New! View global litigation for patent families

US3132088A - Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils - Google Patents

Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3132088A
US3132088A US4570960A US3132088A US 3132088 A US3132088 A US 3132088A US 4570960 A US4570960 A US 4570960A US 3132088 A US3132088 A US 3132088A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
conduit
gasoline
deasphalting
hydrogenation
hydrogen
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Beuther Harold
Richard A Flinn
Olaf A Larson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Gulf Research and Development Co
Original Assignee
Gulf Research and Development Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G21/00Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents
    • C10G21/003Solvent de-asphalting

Description

May 5, 1964 H. BEUTHER ETAL VISBRAKING, DEASPHALTING AND HYDROGENATION OF' CRUDE OILS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 27, 1960 l terials are of low value.

- gravity below about 20 API.

United States Patent O VISBREAKING, DEASPHALTING AND HYDRGENATIN F CRUDE OILS Y Haroldeuther, Gibsonia, Richard A. Flinn, Pittsburgh,

and @laf A. Larson, ahmont, Pa., assiguors to Gulf Research & Development Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Delaware Filed duly Z7, 1960, Ser. No. 45,709

Y 1 Claim. (Cl. 208--67) `materials and which have an API gravity below about 20 or topped or reduced crude-s containing asphaltic ma- Conversion of these heavy asphaltic lmaterials into hydrocarbons of higher value has been accomplished but such procedures 'are usually expensive or in many cases have undesirable aspects. For instance, it is known to hydrogenate such asphaltic materials to form catalytic cracking stocks. However, thorough conversion of asphaltic components, sulfur and metal .are used, the `subsequent catalytic cracking is not economical because of rapid deposit-ion of coke on the cracking catalyst from the unconve-rted asphal-tic materials. Also, metalliferous components are unconverted and poison the cracking catalyst. If the product from this moderate pressure process is` distilled to obtain a distillate catalytic cracking stock, the yield of this stock is low. It'is also known to deasphalt such heavy stocks and then subject them to a mild hydrogenation such as at about 1,000 p.s.i.V However the yields of useful products from such procedures have also been relatively low.

This invention has for its object to provide improved procedure for preparing valuable hydrocarbon products from heavy asphaltic containing crudes or tract-ions thereof. Another object is :to provide improved procedure for combined deasphalting and hydrogen treatment of asphalt containing crudes or topped or reduced crudes which have an APJ `gravity below about 20. Another object is to provide improved procedure for preparing a catalytic cracking stock and furnace oils in high yields `from asphalt containing crudes, toppedor reduced crudes having a A still yfurther object is to improve the state of the art. Other objects will appear hereinafter.

. These and other objects are accomplished by our invention which includes subjecting a crude or a topped 'or reduced crude having an API gravity below about 20 and containing asphaltic materials, i.e., a residual stock, to ya visbreaking operation, deasphalting the visbroken asphalt containing material,and subjectingthe visbroken and deasphalted material to treatment with hydrogen at a pressure between about 500 and 3,500 p.s.i. in the presence of va hydrogenation catalyst.

We have found in accordance with our inventionV that by treatment in this manner the deasphalting step is simplified `and a considerable increase in yield of valuable products, especially furnace oil, is obtained. Also, a product is obtained in high yield which constitutes a high quality catalytic cracking charge stock.

The residual feed stock used in our process may be any asphalt containing crude petroleum or any residual traction thereof -which has `an API gravity of below about 20. There are many petroleum crudes which are very viscous and high in asphaltic content and we contemplate the treatmentof such crudes without removal of any'of their components when they have a gravity below about 20.` On the other hand, most crudes are of higher gravity and with such crudes :it is desirable to remove valuable portions thereof in conventional manner and to obtain a residual fraction. This residual fraction may be prepared-by atmospheric or vacuum distillation.

