US3131803A - Method of and apparatus for cold drawing metal tubes - Google Patents

Method of and apparatus for cold drawing metal tubes Download PDF

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US3131803A
US3131803A US156802A US15680261A US3131803A US 3131803 A US3131803 A US 3131803A US 156802 A US156802 A US 156802A US 15680261 A US15680261 A US 15680261A US 3131803 A US3131803 A US 3131803A
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tube
die
thickness
metal
mandrel
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US156802A
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John R Hill
Joseph A Sawester
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Babcock and Wilcox Co
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Babcock and Wilcox Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C1/00Manufacture of metal sheets, metal wire, metal rods, metal tubes by drawing
    • B21C1/16Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes
    • B21C1/22Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes specially adapted for making tubular articles
    • B21C1/24Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes specially adapted for making tubular articles by means of mandrels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C37/00Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape
    • B21C37/06Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape of tubes or metal hoses; Combined procedures for making tubes, e.g. for making multi-wall tubes
    • B21C37/30Finishing tubes, e.g. sizing, burnishing

Description

y 15, 1954 J. R. HILL ETAL 3,131,803
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR cow DRAWING IMETAL TUBES Filed Dec. 4, 1961 INVENTORS John R. Hill BY Joseph ANSaWes'I'er ATTORNEY United States Patent 0."
3,131,803 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR COLD DRAWING METAL TUBES John Hill and Joseph A. Sawester, Beaver Falls, Pa., assignors to The Bahcock & Wilcox Company, New
York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Dec. 4, 1961, Ser. No. 156,802 6 Claims. (Cl. 205-7) zones of maximum and minimum wall thickness are substantially diametrically opposite each other. In the case of extruded tubing, the zone of maximum wall thickness generally extends substantially longitudinally of the tubing whereas, in the case of rotary pierced tubing, such zone 7 I may follow a spiral path along the tubing.
For many applications of tubing, such a variation in wall thickness is not primarily an important factor. However, certain applications require tubing having not less than a specified or pre-set minimum wall thickness. When the inner and outer peripheries are not concentric, resultmg in wall thickness varying from a maximum to a minimum, the actual minimum wall thickness must equal the required minimum thickness. In turn, the maximum wall thickness will then be in excess of the required minimum wall thickness. Consequently, the Weight of metal in the tube will be in excess of that required were the wall thickness substantially uniform circumferentially of the tube.
Stated succinctly, to obtain a pre-set minimum wall thickness in a tube whose wall thickness varies circumferentially requires a greater amount of metal than is needed to obtain the same pre-set minimum wall thickness in a tube whose wall thickness is uniform circumferentially. As a result, the material cost of such a tube having a variable wall thickness exceeds that of a tube having a uniform wall thickness. This is an excess metal cost which can run into a large sum in mass production of tubing. Consequently, there is a substantial saving in metal cost available in producing tubes with a pre-set minimum wall thickness if the tubes can be produced with a uniform wall thickness, as less weight of metal would be required for each such tube.
Drawing a tube through a fixed die without a mandrel will reduce the outer diameter of the tube without any appreciable change in the wall thickness, so that the metal flow will be substantially all longitudinal during the drawing operation and any eccentricity present in the tube will remain substantially unchanged. Using a fixed position mandrel in combination with the fixed die may change both the internal and external diameters, and the wall thickness, depending on the effective die and mandrel dimensions, but will not appreciably change tube eccentricity.
In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that eccentricity between the inner and outer circumferential peripheries of a tube can be corrected by cold drawing the tube through a tilted tube drawing die, or rolls, ot correct the tube eccentricity and over a mandrel to produce a finished tube of the desired internal and external dimensions.
The use of a tilted die to correct tube eccentricity is disclosed and claimed in a copending application of Chalmers L. Helble and Frank L. Boyer, S.N. 771,642, filed November 3, 1958, now Patent No. 3,095,083. As disclosed in said application the tube drawing die is tilted to correct the tube eccentricity, and as the angular loca: tion of the maximum wall thickness varies longitudinally of the tube, the tilted die is correspondingly rotated. Any change in the amount of tube eccentricity occurring longitudinally of the tube may also be compensated for by changing the angularity of die tilting. As disclosed in said application, the angular adjustment of the tilted die, either with respect to a vertical reference plane or with respect to the circumference of the tube may be accomplished by manual or automation regulation of the die position.
It has previously been believed a drawing operation to correct the eccentricity of a tube must be followed by the usual die and mandrel operation as an entirely separate step. This conclusion was based on the knowledge that the tilted die procedure caused an increase in the thickness of the tube wall by predominantly circumferential metal flow in the tube and the longitudinal flow of the tube metal caused by using a mandrel to reduce the maximum wall thickness of the tube would interfere with the tilted die corrective action.
We have found, however, that using a tilted die with a mandrel as hereinafter described, will permit correction of tube eccentricity as well as finish the tube to a desired wall thickness in one cold drawing pass.
The various features of novelty which characterize our invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and specific objects attained by its use, reference should be had to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter in which we have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the invention.
Of the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic representation, partly in section, of a tube drawing apparatus including the structure of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section of a tilted reducing die and a mandrel used in the cold drawing of a tube in accordance with the invention; and
FIGS. 3 and 4 are sections taken along the lines 33 and 44, respectively, of FIG. 2.
In the cold drawing of metallic tubes the drawbench may include an annular reducing die, a mandrel and a mechanism for drawing the tube through the die and over the mandrel. The die may be of the fixed or tilting adjustable type, or may be formed of roller members, while the mandrel may be of the fixed type.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in the drawings an annular die 10 is mounted for tilting movement in a supported die holder (not shown). The die is formed with a converging frusto-conical entrance portion 11 merging into a diverging frusto-conical discharge portion 12 defining a tube reducing throat. The die 10 is tilted from the vertical at an angle coordinated with the amount of eccentricity in the tube 13 being drawn therethrough.
As shown in FIG. 1, the mechanism for drawing the tube through the die 10 includes a carriage 16 mounted on 'wheels 17 engaging rails 18 for movement of the carriage toward and away from the die 10. The carriage 16 is provided with jaws (not shown) actuated by pneumatic power pistons, for example, to grip the reduced end portion 20 of the tube 13 to be drawn through the die 10. In the usual installation a mechanism is provided for moving the carriage 16 along the rails 18 at a controlled rate of movement so that the speed of tube movement through the die 10 can be regulated as required by the nature of the tube reduction. Such mechanism may take the form of an endless chain (not shown) between the rails 18.
As disclosed in the said copending application S.N. 771,642, owned by the assignee of this application, eccentricity in a tube may be corrected-by tilting the die so as to displace'metal in a circumferentialjdirection to increase the thickness of the thinner portion of the eccentric tube. In such a sinking or drawing procedure the maximum thickness of the tube is not appreciably changed while the minimum thickness of the tube wall is increased, with the amount of tube wall increase largely dependent upon the tilt' angle of the die 10. 7
