate A2 will transmit a pulse to the delay line DI and to the AND gates A3, A4, A5 and A6. The output of the counter 26, which is 1111 at this time, is then applied through AND gates A3-A6 and OR gates OR4-OR7 to amplifiers 40-43, respectively. Current is then supplied from the amplifiers 40-43 to all of the windings d of the switch cores. Each switch core in the logical 1 state will then be switched from saturation in one sense to saturation in the opposite sense. In the example given, the switch cores in the storage units SIA, SnA and SnB will be thus affected. Considering the switch core SCI in storage unit Sla, an output pulse will be induced across the winding 0 which will appear, a delayed time later, across the capacitor 50. Current will then flow through the winding b of the switch core SCI, since the diode 52 is not blocked at this time, and this current will again switch the core SCI to its logical 1 state. In this manner, each time a logical 1 in a switch core is erased by an applied scan code, it is rewritten in the storage by the output of the associated delay unit.

The output of the delay unit D1A will also be applied to the winding a of the switch core SC2 in the storage unit S2A, but with the diode 51 blocked, no current will flow through the winding a and the switch core SC2 will remain in its logical state.

The output pulse from the delay unit DIA will be applied to input terminal a of the logic unit LU1, and similar pulses will be applied to input terminals a and b of the logic unit LUn from the delay units in the storage units SnA and SnB. No pulses will be applied to the input terminals a, b, c and d of the logic unit LU2, since none of the switch cores in the storage units S2A S2D changes state.

At the same time, the pulse which was applied to the delay line D1 by the AND gate A2 will appear at the output of the delay line. This pulse is applied to the input terminals e of the logic units LU1, LU2 and LUn, and to input terminal a of the counter 26.

It will be recalled from the description of the logic unit LU1 in FIG. 2 that a print command pulse at terminal 1 will be produced if and only if an input pulse is applied to terminal 6 and no input pulse is applied to terminals a, b, c and d. Thus, the logic units LU1 and LUn will not produce print command pulses, and logic unit LU2 will apply a print command pulse to terminal a of the print hammer driver DR2 to print the first character in the second column.

The pulse applied to input terminal a of the counter 26 will shift the counter to its next state, in which the output on terminals b, c, d and 2 will be 1110. At the next character pulse, this output will be gated to the amplifiers 40-43, causing the amplifiers 4-0, 41 and 42 to produce output pulses. The operation of the storage units will be the same as for the first scan code, in the example given, and only the logic unit LU2 will produce an output. However, this output will have no effect because the print hammer driver DR2 can operate only once during a print cycle.

The scanning will continue, in a manner which will be apparent from the above description, until the ninth scan code, 0111, is gated from the counter 26 to the amplifiers 40, 41, 42 and 43. Only the amplifiers 41, 42 and 43 will produce output pulses. Thus, the switch core SCI will not change state, and none of the switch cores in the units SIB, SIC and SID will change state because they are already in the logical 0 state. Therefore, when the delayed character pulse is applied to input terminal e of the logic unit LU1, a print command pulse will be applied to the print hammer driver DRl to print the ninth character in the first column.

As before, the logic unit LUZ will produce an output pulse, which will be ineffective because the print hammer driver DR2 is discharged. The logic unit LUn will not produce an output, because a pulse will be applied to its in ut terminal a by the storage unit SnA, and to its input terminal [1 by the storage unit SnB.

At the thirteenth scan code, 0011, output pulses will be provided by the amplifiers 42 and 43, which will be ineffective because no logical 1s are stored in the storage units supplied by these amplifiers. No outputs will be provided by the amplifiers 40 and 41, so that no inputs will be applied to the terminals a, b, c and d of the logic units LU1, LUZ and LUn. Thus, the delayed sample pulse from the delay line D1 will cause print command pulses to be emitted from all of the logic units. The print hammer drivers DR1 and DR2 are already discharged, but the print hammer driver DRn will operate to print the thirteenth character in the third column, which is the nth column in the example here considered.

