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Treatment of textile materials

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US3140198A
US3140198A US19784562A US3140198A US 3140198 A US3140198 A US 3140198A US 19784562 A US19784562 A US 19784562A US 3140198 A US3140198 A US 3140198A
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block
copolymer
process
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Dawson Fred
Vickers Edward Jervis
Sheard Dennis Richard
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Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd
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Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/643Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds containing silicon in the main chain
    • D06M15/647Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds containing silicon in the main chain containing polyether sequences
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08GMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED OTHERWISE THAN BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING UNSATURATED CARBON-TO-CARBON BONDS
    • C08G77/00Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a linkage containing silicon with or without sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen or carbon in the main chain of the macromolecule
    • C08G77/42Block-or graft-polymers containing polysiloxane sequences
    • C08G77/46Block-or graft-polymers containing polysiloxane sequences containing polyether sequences
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/643Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds containing silicon in the main chain
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M7/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made of other substances with subsequent freeing of the treated goods from the treating medium, e.g. swelling, e.g. polyolefins
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M2200/00Functionality of the treatment composition and/or properties imparted to the textile material
    • D06M2200/40Reduced friction resistance, lubricant properties; Sizing compositions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2913Rod, strand, filament or fiber
    • Y10T428/2933Coated or with bond, impregnation or core
    • Y10T428/2962Silane, silicone or siloxane in coating

Description

United States Patent 3,140,198 TREATMENT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS Fred Dawson and Edward Jervis Vickers, Manchester,

and Dennis Richard Sheard, Harrogate, England, assignors to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, London, England, a corporation of Great Britain No Drawing. Filed May 28, 1962, Ser. No. 197,845 Claims priority, application Great Britain June 1, 1961 29 Claims. (Cl. 117-1388) The present invention relates to a process for the treatment of textile materials, particularly fibres and filaments.

It has already been proposed to employ water soluble or water dispersible amphipathic compounds such as are conventionally termed anionic, cationic and non-ionic surface-active agents to assist in the processing of textile fibres and yarns. These agents are valuable in the processing of textile materials because of their ability to lubricate the fibres and to reduce static electrification. It has also been proposed to employ as processing assistant the above mentioned surface active agents in admixture with conventional water-insoluble oily or waxy lubricants such as hydrocarbon oils and waxes, natural and synthetic waxes, glycerides and the like. These mixtures of surface active agents with oily or waxy lubricants have been applied to the textile materials in undiluted form and also as solutions in organic solvents and as aqueous dispersions or emulsions.

In the case of textile materials made from synthetic polymer fibres having marked hydrophobic properties, for example textile materials composed of polyolefines, polyamides, polyesters and polyacrylonitrile, diificulties are sometimes experienced because of failure of the above mentioned processing assistants to spread uniformly over the fibres or yarns.

We have now found that this diificulty may be overcome by adding to the processing assistants a proportion of a siloxane oxyalkylene block or graft copolymer.

According to our invention, we provide a process for treating textile materials, particularly filaments and fibres made from synthetic linear polymers, comprising applying thereto 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of a water-soluble or water dispersable amphipathic compound as hereinafter defined, between use m D.d an D.d

percent by weight on the fibre of a siloxane oxyalkylene block or graft copolymer, wherein D is the fibre denier and d is the fibre density in grams per cubic centimetre, and optionally a minor proportion of conventional water insoluble oil or waxy lubricant, and if desired, other minor amounts of additives.

The amounts of siloxane oxyalkylene block copolymers included in the finishing compositions depend on the denier or titre of the fibre, its density, the concentration of dispersion or solution of the finishing composition applied to the fibre and on the amount of finishing composition which, when applied to the fibre gives optimum processing performance and yarn quality during conversion on textile processing equipment.

However, this quantity should be such that when the optimum quantity of finish dispersion has been applied to the fibres from a solution or dispersion and the solvent has been removed by drying, the amount of siloxane oxyalkylene block copolymer deposited on the fibre surface should be between 8X10" g. (2111. and 30 l0 g. cm.- of the surface area of the fibre as calculated, for example, from its titre (denier) and density.

Preferred amphipathic compounds are the nonionic ICC agents, and preferably those which are water soluble or dispersible but not completely water soluble.

For convenience it is preferred to carry out the process of our invention using the above mentioned compositions 'in the form of aqueous dispersions, or solutions. Concentrations from 0.5% to 10%, preferably not more than 5%, are suitable.

Suitable proportions of the ingredients of the compositions are from 30% to of the specified amphipathic compound, from 10% to 30% of silicone block copolymer and, if desired, from 30% to 90% of conventional waxy or oil lubricant, included in the specified amphipathic compound, all percentages being calculated on the total weight of composition of non-aqueous components.

Usually it sufiices to apply from 0.05% to 2% of the components calculated on the diluent free composition, by weight of the textile material.