The bisbreaking operation may be any such operation kno-Wn in the prior art. Although any degree of visbreaking may be employed it is advantageous to use conditions which form between about 4 and 20 percent gasoline. These Visbreaking operations are commonly carried out by passing the charge stock through a heating coil and heating the oil to a mild cracking temperature. The timeV of heating, the pressure and the temperature of heating control the .amount of thermal cracking or `conversion into lower boiling components such as gasoline. In general the temperature may be between about 850 and 975 f F., the heating time between about 250 and 1,000 seconds, and the pressure between about 50 and 600 p.s.i.g. Procedures of thisV type are described in standard textbooks and reference is made thereto for further details. See for instance Sachanen, Conversion of Petroleum, Second Edition, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1948, pages 252-254. Y

After visbreaking, the product is preferably subjected to distillation to remove lower boiling components such as gasoline formed during the visbreaking step. The

gasoline has an undesirable effect on the subsequent deasphalting step and it is advantageous, but not necessary, to remove it'vfor this reason. `Other components such as lfurnace oil may be removed if desired although we prefer `to retain such materials since they are improved by the subsequent hydrogenation.

The deasphalting step is carried out utilizing any known solvent deasphalting procedure. Such procedure is described in standard textbooks. See for instance Kalichevsky, Petroleum Refining with Chemicals, Elsevier Puby lishing Company, 1956, pages 388-396. Although We may use a conventional deasphalting solventsuch as propane, we prefer to employ an aliphatic hydrocarbon having 5 to 18 carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus we have found that hydrocarbons such as heptane or cetane may be added to the visbroken residual fraction and will cause precipitation ofthe asphaltic material. At the same time these solvents cause a larger amount of hydrocarbon substancesI to be retained in the oil portion of the feed. These additional hydrocarbons are of a resinous nature but we have found that during the subsequent hydrogenation they are converted into excellent catalytic cracking charge stocks. asphalting solvent the overall yields of high grade products are markedly'improved. The previous visbreaking step reduces the amount of deasphalting solvent required. One to four parts solvent to one of visbroken residual stock and preferably a one-to-one ratio is generally used. The deasphalting step may be carried out in the manner described in our application Serial No. 27,955, entitled Treatment of Petroleum Fractions, iled May 9, 1960,

v60' now Patent No. 3,053,750. This application discloses the deasphalting of residual stocks by heating a mixture of residual stock and deasphalting solvent to an elevated temperature and then adding an additional amount of deasphalting solvent to quench the mixture to a lower temperature. This causes improved precipitation and/ or settling of asphaltic materials. Howeverias indicated above, any conventional method of carrying out the deasphalting operation may be employed.

The visbroken-deasphalted residual stock is contacted with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst such as a group VI left-hand column metal of the periodic system, their oxides and sulides. Similarly metals of the iron group, their-oxides and suldes-may Therefore by using this Aparticular type of de-V catalysts may be mixed with one another. For instance,

an advantageous mixture is a mixture of cobalt and molybdenum oxides. Another advantageous mixture is a mixture of nickel and tungsten oxides. These catalysts are deposited upon a porous catalyst carrier. Typical catalyst carriers are activated alumina, purnice, a silicaalumina cracking catalyst, etc. The pressure during the hydrogenation is maintained between about 500 and 3,500 p.s.i. and preferably is between about 1000 and 2000 p.s.i. The temperature may be between about 550 and 825 F. and preferably between about 650 and 800 F. A space velocity between about 0.3 and 10.0 volumes of charge stock per hour per volume of catalyst and preferably between about 0.5 and 4.0 is utilized. The hydrogen is present during the reaction in a ratio of between about 200 and 20,000 standard cubic feet and preferably between about 2000 and 10,000 standard cubic feet per barrel of visbroken-deasphalted residual charge stock.

