US3116789A - Heat exchange apparatus, e. g. for use in gas turbine engines - Google Patents

Heat exchange apparatus, e. g. for use in gas turbine engines Download PDF

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US3116789A
US3116789A US93260A US9326061A US3116789A US 3116789 A US3116789 A US 3116789A US 93260 A US93260 A US 93260A US 9326061 A US9326061 A US 9326061A US 3116789 A US3116789 A US 3116789A
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manifold
fluid
pressure fluid
pipes
supply
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Kent Nelson Hector
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Rolls Royce PLC
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/04Air intakes for gas-turbine plants or jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/047Heating to prevent icing

Description

Jan.- 7, 1964 N. H. KENT ,7
HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS, E.G. FOR UsE IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES Filed March 3, 1961 -4 Shets-Shet 1 Attorneys Jan. 7, 1964 N. H. KENT 3,
HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS; EL'G. FOR 'USE IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES Filed March 5, 1961 4 Sheets-Shet 2 Inventor P MM KM f wwrwm Attorneys Jan. 7, 1964 N. H. KENT 3,116,789
HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS, E.G. FOR USE IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES Filed March 3, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 IIIL- Attorneys Jan. 7, 1964 KENT 3,116,789
HEAT EXCH ANGE APPARATUS, E.G. FOR USE IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES Filed March 3, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 v Q /7 26 Q 9 L w 76 /6 "\3:II-T 74 I 58 69 v I Inventor W az vawzm Attorneys United States Patent 3,136,789 HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUSS, EG. FGR USE liN GAS TURBINE ENGINES Nelson Hector Kent, Derby, England, assignor to Rolls- Royce Limited, Derby, England, a company of Great Britain Filed Mar. 3, 19:51, Ser. No. 93,269 Claims prierity, application Great Britain Mar. 14, 19W 9 Clm'ms. (Cl. 165-147) This invention concerns heat exchange apparatus and, although it is not so restricted, it is more particularly concerned with anti-icing apparatus for a gas turbine engine.
A gas turbine engine is commonly provided at its upstream end with a bullet-shaped internal wall member which is mounted within the engine casing and defines therewith an annular air intake. The bullet-shaped internal wall member carries one of the engine bearings and is supported from the engine casing by substantially radial struts which, in operation, are liable to act as collecting surfaces for ice. It will be appreciated that if these struts are heated so as to de-ice them, it is important that they should be heated to an equal extent if buckling of the struts and consequent misalignment of the said bearing is to be avoided.
In co-pending application Serial No. 41,347, dated July 7, 1960, now Patent No. 3,057,154, filed by William Sherlaw et al., there is disclosed an anti-icing apparatus in which these struts are hollow and identical, and communicate with successive parts of a common annular manifold of uniform cross-sectional area carried by the engine casing, the manifold being connected by a supply pipe to the outlet of a high pressure compressor of the engine so as to receive therefrom air Which has been heated by being compressed. By this means all the struts are supplied with air at substantially the same temperature. We have now found, however, that the total pressure head i.e. the sum of the static pressure head and the velocity pressure head in the manifold downstream of each strut is, by reason of the air supplied to the strut, lower than the total pressure head upstream thereof. Hence the total pressure heads in the strut inlets furthest removed from the said supply pipe are substantially lower than the total pressure heads in the strut inlets nearest to the said supply pipe. These total pressure head differences give rise to unequal heating of the struts.
According to the present invention there is provided heat exchange apparatus comprising two spaced apart members which are connected together by a plurality of struts, a plurality of fluid ducts each of which is in heat exchange relationship with a respective strut, said fluid ducts being connected by way of fluid supply manifold means to a common means which supplies thereto a pressure fluid at a temperature higher than that of said struts, the fluid path along which the fluid flows from said common means to exhaust by way of said supply manifold means and said fluid ducts being such, that the total pre sure heads at the inlets to said fluid ducts are substantially equal, and that the fluid heats said struts so that they expand by substantially equal amounts.
Said supply manifold means may comprise a separate manifold for each fluid duct. Alternatively said supply manifold means may include a manifold, said ducts communicating with said manifold at points which are spaced along the length thereof, the cross sectional area of said manifold decreasing in the downstream direction of fluid flow therethrough so that the total pressure head therein remains substantially constant.