Using the process of our invention fibres composed, for example, of polyethylene terephthalate or isotactic polypropylene are effectively lubricated and static elec trification is suppressed.

Conventional water-soluble or water dispersible amphipathic compounds or surface active agents are described in the book entitled-Surface Activity (Moilliet and Collie), 1st Edition, 1951.

In our invention we employ only those amphipathic compounds or surface active agents which contain a hydrocarbon radical having at least eight carbon atoms. The hydrocarbon may be an aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or araliphatic radical. Examples of suitable amphipathic compounds are as follows:

Certain alkylene oxide condensates, which are preferably Water-soluble and stable at temperatures up to at least C., including polyglycols, their esters and ethers; waxes; sulphated oils and waxes; lubricating oil containing a condensation product of 1 molecular proportion of a fatty alcohol with from 1.5 to 5 molecular proportion of ethylene oxide and a condensation product of 1 molecular proportion of a fatty alcohol with from 15 to 30 molecular proportions of ethylene oxide. These include condensates of ethylene and/or propylene oxides which may contain either ethylene or propyl- :ene oxide units or both and their esters, and condensation products of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide with linear or branched chain saturated or unsaturated, aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic or araliphatic carboxylic acids, amides, amines or hydroxyl or thiol compounds. The aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic or araliphatic residue contains at least 8 carbon atoms and may contain further substituents such as hydroxyl, thiol, ether, thioether and amino groups. The amides or amines may contain aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic or araliphatic substituents but should contain at least one reactive hydrogen atom.

Suitable block copolymers are more fully described in copending US. applications Serial No. 144,324 and Serial No. 188,526, relating to copolymers of polyethers and cyclic siloxanes and in UK. patent specification Numbers 802,688, 804,369 and 880,022. Other copolymers which have been found to be especially useful include linear and branched block copolymers having the following structures wherein R is a hydrocarbon residue, R, R" and R are polyether residues having functionalities of l, 2 and more than 2 respectively, and (a) is an integer of 3 or more.

Preferred block or graft copolymers comprise methyl polysiloxane blocks and oxyalkylene blocks containing from 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the oxyalkylene units. Es-

pecially preferred, for convenience in use, are methyl polysiloxane-polyoxyalkylene block or graft copolymers in which the polyoxyalkylene blocks are composed of oxyethylene units, or of mixtures of oxyethylene with oxypropylene or oxybutylene units and in which the polyether-silicone ratio is such as to give copolymers which are either soluble or self-dispersible in cold water.

Examples of linear block copolymers which ar especially suitable as spreading aids in the process of this invention include compositions having the structure n 2n )m( 2 )p( X ZX )Y X ZX X ZX x 2x)y( 2)p( n 2n)m in which R is an alkyl group with up to 8 carbon atoms, x is an integer of 2-4 and may be the same or different in different units, y is an integer to about 20 or 30, (C H O) is a polyether residue comprised of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1, and with a molecular weight between about 250 and 1000, p has a value from about 4 to 12 and the weight ratio of total polyether blocks to total silicone blocks is between about 0.6 and 2.5. In the above formula, when y=0 and x=3, a preferred copolymer is obtained in which the SiO-C linkage is through a secondary hydroxyl group.

Examples of branched block copolymers which are especially suitable include compositions having the structure X ZX)y( 2)p( n 2n)m ]3 wherein R is a trifunctional organic residue derived from a polyhydric alcohol R (OH) x is as above and y is 1 to about or 20, R is an alkyl radical with up to 8 carbon atoms, p has a value between about 4 and 12, (OC H is a polyether residue composed of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1, and having a molecular weight between about 250 and 1500, and the ratio of total polyether blocks to total silicone blocks in the copolymer is between about 1 and 4. In the above formula, the Si-OC linkage is again preferably via a secondary OH group.

Also especially useful are branched block copolymers having the structure R"Si[ (OSiMe (OC H OR 3 (2B) wherein R and R are alkyl groups with up to 8 carbon atoms, p has a value between about 4 and 9, (OC H is a polyether residue composed of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1 and having a molecular weight between about 700 and 30 00 and the ratio of the total polyether blocks to the silicone block in the copolymer is in the region of 2 to 4.

Examples of preferred graft copolymers are compositions having the structure -OSiMe Me Si (OCnHnJmOR (3) wherein the silicone chain is composed of a random as sembly of the units in brackets, (c+d) lies between about 10 and 30, c is at least 2 and no greater than a, R is an alkyl group with up to 8 carbon atoms, (OC H is a polyether residue composed of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1, and having a molecular weight between about 400 and 3,000, and the weight ratio of total polyether blocks to the silicone block in the copolymer is between about 2 and 5.

