US3139163A - Ground anchor - Google Patents

Ground anchor Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3139163A
US3139163A US78790A US7879060A US3139163A US 3139163 A US3139163 A US 3139163A US 78790 A US78790 A US 78790A US 7879060 A US7879060 A US 7879060A US 3139163 A US3139163 A US 3139163A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
anchor
ground
slots
apex
body
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US78790A
Inventor
Augustine C Haller
Original Assignee
Augustine C Haller
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Augustine C Haller filed Critical Augustine C Haller
Priority to US78790A priority Critical patent/US3139163A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3139163A publication Critical patent/US3139163A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/74Means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads
    • E02D5/80Ground anchors
    • E02D5/803Ground anchors with pivotable anchoring members

Description

June 30, 1964 A. c. HALLER 3,139,163

GROUND ANCHOR Filed Dec. 27, 1960 INVENTOR. flayusiz'ne GT/YaZZer 3W 4 m Y W 1% United States Patent 3,139,163 GROUND ANCHOR Augustine C. Haller, Tabb, Va., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed Dec. 27, 1960, Ser. No. 78,790 2 Claims. (Cl. 189-90) (Granted under Title 35, US. Code (1952), see. 266) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment of any royalty thereon.

This invention relates to ground anchors or stays for guy lines and the like.

A primary object of the invention is to provide a device that will be suitable for anchoring guy lines and the like to the ground, characterized by ease of penetration into the ground, maximum resistance to extraction therefrom due to force exerted by the guy cable, and withdrawal of the cable without the necessity of removing the anchoring device.

A further object is to provide a ground anchor having a novel and simplified means for connecting the same with a guy line above the ground, aifording an extremely strong connection between the anchor and the guy line, and allowing the guy line to be removed intact from the ground while the anchor remains in the ground.

Another object is to provide a ground anchor characterized by simple, eflicient, and inexpensive construction which is extremely light in weight, substantially unitary in construction, and adapted to be manufactured in the form of a metal casting or the like as an expendable article, if desired.

Another object is to provide a ground anchor which may be hand driven into substantially any soil by means of a simple rod and hammer.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a ground anchor for guy lines which tends to orient itself within the ground to a plane substantially at right angles to the guy line, after the guy line is tightened and placed under tension, the anchor then offering a maximum resistance to extraction from the ground due to tension in the guy line.

Other objects and advantages will be understood and most fully appreciated by a study of the following description given in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of the present invention showing the means by which the guy line is attached;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the same anchor showing the groove through which the lanyard is connected;

FIG. 3 is an edge view of the anchor;

FIG. 4 is a view of the opposite side from that shown in FIG. 2; 1

FIG. 5 is a cross sectional edge view showing how the anchor may be driven into the ground;

FIG. 6 is an edge view of the anchor with a section of the guy line attached showing the position the anchor would take in relation to the guy line when embedded in the ground; and I FIG. 7 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention.

In the drawings, where for the purpose of illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of the invention, the numeral 20 designates generally my ground anchor. The anchor is comprised of a plate 21 which is flat and has substantially the shape of an equilateral triangle with the apex 22 of the triangle adapted to be directed downwardly for penetration into the ground. Since a major purpose of the ground anchor is to serve as a tie-down for aircraft and hence must be carried in quantity in air- 3,139,163 Patented June 30, 1964 craft, the ground anchor is preferably formed of a light weight material, such as aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and is provided with weight reducing apertures to provide an anchor of minimum weight consistent with the required strength.

The plate 21 is provided at the center of the base 23 and along the line through the apex 22 which bisects the base 23 with a rib 24 which substantially tapers to a point at the apex 22, Where the rib has substantially the same thickness as the plate 21. The end 25 of the rib 24 remote from the apex 22 is fiat and flush with the base 23 of the triangular plate 21. At this end 25, the rib 24 is substantially wider than the thickness of the plate 21.

A recess 26 with an opening 27 centrally positioned on the end 25 of the rib 24 and extending longitudinally within the rib 24 approximately one half the distance from the end 25 toward the apex 22 is adapted to receive a driving rod 28 which may be used to drive the anchor into the ground when fitted within the recess 26.