Alternatively, said supply manifold means may include several manifolds each feeding a respective proportion of the ducts in succession. In this case, a substantially constant total pressure head can be maintained in each manialiases ice' fold if the cross sectional area of each manifold is such that the velocity pressure head along its length is insignificant. The necessary size of the manifolds would however make this possibility impractical for certain applications. Alternatively, the manifolds can be supplied with a static pressure head with which the velocity pressure head in the manifolds is insignificant in comparison, in which case the size of the manifolds can be reduced. Preferably an arrangement between these two extremes is adapted where the static pressure head within the manifolds is comparatively low e.g. of the order of the static pressure head at the outlet of a low pressure compressor of a gas turbine engine, each manifold having a sufficiently large cross sectional area so that the velocity pressure head therein is insignificant compared with the static pressure head therein.
The fluid from the fluid ducts can flow directly to the atmosphere, but preferably, exhaust manifold means is provided which communicates with said fluid ducts and guides the fluid from the ducts to exhaust. The exhaust manifold means may be constructed in any of the different Ways described for said supply manifold means.
Preferably said supply manifold means and said exhaust manifold means are mounted one within the other, each manifold means communcating with said fluid ducts in succession so that fluid can flow from the supply manifold means via the fluid ducts to the space between the supply and exhaust manifold means, the total internal cross-sectional area of the inner manifold means diminishing in the downstream direction of fluid flow therethrough, and the cross-sectional area between the supply and exhaust manifold means increasing in the downstream direction of fluid flow therethrough.
Preferably the internal cross-sectional area defined by the internal walls of the outer manifold means is substantially constant.
One convenient arrangement is to dispose the supply manifold means within the exhaust manifold means.
The supply manifold means (and the exhaust manifold means where one is provided) may be arcuate and the ducts may be arranged substantially radially thereof.
Preferably each duct is open-ended and is mounted within the respective strut with a space therebetween, the fluid flowing through the duct and then flowing in the opposite direction through the space between the duct and the strut. It will be appreciated that the fluid can first flow through said space and then through the duct.
Preferably the spaces between the struts and the ducts adjacent the open ends of the ducts intercommunicate with one another so as to permit the fluid pressures adjacent said open ends to equalise.
The invention also comprises a gas turbine engine provided with such heat-exchange apparatus.
Thus in its preferred form the invention provides a gas turbine engine comprising an engine casing, internal wall means mounted within said casing by means of a plurality of substantially radial struts, said internal wall means defining an annular air intake with said casing, arcuate fluid supply manifold means, a fluid inlet condult communicating with said fluid supply manifold means and with a supply of heated fluid under pressure and at a temperature higher than that of said struts, a plurality of ducts each of which is arranged in heat exchange relationship with a respective strut, said ducts communicating with said fluid supply manifold means at angularly spaced apart points which are arranged to be successively supplied with fluid from the fluid inlet conduit, the fluid paths along which the fluid flows from said fluid inlet conduit to exhaust by way of said fluid supply manifold means and said fluid ducts being such, that the total pressure heads at the inlets to said fluid ducts are substantially at equal, and that the fluid heats said struts so that they expand by substantially equal amounts.
The invention is illustrated, merely by way of example in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view, partly in section, of a gas turbine engine embodying the present invention,
FIGURE 2 is a section taken on the line 2-2 of FIG- URE 1,
FIGURE 3 is a section taken on the line 33 of FIG- URE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a developed plan view of part of the structure shown in FIGURES 1 to 3,
FIGURE 5 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 4 but illustrating a modification,
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view of part of the structure shown in FIGURE 5,
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional side elevation showing details of an inlet pipe leading to a chamber with which fluid supply manifold means communicates, the arrangement forming part of a modified form of the invention,
FIGURE 8 is a plan view of FIGURE 7, with the inlet pipe and manifold removed,
FIGURE 9 is a cross-sectional view showing how a strut spaced from the chamber is connected to the fluid supply manifold means,
FIGURE 10 is a cross-sectional view of the hub shown in FIGURE 9 taken on the line XX,
FIGURE 11 is a cross-sectional view on the line XIXI of FIGURE 9, and
FIGURE 12 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line XII-XII of FIGURE 9.