Specific examples of preferred graft copolymers are compositions having approximately the following structure (O SiMez) d O SiMc;

The siloxane-oxyalkylene copolymers suitable for use in this invention may be prepared, for example, by the esterification of the siloxane links in polysiloxanes with suitable hydroxy-terminated polyethers, or by reaction of polysiloxanes containing silicon-bonded hydrogen with hydroxy-terminated polyethers with elimination of hydrogen, preferably in presence of known catalysts for this type of reaction, or by ester-interchange between hydroxyterminated polyethers and polysiloxanes containing lower alkoxy groups.

In addition to siloxane-oxyalkylene block copolymers in which the polysiloxane and polyoxyalkylene blocks are united through Si-OC- linkages, other copolymers in which the different blocks are united through SiC linkages may be used. Suitable copolymers of this type may be made by reaction of polysiloxanes containing silicon bonded hydrogen with unsaturated polyethers in presence of known catalysts for this type of condensation.

These siloxane polyoxyalkylene copolymers linked by SiC bonds, may also be made by the following methods:

(i) Addition of alkylene oxide(s) to silanes or siloxanes containing SLR-OH.

(ii) Reaction of haloalkyl silanes or siloxanes with alkali metal salt of polyether alcohol.

(iii) Addition of Si-H-containing silanes or siloxanes to unsaturated nitriles or lower alkyl esters followed by hydrolysis and esterification or by ester interchange with a polyether alcohol.

Further details for preparing the above copolymers and their formulae are given in the following specifications:

(i) B.P. 802,467, U.S.P. 2,846,458. (ii) and (iii) Belgian Patent 603,552.

The ability of a liquid such as our water dispersible amphipathic compound to wet a solid in contact with air can be expressed by a quantity S called the Harkins Spreading Coefficient S ='y (u where 'y is the interfacial tension between solid and air where 'y is the interfacial tension between liquid and solid where 'y is the interfacial tension between liquid and air In the case of fibres having an essentially circular crosssection, liquids such as textile processing aids having a negative spreading coefiicient do not continuously wet the fibre surface, but retreat into discrete droplets along the filaments, so that the length of a fibre is not uniformly lubricated or covered with a continuous sheath of, e.g., antistatic agent and the effectiveness of the processing aid is, in both these respects reduced. Further, in the case of hydrophobic fibres of essentially circular crosssection, such as polyethylene terephthalate Terylene (R.T.M.) and isotactic polypropylene fibres, which have a non-polar surface, the quantity 'y is smaller than that for more polar fibre surfaces, such as wool, cotton and viscose, so that on hydrophobic fibre surfaces it is more diflicult to obtain a film of the textile processing aid.

In order to test the ability of amphipathic compounds and additives to spread on hydrophobic fibres a simple test has been developed as follows:

Two dilute aqueous solutions containing between 1% and 5% of the compounds are prepared, one serving as a control and the other containing between 1 and 20% of a siloxane oxyalkylene block or graft copolymer, the percentage being based on the weight of the compound in the dispersion. A small amount (0.005 cc.) of the liquid and control are measured with a micrometer syringe on a horizontally laid film of fibre forming polymer. In the following tests biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate and stereospecific polypropylene films were used. The water is allowed to evaporate at room temperature and the films are then heated in an oven at C. for 10 minutes. The average diameter or areas of the drops are then measured. Test liquids which are effective as spreading agents cause the diameter of the wetted surface of the film to be at least two times the diameter, or four times the area, of the wetted surface after heating, compared with the control.

Another test involving measuring the electrical resistance of a monofilament coated with a solution or dispersion under test, is compared with the controls. Because of the non-continuous droplets which are formed by the amphipathic compounds in the absence of an effective siloxane oxyalkylene block copolymer the electrical resistance is higher.

The third test is described when a suitable dispersion is applied to fibres which are examined for ease of textile processing and regularity as judged by nep content, frictional properties and static charge generation.

Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4, illustrate the eiiect of a spreading agent on the amphipathic compound when applied to film.

EXAMPLE 1 A 4% aqueous dispersion of an amphipathic compound consisting of solid polyglycol stearate, containing approximately 6 molecules of ethylene oxide per stearate group, was prepared by stirring 20 g. of the polyglycol stearate in 200 ccs. of water heating at 60 C. for half an hour and diluting the dispersion to 500 ccs. From this dispersion, a 2% dispersion called (a) was prepared by adding to 100 ccs. of the 4% dispersion 100 ccs. of an aqueous solution containing 0.8 g. of a spreading aid consisting of a water-soluble siloxane oxyalkylene block copolymer having the approximate structure:

wherein the oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in the polyether blocks are disposed to give a random copolymer.

For comparison a 2% dispersion of polyglycol stearate called (B) was prepared as described above, but without adding the spreading aid.