As shown in FIG. 2, the tube 13 entering the die 10 is eccentric, that is to say the wall 22 at the top of illustration has a lesser thickness than the wall 23 at the bottom. This is illustrated in exaggerated form in FIG. 3 where is will be noted the eccentricity of the, tube may be indicated by the letter B which is the difierence between the centers of the circles corresponding with the interior and exterior surfaces of the tube. After passing through the tilted die and mandrel combination of this invention, the eccentricity of the tube is substantially reduced as shown in FIG. 4, Where the centers of curvature of both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube tend to coincide. Under such corrected conditions, the Value of eccentricity E has been reduced to approach a zero value.
Referring particularly to FIG. 2, it will be noted the die 10 is tilted about a transverse horizontal axis at an angle of from 1 to 15 degrees, or more, from a vertical plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the tube 13 depending on the amount of eccentricity present in the entering tube. Such a tilted position is used to correct tube eccentricity when the minimum wall thickness lies at the top of the tube. As the zone of minimum tube wall thickness changes its location angularly of the tube, the direction of the tilt of the die 10 will be manually or automatically rotated a corresponding amount.
The die 10 reduces theouter diameter of the tube 13,
and by tilting the die, as shown, ethereducing action of,
the die can be selectively applied to a selected are of the tube, while the remaining portion of the. periphery or are of the tube may be reduced or not at all. Tilting the die in the manner disclosed imposes a greaterradial unit pressure on the arc of the wall 22 so that the metal is crowded circumferentially of the tube 13 due to the reducing action of the die. This crowding action of the metal thickens the thin wall' portion of the tube in an arc of the tube wall. Such thickening will be a maximum where the angle between the inlet surface of the die and the surface of the entering tube is at a maxhnum.
The mandrel 24 is supported on a bar 25 which in turn is supported at one end so as to maintain the longitudinal location of the mandrel 24 at a selected position with both tube eccentricity correction and the desired tube wall thickness in a single pass through the drawbench. This is of considerable economicadvantage as compared with the separate sinking pass for tube eccentricity correction followed by a pass with a mandrel to finish the tube by reducing the tube wall thickness, as heretofore used in the tube production field.
While in accordance with the provisions of the statutes we have illustrated and described herein the best form and mode of operation of the invention now known -to us, those skilled in the art will understand that changes may be made in the form of the apparatus disclosed without departing from the spirit of the invention covered by our claims, and that certain features of our invention may sometimes be used to advantage without a corresponding use of other features.
What is claimed is: r
l. A method of processing a metal tube having a wall thickness varying circumferentially from a maximum to a minimum, comprising the stepsofdrawing the tube through a reducing zone to decrease the. external tube diameter, while so drawing the tube, exerting on the tube wall within a selected arc, substantially centered relative to the zone of minimum wall thickness, a radialunit pressure greater than that exerted on the remaining portion of the tube circumference, to crowd metal of the tube wall, within such selected arc, circumferentially of the tube to increase the tube wall thickness within said selected arc to substantially such maximum tube wall thickness, and thereafter reducing the thickness of said tube wall while still in said reducing zone substantially uniformly around the circumference of the tube by the radially outward application of forces causing a longitudinal respect to the die 10. While the bar 25 has such a great length'to diameter ratio as to be flexible, the mandrel 24 will be maintained in a substantially central postion in the dieby reason of the forces applied by the tube metal thereon.
The tilted die 10 is used to establish a substantially uniform wall thickness. circumferentially of the tube by inthe tilted die or the mandrel mayhave'an exterior diameter'selected to perform some workori the interior surface of the tnbe. In either situation, contact' between the mandrel surface'and the interior surface of the tube 13 will occurafter thecharacteristic:eccentricity correction including a'bar for positioning said mandrel within said 'of the'tilted dieflt) has been substantially accomplished. a
The use of the mandrelis particularly effective in finishingthe interior diameter of the tube, whether the amount of work accomplished on the inner surface of the tube is V a large or small amount.
' selected are of the tube, a mandrel having an exterior diameter selected for the desired internal diameter of the r The primary advantage of utilizing a mandrel with the tilted die lies in the ability of the combination to attain flow of metal in said tube.
2. A method of processing a metal tube having a wall thickness varying circumferentiallyf from a maximum to a minimum, comprising the steps of drawing the tube through a reducing die to reduce the external tubediameter, while so drawing thetube, maintaining the die oriented with its axis at an angle to the axis. of the tube entering the die 'to exert on the tube wall within a selected arc, substantially centered relative to the zone of minimum wall thickness, a radial unit pressure greater than that exerted on the remaining portion of the tube circumference by virtue of the angular relation of the die and entering tube axes, to crowd metal of the tube Wall,.within such selected are, circumferentially ofthe tube to increase the tube Wall thickness within said selected are; maintaining the angle between the die and entering tube axis at a value to increase the wall thickness within such'selected arc to'substantially such maximum .tube wall thickness, and thereafter reducing the thickness of said tube wall While still in said die substantially uniformly around the circumference of the tube by, the radially outward application of forces causing a longitudinal flow of metal in said'tube; V
3. Apparatusfor processing eccentric metal tubes comprising, in combination, a draw bench, means for mounting anannular die on :said bench, means for passing a tube through said die, means for selectively tilting said die from a vertical plane normal to the axis of said tube, a mandrel having a selected external diameter, and means tube at a fixed position within said die.
4. Apparatus for processing metal tubes normal to the axis of the tube being drawnthrough the die, said die being tilted to crowd metal circumferentially' of said tube and to thereby increase the thicknessof .a
drawn tube, and means for positioning said mandrel within said tube at a fixed location with said die and after the comprising in combination, an annular reducing die having a tapered entrance portion, means for drawing a'tube through'said die, means for selectivelytilting said die. from a plane tilted die has caused metal to be crowded circumferentially of said tube.
5. Apparatus for processing a metal tube having a wall thickness varying circumferentially from a maximum to a minimum, said apparatus comprising, in combination, a draw bench including an annular die having a flared entry throat mounted on said draw bench, said die being mounted with the angle between the axis of said die and the axis of a tube drawn therethrough to exert on the tube wall within a selected are substantially centered relative to the zone of minimum wall thickness a radial unit pressure greater than that exerted on the remaining portion of the tube circumference by virtue of the angular relation of the die and entering tube axes to increase the tube wall thickness within said selected are and of the position of such selected are circumferentially of the tube wall to maintain the selected are centered on the zone of minimum wall thickness, a mandrel, and means for supporting said mandrel within said tube and die and effective to maintain a selected inner diameter of said drawn tube.
6. Apparatus for processing a metal tube having a wall thickness varying circumferentially from a maximum to a minimum, said apparatus comprising, in combination, a draw bench including an annular die having a flared entry throat mounted on said draw bench, said die being mounted with the angle between the axis of said die and the thickness, a mandrel, and cantilever support means for positioning said mandrel within said tube and die effective to increase the inner diameter of said drawn tube after the wall of the tube becomes concentric by passing through a portion of said die.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 259,898 Billings Apr. 1, 1884 2,351,710 Sanders June 20, 1944 2,663,410 Kessler Dec. 22, 1953 2,928,526 Kerr Mar. 15, 1960 3,006,460 Poncar Oct. 31, 1961 3,013,652 Russel Dec. 19, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 13,506 Great Britain Oct. 5, 1887