Referring to the drawings, a gas turbine jet propulsion engine for an aircraft comprises an engine casing 10 within which are arranged in flow series an annular air intake 11, a compressor 12, combustion equipment 13, and turbine 14, the exhaust gases from the turbine 14 being discharged to atmosphere through a jet pipe 15.
The annular air intake 11 is defined between the engine casing 10 and a bullet-shaped air intake baffle or nose cone 16. The latter is mounted within the engine casing 10 by means of twelve hollow, aerofoil-shaped struts 17 which extend between the nose cone 16 and the engine casing 14 The nose cone 16 has mounted within it a bearing (not shown) for a shaft 18 on which the compressor 12 and turbine 14 are mounted. Each of the struts 17 extends tangentially of the nose cone 16 so as to diminish the buckling effect of differential expansion and contraction of the struts 17.
Mounted about and adjacent to the forward end of the engine casing 10 is an annular air exhaust manifold 19. The manifold 19, which is provided with an exhaust port 20, communicates with the interiors of the hollow struts 17.
Within the manifold 19 is a chamber 21. The chamber 21 does not communicate with the manifold 19 but is connected by a fluid inlet conduit in the form of a pipe 22 to the outlet of the compressor 12 so as to receive therefrom a supply of air which has been heated by being compressed.
The chamber 21 (see FIGURE 4) communicates with a pair of aligned pipes 23 and with a pair of aligned pipes 24 which extend beyond the pipes 23, the remote ends of the pipes 23, 24 being closed. The pipes 23, 24 extend alongside each other and collectively constitute air inlet manifold means. As will be seen from FIGURE 4, the total cross-sectional area of the air inlet manifold means constituted by pipes 23, 24 diminishes with increased distance from the pipe 22 where the pipes 23 terminate. The pipes 23, 24 are spaced from the engine casing 10 by heat-insulating blocks 25.
Each of the twelve hollow struts 17 has a pipe 26 mounted within it. Each pipe 26 is spaced from the front and rear ends of its strut -17 as indicated at 27 and each pipe 26 has an open end 28 which is spaced from the nose cone 16. Thus air heated in the compressor 12 it. may flow via the pipe 22, chamber 21, pipes 23, 24, and pipes 26 to the interiors of the struts 17. As indicated by the arrow 29, the air then flows through the spaces 27, so as to heat the struts 17, and thence via the manifold 19 to the exhaust port 20.
Seven of the twelve pipes 26 communicate with the pipes 23, while the remaining five pipes 26 communicate with the pipes 24. It will be noted that the pipes 26 nearest to the chamber 21 communicate with the pipes 23 whilst those furthest from the chamber 21 communicate with the pipes 24.
Assuming that the internal cross-sectional area of pipes 23, 24 is uniform, and that air in the pipes 23, 24 accelerates into the inlet of each pipe 26, the total pressure head of the air in each of the pipes 23, 24 downstream of its junction with a pipe 26, will, by reason of the air supplied to the pipe 26, be lower than the total pressure head upstream thereof.
In other words, there is a total pressure head drop at each junction with a pipe 26 and if all twelve pipes 26 were supplied from the two pipes 23, or the two pipes 24, the total pressure head in the pipes 26 furthest removed from the chamber 21 would be substantially less than the total pressure head in the pipes 26 nearest to the chamber 21. As a result, the various struts 17 would be heated by unequal amounts. This difference in the heating of the pipes 26 is, however, reduced by the construction shown in the drawings since some of the pipes 26 are supplied with air from the pipes 23 whilst the remaining pipes 26 are supplied with air from the pipes 24.
