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Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material

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Publication number
US3114618A
US3114618A US56702356A US3114618A US 3114618 A US3114618 A US 3114618A US 56702356 A US56702356 A US 56702356A US 3114618 A US3114618 A US 3114618A
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body
centrifugal
orifices
fibers
gases
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Levecque Marcel
Mabru Marcel
Charpentier Maurice
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Saint-Gobain PM
Saint-Gobain Cie
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Saint-Gobain PM
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/04Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments by using centrifugal force, e.g. spinning through radial orifices; Construction of the spinner cups therefor
    • C03B37/045Construction of the spinner cups
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/04Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments by using centrifugal force, e.g. spinning through radial orifices; Construction of the spinner cups therefor
    • C03B37/048Means for attenuating the spun fibres, e.g. blowers for spinner cups

Description

1953 M. LEVECQUE ETAL 3,114,618

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING FIBERS FROM THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL Filed Feb. 21. 1956 INVENTORS. MARCEL Lsvacoua MARCEL MABRU 8 MAURICE CHARPEmmn m; w ATTORNEY United States Patent The present invention relates to the manufacture of fibers of mineral materials in the viscous state and particularly glass fibers.

It is already known, in order to produce fibers of great fineness, to subject the material projected under the action of centrifugal force to the action of gas currents discharging from a chamber fed by combustible and comburent and in which the combustion of these two elements is obtained. To accomplish this purpose a hollow body,

whose surfaces are joined along a more or less sharp edge in which are located a single row of orifices, is utilized, the hollow body being surrounded by a combustion chamber taking the shape of an annular crown whose expansion orifice in the form of a continuous slot or a series of holes projects a ring-like blast of hot gases perpendicular to the plane of projection of the filaments from the orifices. A structure of this general type is shown in United States patent to Pierre Rene Heymes and Ivan Peyches, No. 2,624,912, issued January 13, 1953. The described procedure and arrangement allows for an efiicacious drawing out of the filaments as soon as they leave the orifices, these filaments being drawn out and carried along with great force by the combustion gas escaping from the expansion orifice to form the fine fibers. However, because of the limited number of orifices provided on the peripheral edge of the rotating body, the fiber production of these arrangements is relatively low.

The present invention has for an object an improvement to the process and the arrangements noted above and permits a large and substantially uniform production of very fine fibers.

Conforming to the invention, the plastic material is projected at high temperature from a centrifugal body or element Whose peripheral or filament delivery part, which can be notably of a cylindrical shape, bears a certain number of rows of projection orifices, one above the other, for example 2 to rows. The filaments projected from the centrifugal body are subjected to the action of gases moving at high speed and high temperature escaping from the expansion orifices of an annular combustion chamber in such a manner as to effect, without the formation of either rigid or very viscous intermediary filaments, an entrainment of the filaments with an abrupt change in direction and an energetic attenuation and drawing out of the filaments so entrained, transforming them into very fine fibers. One might fear that the fact of providing two or more rows of projection orifices on the periphery of the centrifugal body might lead the fibers issuing from these orifices to stick and hinder the drawing out. Applicants have found that by distributing the projection orifices into several rows on the peripheral wall of the centrifugal body there is obtained a simultaneous drawing of the glass projected from these orifices, even if the orifices are lined up in the direction of the gas current. It has been possible, in fact, to observe exactly the different individual paths formed by the melted material projected from each orifice of the several rows of orifices.

Applicants have also found that the fibers thus formed can be drawn below the centrifugal body but may have a tendency to regroup in the still plastic or hot state. This can result notably when the centrifugal body is surrounded by a combustion chamber having as expansion orifices, a

continuous slot, or holes or slots very' close together. In these circumstances there is formed below the centrifugal body a turbulent motion of air or gases which create a low pressure zone below the centrifugal body with a tendency to carry into that zone the hot gases from the combustion chamber and hence the fibers entrained there in. This phenomenon can cause several serious drawbacks, especialy the sticking of fibers under the centrifugal body and a sticking together of the regrouped fibers and possibly collecting deformed filaments appearing as rigid and breaking small rods. These deficiencies are more noticeable as the number of orifices in the centrifugal body are increased and production of fibers enlarged.