Extending lengthwise on both sides of the rib 24 upon the face of the anchor as shown in FIG. 4 are substantially parallel grooves 29 which extend approximately onehalf the length of the anchor from the apex to the base edge. Notches or slots 30 open at their outer ends to the corresponding side edges 31 of the anchor plate near the midlength locations of the side edges and extend inwardly from the side edges toward the rib portion 24 of the anchor plate. These slots are somewhat inclined from their open ends inwardly and toward the base edge 23 and have a width to receive the loop end portion of the flexible strand 32, as shown in FIG. 1. The grooves 29 extend from the inner ends of the corresponding slots 30 to the base edge 23 and are both provided in one side of the plate to receive the side or leg portions of the strand loop engaged in the slots 30. A curved groove 33 is provided in the opposite side of the anchor plate between the inner ends of the slots 30 and the corresponding ends of the grooves 29 and is convex toward the apex of the anchor plate. The groove 33 receives the bight portion of a strand loop engaged in the slots 30 as is also clearly shown in FIG. 1.

The connecting line 32 received in notches 30 and grooves 29 and 33 is preferably a highly flexible, easily severable strand of suitable material, such as nylon thread, which can be pulled through the slots and grooves in the anchor plate while the plate is embedded in the ground, to release the line from the plate and which can be cut by a machine, such as a lawn mover, if the line is inadvertently left in position after a tied down aircraft has been released and removed. This line is doubled before being applied to the anchor plate and the ends secured together to form a loop. The end portion of the loop is drawn through slots 30 so that the bight of the loop lies in groove 33 at one side of the plate and the sides or legs of the loop lie in grooves 29 at the opposite side of the plate. The flexible loop, secured in the ground at one end, provides an attachment to which a lashing line can be secured. It should be noted that the grooves through which the connecting line 32 is attached are of sufiicient depth so that the anchor may be driven into the ground with the anchor substantially breaking the ground before any part of the connecting line 32 passes through the area, thus reducing friction and preventing unnecessary wear upon the connecting line 32. This arrangement forms a very strong connection between the anchor 20 and the connecting line 32. The half-circle cross sectional shape of the U-shaped groove 33 provides a rounded surface for contact with the bight portion of the connecting loop. It is thus seen that the connecting 'line 32 pulls on the anchor near the center of the triangular plate 31, and this arrangement permits the ground anchor to automatically orient itself when under tension to a position subence from that previously described except the lack of holes 34 and the lack of grooves 29 tapering to a flush relationship with base 23. The grooves 35 in this modification are substantially equal in depth along their entire length from base 36 to the location in which they cut through the anchor to become interconnected to form U-shaped groove 37.

In the use of my ground anchor to tie down aircraft, for example, appropriately positioned ground anchors are driven into the ground with suitable lashings interconnecting the aircraft and the anchor. A red 28 is engaged within the recess 26 for the purpose of driving downwardly into the ground in a generally vertical fashion as shown in FIG. 5 or at any chosen angle to the ground. The anchor may be driven into the ground at any depth depending upon the length of the driving rod. The desirable depth of the anchor in the ground depends upon 'the resistance of the soil in'which it is embedded to extraction of the device as compared to the relative tension upon the guy line attached thereto necessary to hold the aircraft, for example, in position. Due to the tapering shape of the rib 24 and anchor as a whole, the anchor will penetrate even very hard soil with case.

.When the anchor has been driven to the desired depth, the upper end of the connecting line loop 32 will extend above the surface of the ground for connecting with the end of a lashing cable or guy line. The end of the lashing is connected with the loop end of the connecting line 32 and tightened in any preferred manner until the line has the desired degree of tension. When the line is thus placed under tension as illustrated in FIG. 6, the anchor automatically changes position in the ground and orients itself in a plane substantially at a right angle to the direction of pull of line 32. This will occur because the connecting line 32 engages the anchor plate at sub-. stantially the center of the triangular plate. As the tension in the line 32 increases, the anchor will shift from the nearly vertical position of FIG. 5, to the inclined position of FIG. 6. The position of the anchor when the line 32 is thusly tensioned is at a right angle thereto offering a maximum resistance toextraction from the ground since the entire triangular area of the fiat plate is exerted against the pull of the line. When the anchor is no longer desired to be used, the tension on the line 32 is released. By separating the ends of the connecting line 32 and 'pulling on one end of this line in a direction approaching that of the plane of the anchor 20, the line is caused to slip around the. U-shaped groove 33 and become disengaged from the anchor plate. Accordingly, the line 32 engaging the anchor 20 may be removed intact and the anchor may be left in the ground relieving any necessity uses such as anchoring lines for towers, polesfwalls, etc.

Also, although the embodiments of the invention shown and described are triangular in shape, other shapes, such as semicircular, trapezoidal, or other polygonal forms,

may be suitable.