The progressive drop in the total pressure head along the pipes 23, 24 from the chamber 21 can be reduced if each of the pipes 23, 24 is made up of a series of portions of progressively reduced internal cross sectional area. Thus the pipes 23 in FIGURE 5 are shown as being formed of portions 30 of successively reduced diameter which fit telescopically into each other and which permit some slight relative axial movement so as to allow for relative expansion therebetween. The arrangement is such that the total pressure head in pipes 23 remains substantially constant. In order to compensate for relatively small changes in the total pressure head along the pipes 23, 24, the bores of the pipes 26 or their cross-sectional areas at the points where they join the pipes 23, 24, may as indicated in FIGURE 6, be progressively increased with distance from the chamber 21. If desired the radially inner ends of the pipes 26 may be constricted e.g. by providing them with nozzles. This latter arrangement would have the advantage of reducing the effect of the air accelerating in the pipes 23, 24 into the inlets of the pipes 26, since most of the pressure drop of the air passing from the pipes 23, 24 into the spaces 27 would occur across the constricted ends of the pipes 26.
Each of the pipes 23, 24 (or portions 30 thereof) preferably consists, as shown in FIGURE 6, of coaxial inner and outer skins 31, 32 with an annular layer 33 of a heatinsulating material therebetween. Also, the chamber 21 may have a heat insulating layer around it, or merely covering the radially inner wall thereof adjacent the air intake 11.
In operation, air which has been heated by being compressed in the compressor 12 passes via the pipe 22, and chamber 21 to the pipes 23, 24. Since the pipes 23, 24 are mounted on the insulating blocks 25, (and since they are also preferably formed, as indicated in FIGURE 6, with a heat-insulating layer 33) the hot air passing through the pipes 23, 24 is not cooled, to any substantial extent, by the cold intake air passing through the air intake 11.
The air from the pipes 23, 24 passes via the pipes 26 to the interior of the struts 17 so as to prevent the formation of ice on the external surface of the latter. Furthermore, all the struts 17 are heated to a substantially equal extent, whereby the nose cone 16, and the engine bearing carried thereby, will not be displaced due to differential expansion of the struts 17.
The hot air which has passed through the annular spaces 27 passes into the manifold 19 and so to the exhaust port 20. It will be noted from FIGURE 4 that, since the pipes 24 extend beyond the pipes 23, the space within the exhaust manifold 19 occupied by the inlet manifold constituted by the pipes 23, 24 is less adjacent to the exhaust port 20 than it is adjacent to the chamber 21. This change in the total cross-sectional area of the pipes 23, 24 will be more progressive if the pipes 23, 24 have portions of decreasing size as shown in FIGURES 5 and 6, in which case the space within the exhaust manifold 19 which is open to the air flow progressively increases towards the exhaust port 2%). Thus the exhaust manifold 19' is formed so that no substantial change of total pressure head 'occurs in it towards the exhaust port 243.
In the construction shown in the drawings the hot air which has been used to heat the struts 17 is passed to atmosphere through the exhaust port 30. If desired, however, this hot air, before being exhausted to atmosphere, can be used to heat the forward part of the nose cone 16 and to heat the leading edge of the air intake 11 as indicated in the previously mentioned co-pending application Serial No. 41,347.
With reference to FIGURES 7 and 8, parts corresponding to those of the embodiment shown in FIGURES 1 to 4 have the same reference numerals. The top of chamber 21 has an aperture 40 bounded by a peripheral flange 41. The chamber 21 is made rigid by means of four angularly spaced rods 42 which extend through and are welded to the top and bottom of the chamber 21, the rods 42 also extending through the flange 41. Three further bosses 43 are welded to the internal surface of the chamber 21 opposite the flange 41. An aperture which registers with the aperture 40 is also provided in the top of the manifold 19, and a peripheral flange 45 of the inlet pipe 22 abuts the top of the manifold 19 covering the aperture therein and substantially registering with the flange 41. The pipe 22 is secured to the chamber 21 by seven set screws 46 (only one of which is shown in FIG- URE 7) which engage the screw threaded interiors of the bosses 43 and the rods 42. The pipe 22 therefore communicates with the interior of the chamber 21, but is sealed from the interior of the manifold 19 by the flange 4'1.