One of the objects of the present invention is to correct the above deficiencies, and provision is made for the direction of the fiber entraining and drawing gaseous currents issuing from the combustion chamber in such a way as to restrain their movement toward the axis of the centrifugal body or even cause their movement away from said axis after the gaseous currents come into contact with and entrain the filaments projected by the centrifuging body. This guidance of or control over the gaseous currents issuing from the combustion chamber may be effected by the use of air or gas currents or mechanical deflection elements located below the centrifugal body.

According to the embodiments of the invention illustrated herein, mechanical deflection elements of conical outline are provided below the centrifugal body to guide the entrained filaments outwardly from below the center of the centrifugal body to prevent the sticking of the filaments therebelow. The deflection effects attained by these elements may be realized by fitting the lower part of the centrifugal body with a truncated cone guide surface. The guide surface may also be independent of the centrifugal body and may be placed below it and assume the form of a fixed conic surface.

In the drawings which illustrate preferred embodiments for executing the invention:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary vertical section through the centrifugal body and the combustion chamber, showing a frusto-conical apron at the bottom of the centrifugal body for guiding and deflecting the hot gases from the combustion chamber and the fibers entrained the rein and drawn thereby; and

FIG. 2 is a sectional view showing the use of a conical member to induce the spread of the hot gases from the combustion chamber carrying the entrained fibers.

In the illustrated embodiments of the invention, a centrifugal body 1, rotating at high speed about its axis, through appropriate driving means at a speed of 3,000 revolutions per minute, or higher, carries at its peripheral part a cylindrical wall 1b bearing 2 to 20 rows of projection orifices 2 of suitable diameter, through which the molten material is projected at a temperature of about 1300" C.

It is advantageous for the orifices provided in the frontal peripheral wall of the centrifugal body to be sepa rated in such a way that the distances separating the neighboring orifices be about the same. A suitable spacing of the orifices can be made by placing them according to regular quincuncial arrangements. A combustion chamber 3 of general annular shape is provided with an expansion orifice or orifices 4 which delivers the combustion gas at a very high speed and high temperature. The orifice 4 and the wall or walls defining the same are so positioned in respect to the peripheral wall 1b of the centrifugal body and the orifices contained therein that the molten material or filaments, as they are projected from the centrifugal body or at a slight distance therefrom are thrown into and picked up, entrained in and drawn by the hot gases passing across the peripheral surface of the centrifuge wall 1b and at an angle to the normal line of projection of the filaments from the centrifugal body. These hot gases pass lightly over the peripheral wall of the centrifugal body and are in contact with all the projection orifices.

FIG. 1 shows a truncated cone guide surface 8 attached to the centrifugal body. Its generatrix makes a'gamma angle with the axis of the centrifugal body. This gamma angle may be of the order of 10. As a consequence the hot gases with the entrained fibers will be deflected outwardly and away from the axis of the centrifugal body.

FIG. 2 shows a stationary conic element 11 placed below the centrifugal body to produce also the spread of hot gases and the entrained fibers. The conic element may be attached in any convenient manner, for example, by means of a rod 12 placed along the axis of the centrifugal body or it may be supported from below.

In both forms of the invention, the centrifugal body will be heated internally by an appropriate burner or burners (not shown) so as to maintain the molten supply of material passing through the tube and into the interior of the centrifuge in a homogeneous state and at the proper centrifuging temperature.

Likewise in both forms of the invention, the fibers projected from the orifices in the centrifugal body enter but do not pass through or beyond the hot gases issuing from the combustion chamber. Once the fibers enter the ring of hot gases or are picked up by those gases they are entrained the rein and turned downwardly and attenuated and drawn into fine fibers by the travel and traction exerted by those gases. This end will be attained by appropriately adjusting or regulating the centrifugal force and the force of the hot gases issuing from the hot chamber.

What is claimed is:

1. In apparatus for producing glass fibers from thermoplastic vitreous material, the combination of a centrifugal body having a peripheral wall provided with a plurality of superposed rows of orifices therein and adapted to receive at its interior portion a supply of the thermoplastic material in the viscous state, said body being rotatable at a speed sufiicient to project the viscous material outwardly and uniformly through said orifices, a combustion chamber located adjacent said body and provided with a discharge opening having walls shaped to direct the discharge of gases from said chamber at high temperature and high velocity in a ring-like blast across said rows of orifices close to and in light contact with the peripheral wall of said body, said gases travelling at an angle to the plane of rotation of said body whereby said streamlets of viscous material issuing from the orifices of the rotating body are turned, entrained and drawn out by said gases, and means below said centrifugal body for diverting said streamlets outwardly from the center of said centrifugal body comprising a conical element below said centrifugal body with its smaller end nearest said body.

2. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said conical element is of frusto-conical outline and is attached to the bottom of said centrifugal body.

3. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said conical element is spaced below said centrifugal body co axially therewith.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,357,206 Fuller Oct. 26, 1920 2,431,205 Slayter Nov. 18, 1947 2,603,833 Stalego July 22, 1952 2,609,566 Slayter Sept. 9, 1952 2,616,124 Lyle Nov. 4, 1952 2,624,912 Heymes Jan. 13, 1953

Claims (1)

1. IN APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING GLASS FIBERS FROM THERMOPLASTIC VITREOUS MATERIAL, THE COMBINATION OF A CENTRIFUGAL BODY HAVING A PERIPHAL WALL PROVIDED WITH A PLURALITY OF SUPERPOSED ROWS OF ORIFICES THEREIN AND ADAPTED TO RECEIVE AT ITS INTERIOR PORTION A SUPPLY OF THE THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL IN THE VISCOUS STATE, SAID BODY BEING ROTATABLE AT A SPEED SUFFICIENT TO PROJECT THE VISCOUS MATERIAL OUTWARDLY AND UNIFORMLY THROUGH SAID ORIFICIES, A COMBUSTION CHAMBER LOCATED ADJACENT SAID BODY AND PROVIDED WITH A DISCHARGE OPENING HAVING WALLS SHAPED TO DIRECT THE DISCHARGE OF GASES FROM SAID CHAMBER AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
US3114618A 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material Expired - Lifetime US3114618A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR686479 1955-02-28
FR3017663X 1955-06-06
FR789264A FR75334E (en) 1955-02-28 1959-03-13 Improvement to devices for the manufacture of fibers from thermoplastic materials such as glass

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3285723A US3285723A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3285722A US3285722A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3114618A true US3114618A (en) 1963-12-17

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3114618A Expired - Lifetime US3114618A (en) 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US2980954A Expired - Lifetime US2980954A (en) 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3017663A Expired - Lifetime US3017663A (en) 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3215514A Expired - Lifetime US3215514A (en) 1955-02-28 1962-05-15 Method of and apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3285722A Expired - Lifetime US3285722A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3285723A Expired - Lifetime US3285723A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material

Family Applications After (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2980954A Expired - Lifetime US2980954A (en) 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3017663A Expired - Lifetime US3017663A (en) 1955-02-28 1956-02-21 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3215514A Expired - Lifetime US3215514A (en) 1955-02-28 1962-05-15 Method of and apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3285722A Expired - Lifetime US3285722A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material
US3285723A Expired - Lifetime US3285723A (en) 1955-02-28 1963-10-25 Apparatus for producing fibers from thermoplastic material

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US (6) US3114618A (en)
BE (3) BE545634A (en)
DE (6) DE1029132B (en)
FR (6) FR1124487A (en)
GB (4) GB782802A (en)
LU (1) LU34191A1 (en)
NL (6) NL104362C (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4670034A (en) * 1985-12-20 1987-06-02 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Internal blower for expanding cylindrical veil of mineral fibers and method of using same
US5076826A (en) * 1990-10-19 1991-12-31 Evanite Fiber Corporation Apparatus and method for making glass fibers
US5100450A (en) * 1991-07-02 1992-03-31 Manville Corporation Method and apparatus for producing fibers
US20050216338A1 (en) * 2004-03-10 2005-09-29 Greg Tseng Enhancing virally-marketed facilities
US7481076B2 (en) 2004-12-07 2009-01-27 Evanite Fiber Corporation Apparatus for making fibers