By means of a micrometer syringe, 0.005 cc. of dispersions (A) and (B) were measured as droplets suificiently spaced apart, onto a plane surface of a piece of clear polyethylene terephthalate film. The water was allowed to evaporate at room temperature and left a thin circular smear of the solutes of 4 mm. diameter on the film. The film was then placed in an oven at 100 C. for minutes, causing the solute to melt and flow. The smears were examined after cooling; dispersion (B) containing the polyglycol stearate alone was only a 5 mm. diameter circular smear, but that produced from dispersion (A) had spread to an irregular smear of about mm. in diameter, showing that the siloxane-oxyalkylene spreading aid had caused the polyglycol stearate to wet and spread on the polyethylene terephthalate film.

EXAMPLE 2 A similar experiment was performed with amphipathic compound polyglycol monolaurate, a liquid non-aqueous processing agent containing approximately 9 polyethylene glycol units for each lauric acid radical. This agent was soluble in water and solutions were prepared containing 2% of the monolaurate called solution (D) alone and 2% of the monolaurate with 20% of its weight of the same spreading aid as used in Example 1, called solution (C). Droplets of volume 0.005 cc. were measured onto a clear polyethylene terephthalate film surface, as in Example 1. As the water evaporated, the radius of the drop from solution (D) containing polyethylene glycol monolaurate alone remained constant and left a smear of 4.0 mm. radius, but the droplet from solution (C) containing the monolaurate and the siloxane-oxyalkylene spreading aid spread, after the water had evaporated leaving an irregular smear of about 20 mm. in diameter, again showing that the spreading aid had caused the spreading of the polyglycol monolaurate.

EXAMPLE 3 The experiments of Examples 1 and 2 were repeated with similar results using instead of the spreading aid of Example 1 another spreading aid prepared as described below: g

A mixture of 33.3 parts of polyether of molecular weight 333 obtained by oxyalkylation of n-butanol with a 'mixture of equal parts of ethylene and propylene oxides,

6.7 parts of dipropylene glycol, 59.2 parts of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, parts of toluene and 0.3 of a part dissolved to give a 2% solution in polypropylene glycol of molecular weight about 2000, lowered the surfacetension of the polypropylene glycol by about 8.6 dynes/ cm.

EXAMPLE 4 0.005 mol. of the liquids (A), (B), (C) and (D) were applied to the surface in separate experiments of single monofils of polyethylene terephthalate having a titre of .1500 denier. Two insulated clips, mounted 7 mm. apart held the fibre, and were connected to a resistance meter capable of measuring up to 10 ohms resistance. The electrical resistance of the fibres with applied liquids (B) and (D) remained greater than 10 ohms during evaporation of the droplets and after heating the monofil to C., indicating that neither the aqueous dispersion or solution, nor the neat agent spread as a continuous sheath along the fibres. In the case of dispersion (A) the electrical resistance remained high during evaporation of the water, but fell to 10 ohms when heat was applied, showing that the spreading aid caused the melted polyglycol stearate to form a continuous sheath along the monofil. The monofil treated with solution (C) showed high electrical resistance until the water had evaporated, but the resistance then fell to 10 ohms, when the waterfree polyglycol stearate spread into a continuous sheath.

EXAMPLE 5 Similar results were obtained when the procedure with polyethylene terephthalate monofil described in Example 4 was repeated, but using instead of the spreading aid described in Example 1, the other spreading aid described in Example 3.

EXAMPLE 6 5 litres of a suspension containing 1.5% polyglycol stearate and 0.30% of the spreading aid used in Example 1, were prepared as described in Example 1 (dispersion A), and a second dispersion (B) was prepared containing only the polyglycol stearate. The dispersions were applied to a heat set crimped polyethylene terephthlate tow of overall denier 270,000, and comprising individual fila- "ments of 1.5 denier, by passing the tow continuously between sprays, the rates of spraying and tow speed being controlled in order to give a level of 0.16% of the poly glycol stearate on the tow in each case.

The tow was then cut into sections of length 1.5 inches and subjected to a heating operation for 12 minutes at a temperature of 110 C., in order, first to expel the water, and secondly to promote speading of the polyglycol stearate in presence of the spreading aid. Samples of the cut fibre were then carded on a cotton card, drafted and finally spun to yarn, and careful notes of the processing behaviour were made at all stages. These were substantiated by measurements of such physical properties of the fibre assemblies as appear relevant to the processing behavior of the fibres.

Table Dispersions I A i B Static charge on carding (volts. feet) 12 39 Neps in card web (neps/g. 6 14 Sliver breakages on drafting (breaks/1b. 1 3 Fibre-brass friction 0.35 0.39

A 5% aqueous control dispersion (E) of Opal Wax was prepared by emulsifying the wax with the aid of 20% of its weight of a condensation product 17 moles of ethylene oxide in a mixture of cetyl and oleyl alcohols. Dispersion (F) contained in addition to the wax and emulsifying agent 20% of the silicone polyethenoxy compound described in Example 1, this percentage being based on the weight of opal wax in the dispersion.