Sole plate 5th is welded to the base 51 of the manifold 19, and the strut 17 is connected to the sole plate 5t), and the duct 26 is connected to internal webs 52, 53 and to the wall portions 54, S5 of the sole plate. The cross-sectional view of the sole plate 51 the strut 17 and the duct 26 shown in FIGURE 7 has been taken along the median line of the strut for the sake of simplifying the drawing. The parts 52, 53, 54 and 55 of the sole plate 56 blend into an annular ring 58 which extends through an aperture in the bottom of the chamber 21 approximately mid-way between the lateral ends of the chamber 21 where the latter has its greatest transverse cross-sectional area as seen in FIGURE 7. This crosssectional area is substantially greater than the total crosssectional area of two of the pipes 23, 24 which extend from one lateral end of the chamber 21. Each of the pi ces 23, 24- is made up of a plurality of arcuate sections A, B, etc., each section joining a succeeding section as indicated in FIGURE 8 after a junction with a duct 26.
In FIGURE 9 there is shown the connection of a strut 17 with the pipe 23 i.e. at a point spaced from the chamber 21. As shown, the parts 52, 53, 54 and 55 extend upwardly to define a U-shaped seating for the pipe 23 and an outwardly extending flange 59. An aperture 60 in the sole plate 50 registers with an aperture 61 in the tube 23. Straps 62, 63, which pass round the pipes 23, 24, are bolted to the flange 59 so as to locate the pipes 23, 24 in position. The side walls of the base of the manifold 19 are bolted to the adjoining structures by nuts and bolts indicated generally by the reference numeral 65.
At the radially inner end of the strut 17, the strut extends through an aperture in the nose cone 16 and is connected to an annular hub structure having front and rear walls 68, 69, dividing walls '70 (see FIGURE 10), and an inner annulus 71. The radially inner tips of the dividing walls iii are spaced from the annulus 71 so as to permit equalisation of pressure around the hub structure. The hub structure is supported from the nose cone by bolting its rear wall 69 by bolts 74 to an inwardly extending annular flange 75 which is strengthened by angularly spaced webs '76.
It is believed that the operation of this embodiment will be apparent from the preceding description, so no detailed account will be given.
The modification described with reference to FIG- URES 7 to 12 differs from the arrangement shown in FIGURES 1 to 4 in that there are nineteen of the struts .17, one strut 17 being located directly beneath the chamber 21, and nine struts 17 being arranged on each side of chamber 21, each branch of the pipe 23 feeding the first five struts and each branch of the pipe 24 feeding the last four struts.
The cross-sectional areas of each of the pipes 23, 24 is approximately three to four times greater than the cross-sectional area of the pipe 26 as shown in FIG- URE 12, the latter cross-sectional area being approximately equal to the total cross-sectional area of the space between the exterior of the pipe 26 and the interior of the strut 17. The total internal cross-sectional area of the manifold 1h i.e. including any space occupied by the pipes 23, 24 is approximately seven to eight times larger than the cross-sectional area of one of the pipes 23, 24.
The invention could also be applied to inlet guide vanes of a gas turbine engine in which the angle of each vane is made variable.
I claim:
1. A heat exchange apparatus comprising two spaced apart members, a plurality of struts connecting said members together, a plurality of fluid ducts each extending along and being in heat exchange relationship with one of said struts, supply manifold means and exhaust manifold means provided on one of said members, both said manifold means communicating with said fluid ducts in succession, supply means connected to said supply manifold means for supplying thereto a pressure fluid at a temperature higher than that of said struts, said pressure fluid flowing via said supply manifold means and said fluid ducts into the exhaust manifold means, the pressure fluid flowing in the supply manifold means constituting an incoming pressure fluid stream and the pressure fluid flowing in the exhaust manifold means constituting an outgoing pressure fluid stream, said supply manifold means and said exhaust manifold means extending together along a common length thereof, and having common wall means along said common length separating said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams, the sum of the cross-sectional area of the supply manifold means through which said incoming pressure fluid stream flows and the cross-sectional area of the exhaust manifold means through which said outgoing pressure fluid stream flows being substantially constant, said common wall means progressively diminishing the crosssectional area of the supply manifold means through which said incoming pressure fluid stream flows, and simultaneously progressively increasing the cross-sectional area of the exhaust manifold means through which the outgoing pressure fluid stream flows considering the supply and exhaust manifold means in the same direction along their common length, which direction is the direction of flow of said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams whereby the total pressure heads in said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams are maintained substantially constant.