Subsequent scan codes will have no effect on the print hammer driver, since they are all discharged. After the sixteenth character pulse, the output of the delay line D1 will set the counter to its first state, corresponding to the scan code 1111, in which state it will remain 18 until the next print cycle. When the counter shifts to its first state, an output pulse is applied from its terminal to terminal a of the hammer drive control unit 27, to cause it to charge the capacitor in the print hammer driver.

When it is desired to move the paper to the next line position, the switch 13 is opened. Thus, the apparatus is restored to its initial condition, except that the data for the line just printed is still stored in the storage units.

The next index pulse from the generator 4 will switch the flip-flop FFZ back to its logical 0 state to out off the AND gate A2. With the flip-flop FFZ in its logical 0 state, the windings a of the switch cores such as SC1 will be unblocked, and the windings b will be blocked. When the first load character pulse is applied to the input terminal in in FIG. 3a, simultaneously with the character code for the last column in the next line to be printed, it will be gated to the amplifier 4043 to pulse the windings d of all of the switch cores, restoring those which were in a logical 1 state to the logical 0 state. In this manner, the data for the line last printed is erased just before the first character code for the next line is stored.

While I have described my invention in terms of the specific details of two illustrative embodiments, various changes and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading my description, and such can obviously be made without departing from the scope of my invention.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:

1. An actuating circuit for a print hammer, comprising, an electromagnetic coil operable when energized to actuate the hammer, first switching means having a high impedance state and a low impedance state, a capacitor connected in series with said coil and said switching means, a source of current, second switching means having a high impedance state and a low impedance state, a current limiting resistor connected in series with said source, said second switching means and said capacitor, first actuating means responsive to an applied signal for actuating said second switching means to its low impedance state to charge said capacitor, second actuating means responsive to an applied signal for actuating said second switching means to its high impedance state to interrupt the charging of said capacitor, print cycle control means for applying a signal to said second actuating means and subsequently applying a signal to said first actuating means, and means operable in the interval between said signals for actuating said first switching means to its low impedance state to discharge said capacitor through said coil.

2. In a data printer, a plurality of print hammers, an electromagnetic coil adjacent each hammer and operable when energized to actuate said hammer, a first switching means associated with each coil, a capacitor for each coil connected in series with the coil and the associated switching means, a source of current, second switching means having a first state and a second state and connected in series with said source and each of said capacitors to supply charging current to said capacitors in its first state and to interrupt the current in its second state, print cycle control means for actuating said second switching means first to its second state and then to its first state after a predetermined interval, and means operable during said interval to actuate said first switching means to discharge each capacitor through its associated coil to actuate the print hammers.

3. Control means for a data printer of the class in which a line of data to be printed is stored in the form of a digital code sequence for each character to be printed and printing means for each column in the line are each successively conditioned to print one after another of a predetermined series of characters in a fixed time sequence, comprising, in combination, an actuating means for each printing means operable when energized to print the character for which the printing means is then conditioned, a capacitor for each actuating means, first switching means for each actuating means operable when actuated to connect said capacitor in series with said actuating means, means for charging said capacitors, means for interrupting the charging of said capacitors for a predetermined interval at least sufficient to permit each printing means to be conditioned to print each character in said series, means operable during said interval for producing a descending binary sequence of digital code scan sequences, means for comparing each scan sequence with the character code stored for each printing means and producing an output pulse in response to each scan sequence having a logical for each logical 1 in the character code, and means controlled by said output pulses for actuating the first switching means.

4. A print hammer control circuit for a high speed printer of the type which is cyclically conditioned to print one after another of a series of characters in a predetermined time sequence, comprising a print hammer actuating coil, first switching means operable to a first state and a second state, a capacitor, a circuit closed by said switching means in its second state and including said capacitor and said coil in series, second switching means operable to a first state and a second state, a source of current, a circuit closed by said second switching means in its second state for connecting said source of current to charge said capacitor, means for storing a digital code representing a character to be printed, means for generating a series of binary scan code sequences in descending binary order, each corresponding to the conditioning of the printer for a different character in said series, means operated after the printer is conditioned to print the last character and before it is conditioned to print the first character for actuating said second switching means from its second state to its first state, and means controlled by said storage means and said sequence generating means for actuating said first switching means from its first state to its second state to discharge said capacitor through said coil and actuate said hammer when the first scan sequence contains no logical ls not complemented in the stored character code.