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DE1303905C2 (en) * 1955-02-28 1974-03-28 Apparatus for producing fibers from compositions in the viscous state, in particular glass fibers
US3026563A (en) * 1956-04-18 1962-03-27 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Apparatus for processing heatsoftenable materials
US3177058A (en) * 1956-04-18 1965-04-06 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Apparatus for processing heatsoftenable materials
US2936479A (en) * 1956-04-23 1960-05-17 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Apparatus for forming fibrous glass
BE564030A (en) * 1956-05-21
NL128699C (en) * 1956-07-02
FR69645E (en) * 1956-08-03 1958-11-10 Saint Gobain Improvement to devices for the manufacture of fibers from thermoplastic materials such as glass
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NL127703C (en) * 1957-03-12
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US3013299A (en) * 1957-04-10 1961-12-19 United States Gypsum Co Method of and means for fiberization
NL228768A (en) * 1957-06-17
US3032813A (en) * 1957-07-09 1962-05-08 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Apparatus for forming and processing continuous filaments
DE1124182B (en) * 1957-07-25 1962-02-22 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp A device for producing from Stapelfaserkammzuegen in the heat-softenable mineral material
DE1192374B (en) * 1957-11-27 1965-05-06 Dr Hans Joachim Poegel A process for the production of glass fibers
US3044110A (en) * 1957-12-23 1962-07-17 Selas Corp Of America Fiber blowing apparatus
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US3273358A (en) * 1958-05-29 1966-09-20 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method of and apparatus for forming fibers
FR1229753A (en) * 1959-01-27 1960-09-09 Saint Gobain Improvement in the manufacture of fibers from thermoplastic materials, in particular glass fibers
US3233992A (en) * 1959-05-01 1966-02-08 Gustin Bacon Mfg Co Apparatus for production of fine glass fibers
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US3054140A (en) * 1961-02-20 1962-09-18 Miles S Firnhaber Apparatus for manufacturing mineral wool fibers and the like
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US3298058A (en) * 1964-12-31 1967-01-17 Lummus Co Apparatus for forming melt droplets
US3372011A (en) * 1965-06-07 1968-03-05 United States Gypsum Co Apparatus for forming fibers
US3461489A (en) * 1966-03-04 1969-08-19 Malcolm H Tuttle Apparatus for prilling
US3743464A (en) * 1971-08-24 1973-07-03 Fmc Corp Continuous sphering apparatus
DE2348033C3 (en) * 1972-10-17 1979-11-15 Societe Des Produits Nestle S.A., Vevey (Schweiz)
US4105425A (en) * 1975-09-01 1978-08-08 Rockwool International A/S Apparatus for manufacture of mineral wool
US4047862A (en) * 1975-10-24 1977-09-13 Celanese Corporation Cellulose ester fibrillar structure
US4078873A (en) * 1976-01-30 1978-03-14 United Technologies Corporation Apparatus for producing metal powder
US4178165A (en) * 1976-07-09 1979-12-11 Lothar Jung Apparatus for manufacturing hollow and solid ingots
US4270943A (en) * 1979-12-31 1981-06-02 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Rotary fiber forming spinner
US4303430A (en) * 1980-03-06 1981-12-01 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Method and apparatus for forming mineral fibers
US4302234A (en) * 1980-06-26 1981-11-24 Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation Method and apparatus for forming mineral fibers
JPS621335B2 (en) * 1980-12-19 1987-01-13 Paramount Glass Mfg Co Ltd
FR2510909B1 (en) * 1981-08-06 1984-03-23 Saint Gobain Isover
US4544393A (en) * 1984-05-22 1985-10-01 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Rotary fiber forming method and apparatus
FR2576671B1 (en) * 1985-01-25 1989-03-10 Saint Gobain Isover Improvements in the manufacture of mineral fibers
US4678490A (en) * 1985-10-24 1987-07-07 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Apparatus for forming fibers
JPH0678173B2 (en) * 1986-01-22 1994-10-05 産栄機設株式会社 Apparatus for producing inorganic short fiber
FI77834C (en) * 1987-04-06 1989-05-10 Partek Ab Fiberising apparatus for producing mineral wool.
US4832723A (en) * 1988-02-16 1989-05-23 Manville Corporation Apparatus for producing desired fiber column configuration
US5015278A (en) * 1990-03-12 1991-05-14 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Open bottomed spinner for mineral fibers
DK0551334T4 (en) * 1990-09-28 1999-08-30 Rockwool Int A method and apparatus for the production of mineral fibers
US5326241A (en) * 1991-04-25 1994-07-05 Schuller International, Inc. Apparatus for producing organic fibers
FR2677973B1 (en) * 1991-06-20 1994-10-21 Saint Gobain Isover Method and fiber forming device.
US5417735A (en) * 1993-12-23 1995-05-23 Mcgarry; Dennis L. Interdiffused chromium/nickel corrosion-resistant coating for fiberglass spinner bores
US5529594A (en) * 1994-04-28 1996-06-25 Stir-Melter, Inc. Method for producing mineral fibers having gaseous occlusions
US6793151B2 (en) * 2002-09-18 2004-09-21 R&J Inventions, Llc Apparatus and method for centrifugal material deposition and products thereof
US20070000286A1 (en) * 2005-07-01 2007-01-04 Gavin Patrick M Fiberizing spinner for the manufacture of low diameter, high quality fibers
EP2125646A1 (en) * 2007-03-21 2009-12-02 Owens Corning Intellectual Capital, LLC Rotary fiberizer
DE102011100376A1 (en) 2011-05-03 2012-11-08 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Preparation of glass fiber for e.g. optical fiber cable, involves melting glass using laser and pulling fiber immediately from surface of glass melt at temperature higher than temperature of glass melt