Small drops of 0.01 ml. of the aqueous dispersions (E) and (F) were measured from a micrometer syringe onto the smooth horizontal surface of a clean film of biaxially oriented isotactic polypropylene. The water was allowed to evaporate at room temperature and the films were heated in an oven to 100 C. during a period of minutes. After cooling the average diameter of the surface wetted by the wax was measured. In the case of dispersion (E), the diameter wetted was 2.2 mm. whereas in the case of dispersion (F), the diameter wetted was 13 mm., showing that the silicone oxyalkylene block copolymer had caused the wax to spread on the polypropylene surface, by a factor of 5.9, i.e., greater than two.

EXAMPLE 8 Drop dlameter (111.111.)

Pclyglycol Polyglycol monostearate monolaurate Control 4. 7 1. 7 With 10% silicone polyoxyalkylene block eopolymer 11.0 10. 7

These results again show the ability of the silicone oxyalkylene block copolymer to promote wetting of the polypropylene surface with the polyethylene oxide condensates. It will be seen that also an isotactic polypropylene spreading was increased by a factor greater than two, in average diameter. (Samples 124 and control 25.)

EXAMPLE 9 The experiments of Example 1 were repeated with aqueous dispersions containing 2% by Weight of solid polyglycol stearate and 0.02% by weight of the dispersion of one of the siloxane block copolymers tabled below.

The average diameter of 0.005 ml. drops on polyethylene terephthalate film after evaporation of the water and heating of the samples for 10 min. at C. were measured and are tabled in the right hand column (in mm.).

Average smear diameter after heating at 100 C for 10 minutes (mm) Sample No.

Spreading Aid 0 H omsii: osi ouom-vosnonm. oHmooR 3 OR is a random copolymer of approximately 17 oxyethylene units and 13 oxypropylene units (Le. a copolymer of equal weights of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide), M.W. ca. 1500.

where OR is as in (1), and m=3, 11:15. (The polyether-bearing siloxane units are randomly distributed along the chain).

As (2), except that OR has a slightly shorter polyether chain and an iso-octyl end group giving it approximately the same molecular weight as in (1) and (2). Again the polycther chain consists of oxyethylene and oxypropylcne units in a 1:1 weight ratio.

As (2), but OR has molecular weight ca. 500

As (2), but OR has molecular weight ea. 1,000

As (2), but OR has molecular weight ea. 2,000

As (2), but OR is an oxypropylated butanol,

molecular weight ea. 1,300.

As (2), but OR is an oxypropylated butanol,

molecular weight ca. 1,600.

As (2), but OR is a 1:1 weight mixture of oxyethylated iso-oetanol, molecular weight ea. 1,400 and (figygropylated iso-oetanol, molecular weight ca.

As (2), but 'm=6, n=l2 and OR has molecular weight ca. 500.

As (10, but 0R has molecular weight ca. 1,000....

As (10), but OR has molecular weight ea. 1,500....

As (10), but OR has molecular weight ca. 2,000....

As (10), but OR is an oxypropylated butanol,

molecular weight ea. 1,100.

As (10), but OR is an oxypropylated butanol,

molecular Weight ca. 1,600.

As (10), but OR is a 1:1 weight mixture of oxyethylated methanol, molecular Weight ca. 750 and ggrypropylated iso-oetanol, molecular weight ca.

Average smear diameter after heating at C. for

Sample 10 minutes (mm.)

15 l5 l7 9 2O 10 Control 5 These samples therefore would be used if the filaments or fibres were heated during processing to a temperature of at least 130 C., as does happen during filament yarn drawing and during dry heat setting of staple fibres.

EXAMPLE 10 The experiment of Example 2 was repeated with 2% dispersions of polyglycol laurate each with spreading aids, as listed in the table below, to the extent of 1% of the weight of the polyglycol laurate.

It will be seen that the samples 1 and 2 containing the siloxane copolymers cause spreading in the average diameter of the drops by a factor of at least two, compared with the control.

Since polyglycol laurate is a liquid at room temperature spreading will already occur at that temperature. When the samples are heated for 10 minutes at 100 C. the diameter of the drops is increased to 16 mm. and that of the control to 5 mm.

What we claim is:

1. A process for treating textile materials, particularly filaments and fibers made from synthetic linear polymers, which comprises applying thereto (1) 0.1% to 2.0% by weight, of said textile material, of a water soluble lower alkylene oxide condensate, and (2) between yn D.d a D.d

percent by weight, of said textile material, of a copolymer selected from the group consisting of siloxane oxyalkylene block and graft copolymers, wherein D is the fiber denier and d is the fiber density in grams per cubic centimeter.

2. A process according to claim 1 comprising applying the lower alkylene oxide condensate and the siloxane oxyalkylene polymer to said textile material in the form of an aqueous composition.