5. Print control apparatus for a high speed printer having a rotating print wheel carrying a series of characters successively past a print hammer adapted to strike a record sheet against the wheel to print the character then in position, comprising, an index pulse generator for producing a pulse after the last character in the series passes printing position, a character pulse generator for producing a pulse as each character approaches printing position, code generating means responsive to applied pulses to produce a predetermined sequence of code sequences, one for each pulse and a different sequence for each character in said series, means for storing a character code sequence corresponding to a character to be printed, comparator means for comparing two applied code sequences and producing an output pulse when all logical 1s in one sequence are complemented in the other sequence, means responsive to the first output pulse emitted to actuate said print hammer, means for applying said stored sequence to said comparator means, a first gate, means for applying said index pulses to said gate, switching means operable between first and second states and operative in its second state to enable said gate to transmit the next index pulse, gate means for applying the output of said code generating means to said comparator means in response to an applied pulse, means controlled by said first gate in response to a transmitted index pulse to transmit said character pulses to said gate means, time delay means controlled by said transmitted character pulses to apply a delayed pulse to said code generating means for each character pulse, means controlled by the code generating means for emitting a pulse in response to the delayed character pulse corresponding to the last character in the series on said print wheel, and means controlled by the pulse emitted by said last recited means for operating said switclnng means to its first state.

6. An actuating circuit for a print hammer, comprising an electromagnetic coil operable when energized to actuate the hammer, a controlled rectifier having two load terminals and a control terminal, a capacitor connected in series with said coil and the load terminals of said controlled rectifier, a source of current, switching means having a high impedance state and a low impedance state, a current limiting resistor connected in series with said source, said switching means and said capacitor, first actuating means responsive to an applied signal for actuating said switching means to its low impedance state to charge said capacitor, second actuating means responsive to an applied signal for actuating said switching means to its high impedance state to interrupt the charging of said capacitor, print cycle control means for applying a signal to said second actuating means and subsequently applying a signal to said first actuating means, and means operable in the interval between said signals for applying a pulse between said control terminals and one of said load terminals to switch the controlled rectifier to a conducting state and allow the capacitor to discharge through said coil.

7. A print hammer control circuit, comprising an electromagnetic coil adapted when energized to actuate a print hammer, a controlled rectifier having a control terminal and two load terminals, said rectifier being operable to exhibit a low impedance between its load terminals by a pulse of voltage of a first polarity applied between its control terminal and a first of its load terminals, a diode connected between said control terminal and said first load terminal and poled to oppose flow of current in response to a voltage of said first polarity applied between said control terminal and said first load terminal, a variable first resistor, a capacitor connected in series with said load terminals, said coil, and said first resistor, a second resistor having a resistance substantially larger than the maximum resistance of said first resistor, a source of current, means for connecting said source of current, said capacitor and said second resistor in series for a time suificient to charge said capacitor to a predetermined voltage, and means operative after the capacitor is charged to apply a pulse of voltage of said first polarity between said control terminal and said first terminal to discharge said capacitor through the circuit comprising said coil and said second resistor.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,805,620 Rosen et a1 Sept. 10, 1957 2,915,966 Jacoby Dec. 8, 1959 2,925,585 Bruce Feb. 16, 1960 2,942,169 Kalfaian June 21, 1960 2,997,632 Shepard Aug. 22, 1961 3,019,355 Morgan Jan. 30, 1962 3,021,454 Pickens Feb. 13, 1962

Claims (1)