2. A heat exchange apparatus comprising two spaced apart members, a plurality of struts connecting said members together, a plurality of fluid ducts each extending along and being in heat exchange relationship with one of said struts, supply manifold means and exhaust manifold means provided on one of said members, both said manifold means communicating with said fluid ducts in succession, supply means connected to said supply manifold means for supplying thereto a pressure fluid at a temperature higher than that of said struts, said pressure fluid flowing via said supply manifold means and said fluid ducts into the exhaust manifold means, the pressure fluid flowing in the supply manifold means constituting an incoming pressure fluid stream and the pressure fluid flowing in the exhaust manifold means constituting an outgoing pressure fluid stream, said supply manifold means and said exhaust manifold means being mounted one within the other with a space therebetween over a common length thereof, the inner one of said manifold means separating said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams, the cross-sectional area of the outer one of said manifold means being substantially constant, and the inner one of said manifold means having a progressively varying cross-sectional area and progressively diminishing the cross-sectional area of the supply manifold means through which said incoming pressure fluid stream flows, and simultaneously progressively increasing the cross-sectional area of the exhaust manifold means through which said outgoing pressure fluid stream flows, considering the supply and exhaust manifold means in the same direction along their common length, which direction is the direction of flow of said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams whereby the total pressure heads in said incoming and outgoing pressure fluid streams are maintained substantially constant.
3. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 2 in which said fluid supply manifold means is disposed within said fluid exhaust manifold means.
4. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 3 in which said supply manifold means comprises a plurality of supply pipes each being in communication with a respective portion of succeeding ones of said fluid ducts,
said supply means for supplying pressure fluid to said 4 supply manifold means being common to and communicating with each of said supply pipes.
5. A heat exchange apparatus comprising two spaced apart members, a plurality of struts connecting said spaced apart members together, a plurality of fluid ducts each being in heat exchange relationship with one of said struts, fluid supply manifold means connected to said fluid ducts in succession, supply means connected to said fluid supply manifold means for supplying thereto a pressure fluid at a temperature higher than that of said struts, fluid exhaust manifold means communicating with said fluid ducts in succession, said fluid supply manifold means and said fluid exhaust manifold means being mounted one within the other and defining a space therebctween, the fluid flowing from the fluid supply manifold means via the fluid ducts to said space, the inner one of said fluid manifold means having a diminishing total internal crosssectional area in a downstream direction of fluid flow therethrough, and said space between said manifold means having an increasing cross-sectional area in a downstream direction of fluid flow therethrough whereby total pressure heads in the inner one of said fluid manifold means and in said space are maintained substantially constant.
6. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 5 wherein the outer one of said fluid manifold means has a substantially constant diameter throughout its length.
7. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 5 wherein each of said ducts is open ended and is mounted within the respective strut with a space therebetween, said ducts having fluid flowing therethrough in an opposite direction to direction of flow of fluid in the space between the ducts and their respective struts.
8. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 7 in which the spaces between the struts and the fluid ducts adjacent the open ends of the fluid ducts intercommunicate with one another so as to permit the fluid pressures adjacent said open ends to equalise.