3. A process according to claim 2 comprising applying from 0.05% to 2% of the components calculated on the water-free composition, based on the weight of the textile material.

4. A process according to claim 1 comprising applying the lower alkylene oxide condensate and the siloxane oxyalkylene polymer to said textile material in the form of a 05-10% aqueous composition.

5. A process according to claim 1 comprising applying a composition containing 3090% of the lower alkylene oxide condensate, 30% of silicone block copolymer and from 30-90% of a lubricant selected from the group consisting of waxy and oil lubricants, all percentages being calculated on the total weight of composition of nonaqueous components.

6. A process according to claim 1 in which the lower alkylene oxide condensate contains a hydrocarbon radical having at least eight carbon atoms.

7. A process according to claim 1 in which the lower alkylene oxide condensate is an ethylene oxide condensate.

8. A process according to claim 1 in which the lower alkylene oxide condensate is a propylene oxide condensate.

9. A process according to claim 1 in which the lower alkylene oxide condensate is a condensation product of (a) an alkylene oxide selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide and (b) a compound condensable with said oxide selected from the group 10 consisting of carboxylic acids, amides, amines, hydroxyl compounds and thiol compounds.

10. A process according to claim 9 wherein said lower alkylene oxide condensate is a condensation product of ethylene oxide and an amide containing at least one reactive hydrogen atom.

11. A process according to claim 9 wherein said lower alkylene oxide condensate is a condensation product of ethylene oxide and an amine containing at least one reactive hydrogen atom.

12. A process. according to claim 1 in which said polymer is selected from the copolymers of polyethers and cyclic siloxanes.

13. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane block copolymer has the structural formula:

wherein R and R are alkyl groups with up to 8 carbon atoms, p has a value between 4 and 9, (OC H is a polyether residue composed of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1 and having a molecular weight between about 700 and 3000 and the ratio of the total polyether blocks to the silicone block in the copolymer is in the region of 2 to 4.

14. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane block copolymer has the structural formula:

0 SiMe- (0 SiMez) aOSiMe Me sil: l 1

(OCnHzQmOR :2 wherein the silicone chain is composed of a random assembly of the units in brackets (c+d) lies between about 10 and 30, C is at least 2 and no greater than d, R is an alkyl group with up to 8 carbon atoms, (OC,,,H is a polyether residue composed of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2:1, and having a molecular weight between about 400 and 3,000, and the weight ratio of total polyether blocks to the silicone block in the copolymer is between about 2 and 5. 15. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane block copolymer has the structural formula:

[0 SiMe- 1 (o SiMez) SiMe Me Si 16. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane block copolymer has the structural formula:

17. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane block copolymer has the structural formula:

18. A process according to claim 17 wherein the lower alkylene oxide condensate is polyglycol stearate containing approximately 6 molecules of ethylene oxide per stearate group and the material comprises polyethylene terephthalate.

19. A process according to claim 17 wherein the lower alkylene oxide condensate is polyglycol monolaurate containing approximately 9 polyethylene glycol units for each lauric acid radical and the material comprises polyethylene terephthalate.

20. A process according to claim 1, in which the siloxane oxyalkylene copolymer has the structure wherein R and R" are polyether residues having functionalities of 1 and 2.

21. A process according to claim 1 in which the siloxane oxyalkylene copolymer has the structure R" (OSiR OR] wherein R is a hydrocarbon residue, R, R" and R are polyether residues having functionalities of 1, 2 and more 11 than 2 respectively, and (2) is an integer of at least 3 and p is 412.

22. A process according to claim 1 wherein the copolymer comprises methyl polysiloxane blocks and oxyalkylene blocks containing from 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the oxyalkylene units.

23. A process according to claim 1 wherein the copolymer is one in which the polyether silicone ratio is such as to give copolymers which are at least self-dispersible in cold water.

24. A process according to claim 1 wherein the copolymer comprises the structure in which R is an alkyl group with up to 8 carbon atoms, x is an integer of 24, y is an integer to about 30, (c H O) is a polyether residue comprised of oXyethylene and oxypropylene units in a proportion between 1:2 and 2: 1, and with a molecular weight between about 250 and 1000, p has a value from about 4 to 12 and the weight ratio of total polyether blocks to total silicone blocks is between about 0.6 and 2.5.

25. A process according to claim 24, wherein y=0 and x=3 and in which the SiOC linkage is through a secondary hydroxyl group.

2 26. A process according to claim 1 wherein the siloxane copolymer comprises the structure wherein R is a trifunctional organic residue derived from a polyhydric alcohol R (OH) x is an integer of 24 and y is 1 to about 20, R" is an alkyl radical with up to 8 carbon atoms, p has a value between about 4 and 12.

27. Filaments and fibres having deposited on their surface a composition according to claim 1 in which the amount of siloxane oxyalkylene block copolymer deposited is between 8 X 10 g. cm. and X l0 g. cm. of the surface area of the fibre as calculated from its denier and density.