It should be understood that the form of the invention herewith shown and described is to be taken as a preferred example of the same, and that various changes in the shape, size, and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. A ground anchor comprising a body of triangular shape having an apex or drive point, a base edge opposite said apex and side edges extending from the apex to the corresponding ends of the base edge, said body having a medial rib tapering from said base toward said apex and being substantially symmetrical-in both plan area and thickness, said body also tapering in thickness from said rib to said side edges and having a socket recess in said rib opening to said base edge to receive a driving rod, slots opening to the side edges of said body and extending inwardly from said side edges intermediate the length of said side edges, substantially parallel grooves in one side of said body extending from the inner ends of said slots to said base edge along the corresponding sides of said rib, and a curved groove in the opposite side of said body extending between the inner ends of said slots and being convex toward said apex, said slots and said grooves being adapted to receive a looped flexible connecting line, whereby a line looped through said slots and curved groove and extending through said parallel grooves will be protected while said ground anchor is being driven into the ground. 1

2. A ground anchor comprising a metal body of substantially triangular shape having an apex at one corner constituting a driving point, a base edge opposite said apex, side edges extending from said apexto the corresponding ends of said base edge and having a thickened medial portion providing a rib tapering from said base edge toward said apex, said rib having therein a longitudinally extending Well opening to said base edge and providing a socket for an end of a driving rod, said body tapering in thickness from said base edge toward said apex and from said rib toward said side edges and having therein Weight reducing apertures arranged to reduce the amount of metal in said body without materially reduc: ing the strength thereof and having slots opening one to each side edge intermediate the length of said side edges and extending from said side edges toward said rib, said slots being inclined from their open ends inwardly and toward said base edge and having a Width to receive a loop end portion of a doubled flexible strand, said body having a curved groove in one side thereof extending between the inner ends of said slots and having parallel grooves in the opposite side thereof extending respectively from the inner ends of said slots to the base edge of said body, whereby a line looped through said slots and curved groove and extending through said parallel grooves will be generally below the, surfaces of said body and thus protected jwhile said ground anchor is being driven into the ground.

References Cited 'in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Germany of 1912

Claims (1)

1. A GROUND ANCHOR COMPRISING A BODY OF TRIANGULAR SHAPE HAVING AN APEX OR DRIVE POINT, A BASE EDGE OPPOSITE SAID APEX AND SIDE EDGES EXTENDING FROM THE APEX TO THE CORRESPONDING ENDS OF THE BASE EDGE, SAID BODY HAVING A MEDIAL RIB TAPERING FROM SAID BASE TOWARD SAID APEX AND BEING SUBSTANTIALLY SYMMETRICAL IN BOTH PLAN AREA AND THICKNESS, SAID BODY ALSO TAPERING IN THICKNESS FROM SAID RIB TO SAID SIDE EDGES AND HAVING A SOCKET RECESS IN SAID RIB OPENING TO SAID BASE EDGE TO RECEIVE A DRIVING ROD, SLOTS OPENING TO THE SIDE EDGES OF SAID BODY AND EXTENDING INWARDLY FROM SAID SIDE EDGES INTERMEDIATE THE LENGTH OF SAID SIDE EDGES, SUBSTANTIALLY PARALLEL GROOVES IN ONE SIDE OF SAID BODY EXTENDING FROM THE INNER ENDS OF SAID SLOTS TO SAID BASE EDGE ALONG THE CORRESPONDING SIDES OF SAID RIB, AND A CURVED GROOVE IN THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF SAID BODY EXTENDING BETWEEN THE INNER ENDS OF SAID SLOTS AND BEING CONVEX TOWARD SAID APEX, SAID SLOTS AND SAID GROOVES BEING ADAPTED TO RECEIVE A LOOPED FLEXIBLE CONNECTING LINE, WHEREBY A LINE LOOPED THROUGH SAID SLOTS AND CURVED GROOVE AND EXTENDING THROUGH SAID PARALLEL GROOVES WILL BE PROTECTED WHILE SAID GROUND ANCHOR IS BEING DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND.
US78790A 1960-12-27 1960-12-27 Ground anchor Expired - Lifetime US3139163A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US78790A US3139163A (en) 1960-12-27 1960-12-27 Ground anchor

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US78790A US3139163A (en) 1960-12-27 1960-12-27 Ground anchor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3139163A true US3139163A (en) 1964-06-30

Family

ID=22146244

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US78790A Expired - Lifetime US3139163A (en) 1960-12-27 1960-12-27 Ground anchor

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3139163A (en)