` A preferred mode of hydrogenation as indicated above is to utilize a pressure of between about 1,000 and 2,000 p.s.i. This pressure is a relatively moderate pressure as compared with pressures heretofore used in destructive hydrogenation. Therefore the cost of the equipment is considerably lower than such destructive hydrogenation equipment. By operating in accordance with our invention, and utilizing a pressure of 2,000 to 3,500 p.s.i., it is possible to obtain thoroughgoing conversion into a catalytic cracking charge stock without using the relatively high pressures of the destructive hydrogenation prior art. Alternatively, if the cost of this higher pressure equipment is prohibitive, it is entirely feasible to obtain high yields of good quality furnace oil and catalytic cracking charge stock by carrying out the hydrogen treatment of our invention at a .pressure of between about 1,000 and 2,000 p.s.i. The cost of equipment when operating in this pressure range is much lower and at the same time markedly improved results are obtained as compared with previous operations carried out at similar pressures.

When operating in accordance with this iow pressure modification, i.e., 1,000 to 2,000 p.s.i. it is advantageous although not necessary to utilize a two-stage hydrogenation operation since it has been found that with such a two-stage hydrogenation process the yield of distillate products such as gasoline and furnace oil is substantially greater than with a single stage hydrogenation. The catalyst used in both of these two-stage hydrogenations may be the same. For instance, a cobalt-molybdate catalyst may be used in both stages. An advantageous combination of steps for this moderate pressure type of process is to use cobalt molybdate in the first stage in order to take advantage of the high desulfurization and hydrogenation activity of this catalyst and to use a nickeltungstate catalyst in the second stage in order to obtain a high degree of removal of nitrogen which, of course, has a harmful effect on the catalytic cracking catalyst if the product is subsequently catalytically cracked. The space velocity may be doubled as compared with a single stage process and still obtain greater yields. A space Velocity of 1.0 to 6.0 in each reactor is preferred when using this two-stage modification.

The product from the hydrogen treatment may be subjected to a distillation to separate desired components. The type of fractions separated will depend upon the end use. Ordinarily we prefer to subject the product to distillation to separate gasoline and furnace oil fractions and to obtain a residual fraction which may be catalytically cracked.

' FIGURE I of the accompanying drawings illustrates diagrammatic apparatus in which our invention may be carried out. Referring to the drawing, a residual feed to be treated in accordance with our invention is introduced through conduit 2 into visbreaking unit 3 where it is subjected to visbreaking in the manner herein described.

fil

- V'4 The visbroken feed is then introduced via conduit 5 into gasoline stripper 6 where gasoline formed during visbreaking is removed through conduit 7. Gasoline-free bottoms are withdrawn from stripper 6 through conduit 8 and introduced into deasphalting unit 9 where it is subjected to a deasphalting treatment as described above. Asphalt is removed from deasphalting unit 9 through conduit 10. The deasphalted feed is then introduced via conduit 11 into solvent distillation unit 12 where deasphalting solvent is removed through conduit 13 and recycled through conduit 15 together with make-up solvent introduced through conduit 17. The visbroken' and deasphalted feed is then introduced via conduit 14 into heater 16 in conjunction with a mixture of recycled and make-up hydrogen introduced through conduit 18. This mixture is heated to approximately reaction temperature in heater 16 and is then introduced via conduit 20 into hydrogenation reactor 22 which is filled with hydrogenation catalyst. In this first stage hydrogenation reactor, the hydrocarbon is subjected to hydrogenation under the conditions described, and the hydrogenated feed is then withdrawn through conduit 24, cooled in cooler 26 and then introduced into separator 23 via conduit 30. Hydrogen treated hydrocarbon is removed from separator 28 via conduit 32 and separated hydrogen is recycled by pump 34 through conduit 36. Make-up hydrogen is introduced through conduit 38 and a part of the hydrogen recycle is bled off through conduit 40 to maintain hydrogen purity.

The first stage product removed through conduit 32 from separator 28 is mixed with hydrogen introduced through conduit 44 and is introduced into heater 46. The heated mixture flows through conduit 48 into second stage hydrogenation reactor 50 which is also filled with a bed 'of hydrogenation catalyst. lHydrogen treatment takes place in this second stage-reactor in the manner described above, and the hydrogen treated product ows through conduit 52, cooler 54 and conduit 56 into separator 58. Hydrogen separated in separator l58 flows through conduit 60 into pump 62 and is recirculated via conduit 64. Make-up hydrogen is introduced through conduit 66, and a portion of the recycle hydrogen is bled oif through conduit 68 in order to maintain hydrogen purity.