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD OF PROCESSING A METAL TUBE HAVING A WALL THICKNESS VARYING CIRCUMFERENTIALLY FROM A MAXIMUM TO A MINIMUM, COMPRISING THE STEPS OF DRAWING THE TUBE THROUGH A REDUCING ZONE TO DECREASE THE EXTERNAL TUBE DIAMETER, WHILE SO DRAWING THE TUBE, EXERTING ON THE TUBE WALL WITHIN A SELECTED ARC, SUBSTANTIALLY CENTERED RELATIVE TO THE ZONE OF MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS, A RADIAL UNIT PRESSURE GREATER THAN THAT EXERTED ON THE REMAINING PORTION OF THE TUBE CIRCUMFERENCE, TO CROWD METAL OF THE TUBE WALL, WITHIN SUCH SELECTED ARC, CIRCUMFERENTIALLY OF THE TUBE TO INCREASE THE TUBE WALL THICKNESS WITHIN SAID SELECTED ARC TO SUBSTANTIALLY SUCH MAXIMUM TUBE WALL THICKNESS, AND THEREAFTER REDUCING THE THICKNESS OF SAID TUBE WALL WHILE STILL IN SAID REDUCING ZONE SUBSTANTIALLY UNIFORMLY AROUNG THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE TUBE BY THE RADIAL-
US156802A 1961-12-04 1961-12-04 Method of and apparatus for cold drawing metal tubes Expired - Lifetime US3131803A (en)