  1. 2. IN A DATA PRINTER, A PLURALITY OF PRINT HAMMERS, AN ELECTROMAGNETIC COIL ADJACENT EACH HAMMER AND OPERABLE WHEN ENERGIZED TO ACTUATE SAID HAMMER, A FIRST SWITCHING MEANS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH COIL, A CAPACITOR FOR EACH COIL CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH THE COIL AND THE ASSOCIATED SWITCHING MEANS, A SOURCE OF CURRENT, SECOND SWITCHING MEANS HAVING A FIRST STATE AND A SECOND STATE AND CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH SAID SOURCE AND EACH OF SAID CAPACITORS TO SUPPLY CHARGING CURRENT TO SAID CAPACITORS IN ITS FIRST STATE AND TO INTERRUPT THE CURRENT IN ITS SECOND STATE, PRINT CYCLE CONTROL MEANS FOR ACTUATING SAID SECOND SWITCHING MEANS FIRST TO ITS SECOND STATE AND THEN TO ITS FIRST STATE AFTER A PREDETERMINED INTERVAL, AND MEANS OPERABLE DURING SAID INTERVAL TO ACTUATE SAID FIRST SWITCHING MEANS TO DISCHARGE EACH CAPACITOR THROUGH ITS ASSOCIATED COIL TO ACTUATE THE PRINT HAMMERS.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3231786A (en) * 1962-03-21 1966-01-25 American Mach & Foundry Multiple relay driver
US3283869A (en) * 1964-10-26 1966-11-08 Hughes Aircraft Co Striking letter automatic wheel printer for use on flat surfaces
US3323450A (en) * 1964-09-01 1967-06-06 Anelex Corp Fully checked electronic printing system
US3361057A (en) * 1964-08-11 1968-01-02 Sperry Rand Corp High speed superscript-subscript printer
US3366044A (en) * 1965-07-22 1968-01-30 Anelex Corp Demand controlled print rate equalizer for high speed printers
US3467005A (en) * 1968-04-29 1969-09-16 Collins Radio Co Printer hammer drive circuit
US3589494A (en) * 1968-04-23 1971-06-29 Paul F Gloess Keyboard printer with continuously rotating type member
US3679036A (en) * 1969-08-14 1972-07-25 Paul F Gloess Key board printer

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US2805620A (en) * 1951-12-15 1957-09-10 Rosen Leo Control means for high speed printing apparatus
US2915966A (en) * 1955-06-13 1959-12-08 Sperry Rand Corp High speed printer
US2925585A (en) * 1953-12-31 1960-02-16 Ibm Electric charge storage apparatus
US2942169A (en) * 1958-10-17 1960-06-21 Meguer V Kalfaian System of charging and discharging a capacitor at high speeds
US2997632A (en) * 1958-09-12 1961-08-22 Jr Francis H Shepard Hammer firing circuit for high speed printer
US3019355A (en) * 1959-08-12 1962-01-30 Gen Electric Magnetic silicon controlled rectifier power amplifier
US3021454A (en) * 1958-04-11 1962-02-13 Bendix Corp Control circuit for electromagnetic devices

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2805620A (en) * 1951-12-15 1957-09-10 Rosen Leo Control means for high speed printing apparatus
US2925585A (en) * 1953-12-31 1960-02-16 Ibm Electric charge storage apparatus
US2915966A (en) * 1955-06-13 1959-12-08 Sperry Rand Corp High speed printer
US3021454A (en) * 1958-04-11 1962-02-13 Bendix Corp Control circuit for electromagnetic devices
US2997632A (en) * 1958-09-12 1961-08-22 Jr Francis H Shepard Hammer firing circuit for high speed printer
US2942169A (en) * 1958-10-17 1960-06-21 Meguer V Kalfaian System of charging and discharging a capacitor at high speeds
US3019355A (en) * 1959-08-12 1962-01-30 Gen Electric Magnetic silicon controlled rectifier power amplifier

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3231786A (en) * 1962-03-21 1966-01-25 American Mach & Foundry Multiple relay driver
US3361057A (en) * 1964-08-11 1968-01-02 Sperry Rand Corp High speed superscript-subscript printer
US3323450A (en) * 1964-09-01 1967-06-06 Anelex Corp Fully checked electronic printing system
US3283869A (en) * 1964-10-26 1966-11-08 Hughes Aircraft Co Striking letter automatic wheel printer for use on flat surfaces
US3366044A (en) * 1965-07-22 1968-01-30 Anelex Corp Demand controlled print rate equalizer for high speed printers
US3589494A (en) * 1968-04-23 1971-06-29 Paul F Gloess Keyboard printer with continuously rotating type member
US3467005A (en) * 1968-04-29 1969-09-16 Collins Radio Co Printer hammer drive circuit
US3679036A (en) * 1969-08-14 1972-07-25 Paul F Gloess Key board printer

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