The two-stage hydrogen treated product flows from separator 58 through conduit 70 and is introduced into fractionator 72 where it is subjected to fractionation to separate desired fractions. Thus gasoline is removed through conduit 74, light furnace oil through conduit 76,

l heavy furnace oil through Vconduit 78 and a bottom extraction through conduit 80.

The following example illustrates the benefits obtained by a mild visbreaking, i.e;, such as to form between about 4 and 20 percent gasoline, and especially between about 8 and 12 percent gasoline, as well as other advantages of our invention.

EXAMPLE Five samples of a residual fraction having the properties given in Table I were visbroken by heating to a ternperature between 875 and 980 F. and at a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. The time of heating was kept constant at about 370 seconds while temperature was varied in order to vary the thermal cracking and obtain gasoline formation varying from about 4 to 21 percent. The gasoline formed was removed. These gasoline-free products and a sample of theoriginal unvisbroken charge stock were then deasphalted utilizing heptane as a deasphalting solvent. The deasphalting was accomplished by adding various amounts of heptane to the visbroken Table l PROPERTIES OF RESIDUES AFTER VISBREAKING Vlsbreaking conditions:

Temperature, F 875 900 920 950 980 Residence time, seconds 370 370 370 370 370 Debutanized gasoline yield (percent by volume) 4.0 9.6 11.8 18.9 21.2 Properties of Gasolinefree Visbroken Residue:

API Gravity 6.8 7.0 V 6.3 5.9 4.1 3.8 Carbon Residue,

Conradson, percent. 19. 73 23.28 24.33 24.07 28.07 19.97 Viscosity Sco 8, 620 1, 440 1, 230 1, 060 1,310 1,350 Vanadium, p.p.m.. 136 155 162 168 185 190 Nickel, p.p.m 40.1 44.4 46.5 45.3 50.7 52.4

Table Il PROPERTIES OF RESIDUES AFTER DEASPHALTENING VITH T'WO VOLUMES 0F HEPTANE TO ONE VOLUME `OF GASOLINE-FREE VISBROKEN RESIDUE Asphaltene Yield:

Percent by weight 0 13. 8 19. 8 24.0 30. 6 34 5 Deasphaltened Residue Yield and Inspections:

Percent by weight. 100.0 86. 2 80. 2 764 0 69. 4 65. 5 API Gravity l 6.8 8. 6 9. 6 10. 7 10.4 13. 2 Carbon Residue, Conradson, percent 19.73 19. 15 16. 85 15. 61 15 57 12. 88 Viscosity, SUV at F., sec 8, 620 256 181 69.3 Vanadium, p.p.m 136 85.2 62. 4 50.0 26. 3 13. 4 Nickel, p.p.m 40.1 26.8 19.7 15. 5 10. 9 6. 3

l A visbroken product containing about percent gaso- 'line prepared and deasphalted as described above was ksubjected to distillation to remove the gasoline and portions thereof were contacted with hydrogen under the ,following respective conditions: at a pressure of 1000 Table III 1,000 2, 000 3, 000 p.s.i.g p.s.i.g p.s.i.g.

Gravity, API 26.1 25. 5 21.3 Viscosity SUV, sec

100 1 as 110 601 130 5o 71 255 Sulfur, percent 0. 33 0. 38 0.86 Nitrogen, percentm; 0. 14 0. 15 0.19 Carbon Residue, Conradson, percent 3. 37 2. 57 3. 74 Vanadium, p.p.n1 0.1 0.1 0. 1

It will be noted from Table II that visbreaking to between about 4 and 20 percent gasoline results in a marked improvement in asphalt removal in regard to the amount of solvent required. This effect reaches a maximum at about 10 percent gasoline as shown in the graphical presentation of these data in the drawing (FIGURE 2). It will also be noted that visbreaking toa gasoline yield of above about 20 percent does not improve the deasphalting operation in regard to the amount of solvent required. It will also be noted from the above data that the visbreaking operation, even when only a moderate amount of gasoline is formed such as 4 percent results in a marked improvement as compared with procedures in which no visbreaking is applied to the residual charge stock. The overall procedure of the invention is shown in Table III to yield a'product which can be used as a high quality catalytic cracking. stock low in metal impurities and nitrogen and having a reasonable carbon residue.