9. A heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim 5 wherein said spaced apart members are annular and concentric with each other and define an annular air intake therebetween, said struts being disposed substantially tangentially of the innermost of said spaced apart members, and wherein said fluid supply manifold means and said fluid exhaust manifold means are each arcuate.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 115,605 Harly June 6, 1871 1,409,259 Sykora Mar. 14, 1922 2,556,736 Palmatier June 12, 1951 2,712,727 Morley July 12, 1955

Claims (1)

1. A HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS COMPRISING TWO SPACED APART MEMBERS, A PLURALITY OF STRUTS CONNECTING SAID MEMBERS TOGETHER, A PLURALITY OF FLUID DUCTS EACH EXTENDING ALONG AND BEING IN HEAT EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP WITH ONE OF SAID STRUTS, SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS AND EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS PROVIDED ON ONE OF SAID MEMBERS, BOTH SAID MANIFOLD MEANS COMMUNICATING WITH SAID FLUID DUCTS IN SUCCESSION, SUPPLY MEANS CONNECTED TO SAID SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS FOR SUPPLYING THERETO A PRESSURE FLUID AT A TEMPERATURE HIGHER THAN THAT OF SAID STRUTS, SAID PRESSURE FLUID FLOWING VIA SAID SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS AND SAID FLUID DUCTS INTO THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS, THE PRESSURE FLUID FLOWING IN THE SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS CONSTITUTING AN INCOMING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM AND THE PRESSURE FLUID FLOWING IN THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS CONSTITUTING AN OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM, SAID SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS AND SAID EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS EXTENDING TOGETHER ALONG A COMMON LENGTH THEREOF, AND HAVING COMMON WALL MEANS ALONG SAID COMMON LENGTH SEPARATING SAID INCOMING AND OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAMS, THE SUM OF THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS THROUGH WHICH SAID INCOMING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM FLOWS AND THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS THROUGH WHICH SAID OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM FLOWS BEING SUBSTANTIALLY CONSTANT, SAID COMMON WALL MEANS PROGRESSIVELY DIMINISHING THE CROSSSECTIONAL AREA OF THE SUPPLY MANIFOLD MEANS THROUGH WHICH SAID INCOMING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM FLOWS, AND SIMULTANEOUSLY PROGRESSIVELY INCREASING THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS THROUGH WHICH THE OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAM FLOWS CONSIDERING THE SUPPLY AND EXHAUST MANIFOLD MEANS IN THE SAME DIRECTION ALONG THEIR COMMON LENGTH, WHICH DIRECTION IS THE DIRECTION OF FLOW OF SAID INCOMING AND OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAMS WHEREBY THE TOTAL PRESSURE HEADS IN SAID INCOMING AND OUTGOING PRESSURE FLUID STREAMS ARE MAINTAINED SUBSTANTIALLY CONSTANT.
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US5615849A (en) * 1995-04-14 1997-04-01 Salisbury; Jonathan T. Microwave deicing and anti-icing system for aircraft
US6442944B1 (en) * 2000-10-26 2002-09-03 Lockheet Martin Corporation Bleed air heat exchanger integral to a jet engine
US20050050877A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2005-03-10 Venkataramani Kattalaicheri Srinivasan Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engines
US20060280600A1 (en) * 2005-05-31 2006-12-14 United Technologies Corporation Electrothermal inlet ice protection system
US20070022732A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2007-02-01 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engines
JP2008031997A (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-02-14 General Electric Co <Ge> Heat transfer system for turbine engine using heat pipe
US20100068044A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2010-03-18 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Compressor
US20180031002A1 (en) * 2016-08-01 2018-02-01 United Technologies Corporation Annular heatshield

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US5269133A (en) * 1991-06-18 1993-12-14 General Electric Company Heat exchanger for cooling a gas turbine
US5615849A (en) * 1995-04-14 1997-04-01 Salisbury; Jonathan T. Microwave deicing and anti-icing system for aircraft
US6442944B1 (en) * 2000-10-26 2002-09-03 Lockheet Martin Corporation Bleed air heat exchanger integral to a jet engine
US20050050877A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2005-03-10 Venkataramani Kattalaicheri Srinivasan Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engines
US6990797B2 (en) * 2003-09-05 2006-01-31 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engines
US8366047B2 (en) * 2005-05-31 2013-02-05 United Technologies Corporation Electrothermal inlet ice protection system
US20060280600A1 (en) * 2005-05-31 2006-12-14 United Technologies Corporation Electrothermal inlet ice protection system
US20070022732A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2007-02-01 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engines
JP2008031997A (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-02-14 General Electric Co <Ge> Heat transfer system for turbine engine using heat pipe
US8206097B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2012-06-26 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Compressor
US20100068044A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2010-03-18 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Compressor
US20180031002A1 (en) * 2016-08-01 2018-02-01 United Technologies Corporation Annular heatshield
EP3279448A1 (en) * 2016-08-01 2018-02-07 United Technologies Corporation Annular heatshield in a gas turbine fan section
US10267334B2 (en) * 2016-08-01 2019-04-23 United Technologies Corporation Annular heatshield

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