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3242623A (en) * 1961-01-03 1966-03-29 Laconia Malleable Iron Company Ground anchoring system
US3378967A (en) * 1964-01-21 1968-04-23 Baumeister Wolfgang Marker for underground marking of measuring points
US3728862A (en) * 1971-06-23 1973-04-24 Meredith Drilling Co Inc Shoring system and components therefor
US3806909A (en) * 1972-03-23 1974-04-23 Texas Instruments Inc Stress sensor for a perimeter intrusion detector system
US3969853A (en) * 1975-02-03 1976-07-20 Foresight Industries Torque fin anchor
US4003169A (en) * 1974-12-12 1977-01-18 Young Ii Elliott B Anchor system
WO1995012713A1 (en) * 1993-11-03 1995-05-11 Platipus Anchors Limited Improvements in ground anchors
FR2725739A1 (en) * 1994-10-14 1996-04-19 Tecnivalor Device for anchoring a foundation of a structure in the ground
US5864993A (en) * 1996-08-06 1999-02-02 Wells; Raymond Stabilizer for ground stake
US6370827B2 (en) * 1999-12-10 2002-04-16 Dan Chalich Ground anchor rod stabilizer
US6401408B1 (en) * 2001-01-29 2002-06-11 Plastics Research Corporation Molded plastic stake with multiple shoulders
US20030014925A1 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-23 Cox Jon Christopher Flexible blanket retaining device with interchangeable top
US20070180782A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2007-08-09 Stealth Anchors, L.L.C. Anchor apparatus, assemblies and methods
US20080034682A1 (en) * 2006-08-08 2008-02-14 Carpenter Thomas J Erosion control mat anchor system
US7353833B1 (en) 2005-03-15 2008-04-08 Nanette Palmer Covering structure with soil anchors
US20090016826A1 (en) * 2007-07-12 2009-01-15 Carpenter Thomas J Erosion control system
US20090317190A1 (en) * 2008-06-18 2009-12-24 Carpenter Thomas J Shoreline erosion control system
US20100196102A1 (en) * 2009-02-05 2010-08-05 Carpenter Thomas J Anchor system
US8118047B2 (en) * 2010-07-26 2012-02-21 Simonson Eric M Stake system and method for soft material
US20140166798A1 (en) * 2012-10-09 2014-06-19 John Wayne Davison Cord Tensioning Device
US9243419B2 (en) * 2014-05-12 2016-01-26 Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated Support wire implanting anchor
US9428933B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2016-08-30 Eric M. Simonson Stake system and method for soft material
USD767218S1 (en) * 2014-05-18 2016-09-20 Derik Eugene Hickling Leash anchor carrier
FR3092086A1 (en) * 2019-01-28 2020-07-31 Musthane Anchoring system for securing an aircraft

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE252537C (en) *
US936824A (en) * 1909-10-12 Fredrick V Simpson Ground-anchor.
US1178282A (en) * 1915-06-24 1916-04-04 Jacob Wilcox Ground-anchor.
US1616801A (en) * 1921-08-18 1927-02-08 Amasa G Hoovens Lightning rod
US2282173A (en) * 1940-10-09 1942-05-05 Wingfoot Corp Lightweight girder
US2781568A (en) * 1951-11-01 1957-02-19 Edward K P Graham Fastening device
US2841256A (en) * 1954-12-24 1958-07-01 Jr Merton L Clevett Ground anchor
US3055334A (en) * 1959-09-25 1962-09-25 Rudolph A Allen Cleats
US3080024A (en) * 1958-10-16 1963-03-05 Laconia Malleable Iron Company Ground anchor

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE252537C (en) *
US936824A (en) * 1909-10-12 Fredrick V Simpson Ground-anchor.
US1178282A (en) * 1915-06-24 1916-04-04 Jacob Wilcox Ground-anchor.
US1616801A (en) * 1921-08-18 1927-02-08 Amasa G Hoovens Lightning rod
US2282173A (en) * 1940-10-09 1942-05-05 Wingfoot Corp Lightweight girder
US2781568A (en) * 1951-11-01 1957-02-19 Edward K P Graham Fastening device
US2841256A (en) * 1954-12-24 1958-07-01 Jr Merton L Clevett Ground anchor
US3080024A (en) * 1958-10-16 1963-03-05 Laconia Malleable Iron Company Ground anchor
US3055334A (en) * 1959-09-25 1962-09-25 Rudolph A Allen Cleats