We claim:

The process which comprises subjecting a member of the group consisting of crudes, reduced crudes and topped crudes having an API gravity of below about 20 and containing a substantial amount of asphaltic materialsto visbreaking to form about l0 percent gasoline, removing the gasoline, deasphalting the remaining visbroken material with about 2 volumes of heptane to one volume of visbroken material, subjecting the `visbroken and deasphalted material to treatment with hydrogen in two separate stages in the presence of a member of the group consisting of suldes and oxides of group VI left-hand column and Vof iron group metals, sultides and oxides deposited upon a porous catalyst carrier, at a pressure between about 1000 and 2000 p.s.i., at a temperature between about 650 and 800 F., at a space velocity between about0.5 and 4.0, and at a hydrogen recycle rate of between about 2000 and 10,000 standard cubic feet per barrel of visbrokendeasphalted residual hydrocarbon charge stock, removing gasoline-furnace oil and catalytically cracking the remainder of the product.

References Cited in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,045,794 Pier ,Iune 30, 1936 2,459,465 Smith Jan. 18, 1949 2,559,285 Douce July 3, 1951 2,644,785 Harding et al. July 7, 1953 `2,697,681 Murray et al Dec. 21, 1954 2,727,853 Hennig Dec. 20, 1955 2,848,376 Oettinger Aug. 19, 1958 2,914,457 Beavon Nov. 24, 1959 2,926,129 Kimberlin et al Feb. 23, 1960 2,943,048 Rust et al. June 28, 1960 2,953,612 Haxton et al Sept. 20, 1960 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,132 ,088 May S, 1964 HaTold BeutheT` et al.

It is herebyl certified that error' appears in the above numbered pat- 4 ent requiring correction and that the sad'Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 2, line 7, for "bisbreakng" read vsbreakng Column 5y Table lest Column, for "19.97" read 29.97

Signed and sealed this 13th day of October 1964.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD J. BRENNER Commissioner of Patents ERNEST W. SWIDER Attesting Officer

US3132088A 1960-07-27 1960-07-27 Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils Expired - Lifetime US3132088A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3132088A US3132088A (en) 1960-07-27 1960-07-27 Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3132088A US3132088A (en) 1960-07-27 1960-07-27 Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3132088A true US3132088A (en) 1964-05-05

Family

ID=21939444

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3132088A Expired - Lifetime US3132088A (en) 1960-07-27 1960-07-27 Visbreaking, deasphalting and hydrogenation of crude oils

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3132088A (en)

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3293169A (en) * 1965-06-22 1966-12-20 Chevron Res Conversion of residua to produce middle distillate oils and gasoline
US3383300A (en) * 1965-09-24 1968-05-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for the preparation of low sulfur fuel oil
US3518182A (en) * 1968-03-29 1970-06-30 Chevron Res Conversion of coal to liquid products
US3544449A (en) * 1968-12-03 1970-12-01 Cities Service Res & Dev Co Removing tetrahydrofuran insolubles from a hydrogenation feedstock
US4176048A (en) * 1978-10-31 1979-11-27 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Process for conversion of heavy hydrocarbons
US4188280A (en) * 1978-09-25 1980-02-12 Chevron Research Company Method for removing arsenic from shale oil
DE2940015A1 (en) * 1978-10-05 1980-05-22 Chiyoda Chem Eng Construct Co A method for processing heavy kohlenwasserstoffoelen
DE3307373A1 (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-04-05 Intevep Sa Method for the treatment of petroleum residues
US4462895A (en) * 1983-02-25 1984-07-31 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Combination visbreaking and hydrorefining with recycle of hydrorefined bottoms
FR2543567A1 (en) * 1983-04-01 1984-10-05 Intevep Sa Process for the treatment of petroleum residues
DE3432378A1 (en) * 1983-09-02 1985-03-21 Intevep Sa Method for preparing heavy crude oils
US4715947A (en) * 1986-11-24 1987-12-29 Uop Inc. Combination process for the conversion of a residual asphaltene-containing hydrocarbonaceous stream to maximize middle distillate production
US4818371A (en) * 1987-06-05 1989-04-04 Resource Technology Associates Viscosity reduction by direct oxidative heating
US20030019790A1 (en) * 2000-05-16 2003-01-30 Trans Ionics Corporation Heavy oil upgrading processes
US6524469B1 (en) * 2000-05-16 2003-02-25 Trans Ionics Corporation Heavy oil upgrading process
US9428700B2 (en) 2012-08-24 2016-08-30 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Hydrovisbreaking process for feedstock containing dissolved hydrogen