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US2616124A (en) * 1950-05-13 1952-11-04 Emhart Mfg Co Mechanism for manufacturing small glass beads
US2624912A (en) * 1946-05-31 1953-01-13 Saint Gobain Process and apparatus for the production of fibers from thermoplastics

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US2816826A (en) * 1952-11-04 1957-12-17 Joseph B Brennan Apparatus for and method of producing metal powders and metal strips
US2793395A (en) * 1954-02-15 1957-05-28 Charles Richardson Corp Apparatus for forming mineral wool
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US2624912A (en) * 1946-05-31 1953-01-13 Saint Gobain Process and apparatus for the production of fibers from thermoplastics
US2603833A (en) * 1948-12-30 1952-07-22 Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp Method and apparatus for forming fibers
US2616124A (en) * 1950-05-13 1952-11-04 Emhart Mfg Co Mechanism for manufacturing small glass beads
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4670034A (en) * 1985-12-20 1987-06-02 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Internal blower for expanding cylindrical veil of mineral fibers and method of using same
US5076826A (en) * 1990-10-19 1991-12-31 Evanite Fiber Corporation Apparatus and method for making glass fibers
US5100450A (en) * 1991-07-02 1992-03-31 Manville Corporation Method and apparatus for producing fibers
US20050216338A1 (en) * 2004-03-10 2005-09-29 Greg Tseng Enhancing virally-marketed facilities
US7481076B2 (en) 2004-12-07 2009-01-27 Evanite Fiber Corporation Apparatus for making fibers

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE1029132B (en) 1958-04-30 application
DE1014294B (en) 1957-08-22 application
NL101811C (en) 1962-07-16 grant
BE545632A (en) 1959-10-09 grant
GB790727A (en) 1958-02-12 application
NL249366A (en) 1964-04-10 application
US2980954A (en) 1961-04-25 grant
NL273584A (en) application
NL109761C (en) 1964-10-15 grant
US3215514A (en) 1965-11-02 grant
BE545634A (en) 1959-10-09 grant
DE1225810B (en) 1966-09-29 application
GB782802A (en) 1957-09-11 application
FR75334E (en) 1961-06-09 grant
FR68155E (en) 1958-04-09 grant
FR1127561A (en) 1956-12-19 grant
DE1303904B (en) application
DE1225810C2 (en) 1976-02-26 grant
GB788491A (en) 1958-01-02 application
FR1124487A (en) 1956-10-12 grant
BE545633A (en) 1959-10-09 grant
US3017663A (en) 1962-01-23 grant
FR1124489A (en) 1956-10-12 grant
FR1124488A (en) 1956-10-12 grant
LU34191A1 (en) 1957-08-27 application
US3285723A (en) 1966-11-15 grant
DE1303905B (en) application
DE1303905C2 (en) 1974-03-28 grant
GB874388A (en) 1961-08-10 application
DE1125113B (en) 1962-03-08 application
NL104362C (en) 1963-04-16 grant
US3285722A (en) 1966-11-15 grant
NL106147C (en) 1963-10-15 grant

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