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GB4549762A GB955245A (en) 1961-12-04 1962-12-03 Method of and apparatus for cold drawing metal tubes
ES283091A ES283091A1 (en) 1961-12-04 1962-12-04 Method and apparatus for the preparation of metal tubes (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3217521A (en) * 1961-12-22 1965-11-16 Titanium Metals Corp Tube reducing apparatus and method
DE1269983B (en) * 1965-08-30 1968-06-12 Contimet Ges Mit Beschraenkter Device for pulling pipes
DE2154226A1 (en) * 1971-10-30 1973-05-03 Kabel Metallwerke Ghh Curved continuous casting mould - made by cold forming
DE2913620A1 (en) * 1979-04-04 1980-10-16 Babcock & Wilcox Co Tube bending or forming process - using a tilted die which increases tube wall thickness
DE3343594A1 (en) * 1983-12-02 1985-06-13 Rudolf Bueltmann Tube-drawing machine for seamless tubes
US4734981A (en) * 1986-04-16 1988-04-05 Kabelmetal Electro Gmbh Method and apparatus for manufacturing hollow tubular members
EP0388824A2 (en) * 1989-03-18 1990-09-26 Egon Evertz Method and apparatus for drawing tubular bodies
US5036693A (en) * 1988-04-15 1991-08-06 Babcock Energy Limited Integral finned tubes and a method of manufacturing same
EP1022070A2 (en) * 1999-01-22 2000-07-26 Schumag Aktiengesellschaft Mandrel, apparatus and method for the cold drawing of seamless tubes
US20100064750A1 (en) * 2008-09-14 2010-03-18 Anthony James Corder Linear drawing machine and method for linear drawing of a workpiece through a drawing ring
CN103921065A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-07-16 泰州双羊精密无缝钢管有限公司 Manufacturing method of vehicle seamless steel tubes