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2045794A (en) * 1928-07-13 1936-06-30 Standard Ig Co Conversion of liquid carbonaceous materials of high boiling point range
US2459465A (en) * 1945-05-11 1949-01-18 Standard Oil Dev Co Two-stage hydrogenation treatment for hydrocarbon oils
US2559285A (en) * 1948-01-02 1951-07-03 Phillips Petroleum Co Catalytic cracking and destructive hydrogenation of heavy asphaltic oils
US2644785A (en) * 1950-06-03 1953-07-07 Standard Oil Dev Co Combination crude distillation and cracking process
US2697681A (en) * 1951-03-12 1954-12-21 Universal Oil Prod Co Hydrocarbon conversion process
US2727853A (en) * 1951-12-27 1955-12-20 Pure Oil Co Process for refining of petroleum, shale oil, and the like
US2848376A (en) * 1953-08-17 1958-08-19 Basf Ag Two-stage hydrogenation process for the production of gasoline from hydrocarbon oils
US2914457A (en) * 1957-06-28 1959-11-24 Texaco Inc Petroleum refining process
US2926129A (en) * 1958-06-13 1960-02-23 Exxon Research Engineering Co Deashing of residual fractions
US2943048A (en) * 1958-12-02 1960-06-28 Exxon Research Engineering Co Removal of metallic contaminants from petroleum fractions
US2953612A (en) * 1958-03-03 1960-09-20 American Oil Co Catalytic hydrogenation of dripolene

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2045794A (en) * 1928-07-13 1936-06-30 Standard Ig Co Conversion of liquid carbonaceous materials of high boiling point range
US2459465A (en) * 1945-05-11 1949-01-18 Standard Oil Dev Co Two-stage hydrogenation treatment for hydrocarbon oils
US2559285A (en) * 1948-01-02 1951-07-03 Phillips Petroleum Co Catalytic cracking and destructive hydrogenation of heavy asphaltic oils
US2644785A (en) * 1950-06-03 1953-07-07 Standard Oil Dev Co Combination crude distillation and cracking process
US2697681A (en) * 1951-03-12 1954-12-21 Universal Oil Prod Co Hydrocarbon conversion process
US2727853A (en) * 1951-12-27 1955-12-20 Pure Oil Co Process for refining of petroleum, shale oil, and the like
US2848376A (en) * 1953-08-17 1958-08-19 Basf Ag Two-stage hydrogenation process for the production of gasoline from hydrocarbon oils
US2914457A (en) * 1957-06-28 1959-11-24 Texaco Inc Petroleum refining process
US2953612A (en) * 1958-03-03 1960-09-20 American Oil Co Catalytic hydrogenation of dripolene
US2926129A (en) * 1958-06-13 1960-02-23 Exxon Research Engineering Co Deashing of residual fractions
US2943048A (en) * 1958-12-02 1960-06-28 Exxon Research Engineering Co Removal of metallic contaminants from petroleum fractions