28. Filaments and fibres as claimed in claim 27 made from polyethylene terephthalate.

29. Filaments and fibres as claimed in claim 27 made from isotactic polypropylene.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,668,785 Jefferson et a1 Feb. 4, 1954 2,803,565 Sagar Aug. 20, 1957 2,846,458 Haluska Aug. 5, 1958 3,009,830 Levine Nov. 21, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 802,688 Great Britain Oct. 8, 1958 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No 3 ,l4() ,l98 July 7 1964 Fred Dawson et al.

in the above numbered patthat error appears ent should read as It is hereby certified that the said Letters Pat ent requiring correction and instead of as in the patent:

lines 37 to 39 and column 9 hown below ld appear as s and -4- V D.d m Signed and sealed this lOth day of Augustl965.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD J. BRENNER ERNEST W. SWlDER' Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR TREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS, PARTICULARLY FILAMENTS AND FIBERS MADE FROM SYNTHETIC LINEAR POLYMERS, WHICH COMPRISES APPLYING THERETO (1) 0.1% TO 2.0% BY WEIGHT, OF SAID TEXTILE MATERIAL, OF A WATER SOLUBLE LOWER ALKYLENE OXIDE CONDENSATE, AND (2) BETWEEN
US3140198A 1961-06-01 1962-05-28 Treatment of textile materials Expired - Lifetime US3140198A (en)

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Cited By (21)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3322607A (en) * 1964-08-17 1967-05-30 Du Pont Lubricated polypropylene polyethylene self-bonded nonwoven carpet backing
US3336428A (en) * 1963-02-18 1967-08-15 Union Carbide Corp Formation of wet spun fibers
US3379564A (en) * 1965-01-07 1968-04-23 Du Pont Method of coating a synthetic polymeric material by cross-linking a polysiloxane containing 2-cyanoethyl and 2-carboxyethyl groups
US3620821A (en) * 1968-09-18 1971-11-16 Union Carbide Corp Treatment of fibers with siloxane-polyoxyalkylene block copolymers containing methoxysiloxy groups
US3653955A (en) * 1968-05-20 1972-04-04 Deering Milliken Res Corp Antistatic fiber treatments
US3772069A (en) * 1971-03-17 1973-11-13 Du Pont Bonded nonwoven sheet bearing a lubricating composition of a liquid polysiloxane and a liquid polyoxypropylene compound
US3867188A (en) * 1973-07-25 1975-02-18 Dow Corning Spunbonded nonwoven fabric
US4064057A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-12-20 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Textile fiber finishes
US4105567A (en) * 1976-02-12 1978-08-08 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Organosilicon compounds and textile fiber finishes containing them
US4137181A (en) * 1976-08-19 1979-01-30 Hoechst Fibers Industries Staple fiber, finish therefor and process for use of same
US4207071A (en) * 1979-02-01 1980-06-10 Dow Corning Corporation Durable modification of fibrous substrates using a polyoxyethylene-containing silane and articles therefrom
US4283191A (en) * 1979-03-23 1981-08-11 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Preparation for shrinkproofing wool
US4294883A (en) * 1976-08-19 1981-10-13 Hoechst Fibers Industries, Div. Of American Hoechst Corporation Staple fiber, finish therefor and process for use of same
US4309478A (en) * 1977-02-28 1982-01-05 Wacker-Chemie Gmbh Organic fibers having improved slip properties produced by treatment with organosilicon compounds
US4439473A (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-03-27 Jerry Lippman Hydrophobic foam fabric coating
US4552671A (en) * 1984-04-06 1985-11-12 Takemoto Yushi Kabushiki Kaisha Spin finish compositions for polyester and polyamide yarns
EP0186492A2 (en) * 1984-12-21 1986-07-02 Toray Silicone Company Limited Method for treating materials with organopolysiloxane compounds
US4661268A (en) * 1985-12-24 1987-04-28 Very Incredible Products, Inc. Wrinkle removing solution and process for using same
EP0255205A2 (en) * 1986-05-16 1988-02-03 Toray Silicone Company, Ltd. Treating composition comprising organopolysiloxane containing polyoxyalkylene and alkoxysilylalkyl radicals
USRE34584E (en) * 1984-11-09 1994-04-12 The Procter & Gamble Company Shampoo compositions
US6444627B1 (en) 1998-10-20 2002-09-03 Dow Global Technologies Inc. Lubricant composition

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US2668785A (en) * 1950-04-03 1954-02-09 Atlas Powder Co Filamentous textile having a processing finish
US2803565A (en) * 1954-03-05 1957-08-20 Ici Ltd Processing of fibres
US2846458A (en) * 1956-05-23 1958-08-05 Dow Corning Organosiloxane ethers
GB802688A (en) * 1954-06-10 1958-10-08 Union Carbide Corp Improvements in or relating to organo-silicon compounds
US3009830A (en) * 1960-03-15 1961-11-21 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Finishing polyolefin filamentary textile article and the article obtained therefrom