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109746279A (en) * 2018-12-27 2019-05-14 桂林理工大学 A kind of aluminium alloy pipe casting extrusion-rolling combined shaping method

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US259898A (en) * 1882-06-20 Mop holder and wringer
US2351710A (en) * 1941-03-05 1944-06-20 Nat Tube Co Cold-drawing pipes and tubes
US2663410A (en) * 1950-09-29 1953-12-22 Paul D Kessler Manufacture of smoothbore gun barrels
US2928526A (en) * 1954-06-07 1960-03-15 Wallace E Kerr Die assembly
US3006460A (en) * 1959-04-30 1961-10-31 Bruce B Krost Drawing plug
US3013652A (en) * 1959-02-18 1961-12-19 Amaconda American Brass Compan Tube drawing apparatus

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US259898A (en) * 1882-06-20 Mop holder and wringer
US2351710A (en) * 1941-03-05 1944-06-20 Nat Tube Co Cold-drawing pipes and tubes
US2663410A (en) * 1950-09-29 1953-12-22 Paul D Kessler Manufacture of smoothbore gun barrels
US2928526A (en) * 1954-06-07 1960-03-15 Wallace E Kerr Die assembly
US3013652A (en) * 1959-02-18 1961-12-19 Amaconda American Brass Compan Tube drawing apparatus
US3006460A (en) * 1959-04-30 1961-10-31 Bruce B Krost Drawing plug

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3217521A (en) * 1961-12-22 1965-11-16 Titanium Metals Corp Tube reducing apparatus and method
DE1269983B (en) * 1965-08-30 1968-06-12 Contimet Ges Mit Beschraenkter Device for pulling pipes
DE2154226A1 (en) * 1971-10-30 1973-05-03 Kabel Metallwerke Ghh Curved continuous casting mould - made by cold forming
DE2913620A1 (en) * 1979-04-04 1980-10-16 Babcock & Wilcox Co Tube bending or forming process - using a tilted die which increases tube wall thickness
DE3343594A1 (en) * 1983-12-02 1985-06-13 Rudolf Bueltmann Tube-drawing machine for seamless tubes
US4734981A (en) * 1986-04-16 1988-04-05 Kabelmetal Electro Gmbh Method and apparatus for manufacturing hollow tubular members
US5036693A (en) * 1988-04-15 1991-08-06 Babcock Energy Limited Integral finned tubes and a method of manufacturing same
DE3908977A1 (en) * 1989-03-18 1990-09-27 Egon Evertz METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DRAWING TUBE BODIES
EP0388824A3 (en) * 1989-03-18 1991-07-03 Egon Evertz Method and apparatus for drawing tubular bodies
EP0388824A2 (en) * 1989-03-18 1990-09-26 Egon Evertz Method and apparatus for drawing tubular bodies
EP1022070A2 (en) * 1999-01-22 2000-07-26 Schumag Aktiengesellschaft Mandrel, apparatus and method for the cold drawing of seamless tubes
EP1022070A3 (en) * 1999-01-22 2002-01-02 Schumag Aktiengesellschaft Mandrel, apparatus and method for the cold drawing of seamless tubes
US20100064750A1 (en) * 2008-09-14 2010-03-18 Anthony James Corder Linear drawing machine and method for linear drawing of a workpiece through a drawing ring
DE102009039873A1 (en) 2008-09-14 2010-04-08 Sms Schumag Gmbh & Co. Kg Degree of drawing machine and method of drawing a workpiece by a drawing ring
US8627703B2 (en) 2008-09-14 2014-01-14 Sms Meer Gmbh Linear drawing machine and method for linear drawing of a workpiece through a drawing ring
US9079232B2 (en) 2008-09-14 2015-07-14 Sms Meer Gmbh Linear drawing machine and method for linear drawing of a workpiece through a drawing ring
DE102009061264B3 (en) * 2008-09-14 2016-05-04 Sms Group Gmbh Degree of drawing machine and method of drawing a workpiece by a drawing ring
CN103921065A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-07-16 泰州双羊精密无缝钢管有限公司 Manufacturing method of vehicle seamless steel tubes

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GB955245A (en) 1964-04-15
ES283091A1 (en) 1963-03-01

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