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3293169A (en) * 1965-06-22 1966-12-20 Chevron Res Conversion of residua to produce middle distillate oils and gasoline
US3383300A (en) * 1965-09-24 1968-05-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for the preparation of low sulfur fuel oil
US3518182A (en) * 1968-03-29 1970-06-30 Chevron Res Conversion of coal to liquid products
US3544449A (en) * 1968-12-03 1970-12-01 Cities Service Res & Dev Co Removing tetrahydrofuran insolubles from a hydrogenation feedstock
US4188280A (en) * 1978-09-25 1980-02-12 Chevron Research Company Method for removing arsenic from shale oil
DE2940015A1 (en) * 1978-10-05 1980-05-22 Chiyoda Chem Eng Construct Co A method for processing heavy kohlenwasserstoffoelen
US4176048A (en) * 1978-10-31 1979-11-27 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Process for conversion of heavy hydrocarbons
DE3307373A1 (en) * 1982-09-30 1984-04-05 Intevep Sa Method for the treatment of petroleum residues
US4462895A (en) * 1983-02-25 1984-07-31 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Combination visbreaking and hydrorefining with recycle of hydrorefined bottoms
FR2543567A1 (en) * 1983-04-01 1984-10-05 Intevep Sa Process for the treatment of petroleum residues
DE3432378A1 (en) * 1983-09-02 1985-03-21 Intevep Sa Method for preparing heavy crude oils
US4715947A (en) * 1986-11-24 1987-12-29 Uop Inc. Combination process for the conversion of a residual asphaltene-containing hydrocarbonaceous stream to maximize middle distillate production
US4818371A (en) * 1987-06-05 1989-04-04 Resource Technology Associates Viscosity reduction by direct oxidative heating
US5008085A (en) * 1987-06-05 1991-04-16 Resource Technology Associates Apparatus for thermal treatment of a hydrocarbon stream
US20030019790A1 (en) * 2000-05-16 2003-01-30 Trans Ionics Corporation Heavy oil upgrading processes
US6524469B1 (en) * 2000-05-16 2003-02-25 Trans Ionics Corporation Heavy oil upgrading process
US9428700B2 (en) 2012-08-24 2016-08-30 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Hydrovisbreaking process for feedstock containing dissolved hydrogen

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3617481A (en) Combination deasphalting-coking-hydrotreating process
US3507777A (en) Cracking process
US3362901A (en) Two stage hydrogenation of reduced crude
US4992163A (en) Cat cracking feed preparation
US4454023A (en) Process for upgrading a heavy viscous hydrocarbon
US6179995B1 (en) Residuum hydrotreating/hydrocracking with common hydrogen supply
US2695264A (en) Visbreaking of heavy hydrocarbonaceous materials
US7297250B2 (en) Method of and apparatus for processing heavy hydrocarbon feeds
US4285804A (en) Process for hydrotreating heavy hydrocarbons in liquid phase in the presence of a dispersed catalyst
US4151070A (en) Staged slurry hydroconversion process
US5059303A (en) Oil stabilization
US3816298A (en) Hydrocarbon conversion process
US4743357A (en) Catalytic process for production of light hydrocarbons by treatment of heavy hydrocarbons with water
US5932090A (en) Process for the conversion of heavy crude oils and distillation residues to distillates
US6623623B2 (en) Simultaneous hydroprocessing of two feedstocks
US7214308B2 (en) Effective integration of solvent deasphalting and ebullated-bed processing
US6726832B1 (en) Multiple stage catalyst bed hydrocracking with interstage feeds
US4075084A (en) Manufacture of low-sulfur needle coke
US2967146A (en) Petroleum refining process
US4394250A (en) Delayed coking process
US6332975B1 (en) Anode grade coke production
US6183627B1 (en) Process and apparatus for upgrading hydrocarbon feeds containing sulfur, metals, and asphaltenes
US4178229A (en) Process for producing premium coke from vacuum residuum
US3287254A (en) Residual oil conversion process
US3414506A (en) Lubricating oil by hydrotreating pentane-alcohol-deasphalted short residue