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US2668785A (en) * 1950-04-03 1954-02-09 Atlas Powder Co Filamentous textile having a processing finish
US2803565A (en) * 1954-03-05 1957-08-20 Ici Ltd Processing of fibres
GB802688A (en) * 1954-06-10 1958-10-08 Union Carbide Corp Improvements in or relating to organo-silicon compounds
US2846458A (en) * 1956-05-23 1958-08-05 Dow Corning Organosiloxane ethers
US3009830A (en) * 1960-03-15 1961-11-21 Hercules Powder Co Ltd Finishing polyolefin filamentary textile article and the article obtained therefrom

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3336428A (en) * 1963-02-18 1967-08-15 Union Carbide Corp Formation of wet spun fibers
US3322607A (en) * 1964-08-17 1967-05-30 Du Pont Lubricated polypropylene polyethylene self-bonded nonwoven carpet backing
US3379564A (en) * 1965-01-07 1968-04-23 Du Pont Method of coating a synthetic polymeric material by cross-linking a polysiloxane containing 2-cyanoethyl and 2-carboxyethyl groups
US3653955A (en) * 1968-05-20 1972-04-04 Deering Milliken Res Corp Antistatic fiber treatments
US3620821A (en) * 1968-09-18 1971-11-16 Union Carbide Corp Treatment of fibers with siloxane-polyoxyalkylene block copolymers containing methoxysiloxy groups
US3772069A (en) * 1971-03-17 1973-11-13 Du Pont Bonded nonwoven sheet bearing a lubricating composition of a liquid polysiloxane and a liquid polyoxypropylene compound
US3867188A (en) * 1973-07-25 1975-02-18 Dow Corning Spunbonded nonwoven fabric
US4064057A (en) * 1975-12-10 1977-12-20 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Textile fiber finishes
US4105567A (en) * 1976-02-12 1978-08-08 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Organosilicon compounds and textile fiber finishes containing them
US4137181A (en) * 1976-08-19 1979-01-30 Hoechst Fibers Industries Staple fiber, finish therefor and process for use of same
US4179543A (en) * 1976-08-19 1979-12-18 Hoechst Fibers Industries, Division Of American Hoechst Corporation Staple fiber, finish therefor and process for use of same
US4294883A (en) * 1976-08-19 1981-10-13 Hoechst Fibers Industries, Div. Of American Hoechst Corporation Staple fiber, finish therefor and process for use of same
US4309478A (en) * 1977-02-28 1982-01-05 Wacker-Chemie Gmbh Organic fibers having improved slip properties produced by treatment with organosilicon compounds
US4207071A (en) * 1979-02-01 1980-06-10 Dow Corning Corporation Durable modification of fibrous substrates using a polyoxyethylene-containing silane and articles therefrom
US4283191A (en) * 1979-03-23 1981-08-11 Th. Goldschmidt Ag Preparation for shrinkproofing wool
US4439473A (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-03-27 Jerry Lippman Hydrophobic foam fabric coating
US4552671A (en) * 1984-04-06 1985-11-12 Takemoto Yushi Kabushiki Kaisha Spin finish compositions for polyester and polyamide yarns
USRE34584E (en) * 1984-11-09 1994-04-12 The Procter & Gamble Company Shampoo compositions
EP0186492A2 (en) * 1984-12-21 1986-07-02 Toray Silicone Company Limited Method for treating materials with organopolysiloxane compounds
EP0186492A3 (en) * 1984-12-21 1989-05-24 Toray Silicone Company Limited Method for treating materials with organopolysiloxane compounds
EP0228261A2 (en) * 1985-12-24 1987-07-08 Very Incredible Products Inc. Wrinkle removing solution and process for using the same
US4661268A (en) * 1985-12-24 1987-04-28 Very Incredible Products, Inc. Wrinkle removing solution and process for using same
EP0228261A3 (en) * 1985-12-24 1989-06-21 Very Incredible Products Inc. Wrinkle removing solution and process for using the same
EP0255205A3 (en) * 1986-05-16 1990-01-10 Toray Silicone Company, Ltd. Treating composition comprising organopolysiloxane containing polyoxyalkylene and alkoxysilylalkyl radicals
EP0255205A2 (en) * 1986-05-16 1988-02-03 Toray Silicone Company, Ltd. Treating composition comprising organopolysiloxane containing polyoxyalkylene and alkoxysilylalkyl radicals
US6444627B1 (en) 1998-10-20 2002-09-03 Dow Global Technologies Inc. Lubricant composition

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GB981814A (en) 1965-01-27 application
BE618428A (en) grant
DE1419487A1 (en) 1968-12-19 application
NL279187A (en) application

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