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3242623A (en) * 1961-01-03 1966-03-29 Laconia Malleable Iron Company Ground anchoring system
US3378967A (en) * 1964-01-21 1968-04-23 Baumeister Wolfgang Marker for underground marking of measuring points
US3728862A (en) * 1971-06-23 1973-04-24 Meredith Drilling Co Inc Shoring system and components therefor
US3806909A (en) * 1972-03-23 1974-04-23 Texas Instruments Inc Stress sensor for a perimeter intrusion detector system
US4003169A (en) * 1974-12-12 1977-01-18 Young Ii Elliott B Anchor system
US3969853A (en) * 1975-02-03 1976-07-20 Foresight Industries Torque fin anchor
AU687055B2 (en) * 1993-11-03 1998-02-19 Platipus Anchors Limited Improvements in ground anchors
WO1995012713A1 (en) * 1993-11-03 1995-05-11 Platipus Anchors Limited Improvements in ground anchors
US5775037A (en) * 1993-11-03 1998-07-07 Platipus Anchors Limited Ground anchor
WO1996012068A1 (en) * 1994-10-14 1996-04-25 Tecnivalor S.A.R.L. Device for anchoring the foundation of a structure in the ground
FR2725739A1 (en) * 1994-10-14 1996-04-19 Tecnivalor Device for anchoring a foundation of a structure in the ground
US5815993A (en) * 1994-10-14 1998-10-06 Tecnivalor (S.A.R.L.) Device for anchoring the foundation of a structure in the ground
US5864993A (en) * 1996-08-06 1999-02-02 Wells; Raymond Stabilizer for ground stake
US6370827B2 (en) * 1999-12-10 2002-04-16 Dan Chalich Ground anchor rod stabilizer
US6401408B1 (en) * 2001-01-29 2002-06-11 Plastics Research Corporation Molded plastic stake with multiple shoulders
US20030014925A1 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-23 Cox Jon Christopher Flexible blanket retaining device with interchangeable top
US7353833B1 (en) 2005-03-15 2008-04-08 Nanette Palmer Covering structure with soil anchors
US20070180782A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2007-08-09 Stealth Anchors, L.L.C. Anchor apparatus, assemblies and methods
US7862259B2 (en) * 2006-08-08 2011-01-04 Erosion Tech, Llc Erosion control mat anchor system
US20080034682A1 (en) * 2006-08-08 2008-02-14 Carpenter Thomas J Erosion control mat anchor system
US7828499B2 (en) 2007-07-12 2010-11-09 Erosion Tech, Llc Erosion control system
US20090016826A1 (en) * 2007-07-12 2009-01-15 Carpenter Thomas J Erosion control system
US7695219B2 (en) 2008-06-18 2010-04-13 Erosion Tech, Llc Shoreline erosion control system
US20090317190A1 (en) * 2008-06-18 2009-12-24 Carpenter Thomas J Shoreline erosion control system
US8157482B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2012-04-17 Erosion Tech, Llc Anchor system
US20100196102A1 (en) * 2009-02-05 2010-08-05 Carpenter Thomas J Anchor system
US8118047B2 (en) * 2010-07-26 2012-02-21 Simonson Eric M Stake system and method for soft material
US9428933B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2016-08-30 Eric M. Simonson Stake system and method for soft material
US8464738B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2013-06-18 Eric M. Simonson Stake system and method for soft material
US20140166798A1 (en) * 2012-10-09 2014-06-19 John Wayne Davison Cord Tensioning Device
US9243419B2 (en) * 2014-05-12 2016-01-26 Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated Support wire implanting anchor
USD767218S1 (en) * 2014-05-18 2016-09-20 Derik Eugene Hickling Leash anchor carrier
USD767217S1 (en) * 2014-05-18 2016-09-20 Derik Eugene Hickling Leash anchor carrier
FR3092086A1 (en) * 2019-01-28 2020-07-31 Musthane Anchoring system for securing an aircraft

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3960302A (en) Ski carrying strap
US5688011A (en) Lifting sling system having single strap with size-varying, spaced, in-line eye loops
EP0223964B1 (en) Improved mechanically expanding climbing aid
US5339498A (en) Adjustable tyer
US3930288A (en) Toggle for use with rope
US5625925A (en) Line connecting device
US5699864A (en) Marine anchoring apparatus
US4044513A (en) Earth anchor
US7302904B2 (en) Ground anchors with compression plates
DK176066B1 (en) Improvements at ship anchors
US4096673A (en) Method of anchoring
US4355444A (en) Tie connectors
US3820832A (en) Anchoring device for wire strands in prestressed concrete structures
US6966520B2 (en) Line tensioning and coupling apparatus
US4319428A (en) Adjustable tree tie down
US3903785A (en) Rock climbing anchor
US9222218B2 (en) Loop rope assembly
US20040055233A1 (en) Anchor attachment for a roof panel rib
US4184657A (en) Climbing aids
US958127A (en) Pole-anchor.
US5950284A (en) Strapping apparatus
US4048938A (en) Container lash systems
US1452338A (en) Rope and cable tie
US5243795A (en) Tie down stake
US4688304A (en) Tarp fastener